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1 Eighth Lecture Design and Product Evaluation Method Instrumentation and Product Testing.

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1 1 Eighth Lecture Design and Product Evaluation Method Instrumentation and Product Testing

2 2 Product Design and Development Guidelines: 1.Design to remove unsafe aspects First and foremost, the product or service must be designed without a possible danger or hazard. To play safe, similar products or services on the market should be studied (reverse engineering).

3 3 2.Guard against unsafe use If the danger cannot be designed out of the product, or if the product is inherently dangerous, the second step a designer should take involves guarding the user against the danger. Guards prevent users from gaining access to the area that would cause them injury.

4 4 3.Provide product warnings If the product hazards cannot be designed or guarded, then a designers final resource is to warn the user. Warnings must be specific and must describe the consequences of their being ignored. Warnings should be highly visible and easily comprehensible.

5 5 A Laser Pointing Device The Warning Label

6 6

7 7 4. Design to standards A product should be designed to comply with industry standards (such as the requirements of dimensional, physical, mechanical, electrical properties). While designing to standards does not ensure a safe product, standards do tend to create safer products. What is a standard?

8 8 A dictionary indicates that a number of meanings can apply to word standard. In engineering measurement and product testing, usually two will be used: The basis (physical record) for a measure of distance, weight, etc. The norm for common or accepted practice.

9 9 BSI – British Standards Institute BS 1363

10 10 Pao Yue-kong Liabrary Standards (Closed stacks): Major industrial standards are kept in closed stacks of the Special Collections. Standards are indicated by the abbreviation [STD] before the call number on the OPAC. Indexes and full-text/image version of national and international standards, including the British Standards, ISO Standards, American National Standards, Japanese Industrial Standards etc., are available on the Internet at IHS Standards Expert and the Australian Standards. Podium Floor

11 11 Standards ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials BSIBritish Standards Institution (includes EN, i.e. BS EN) CNSChinese National Standard (Taiwan) CSChinese Standard (Peoples Republic of China) CSACanadian Standards Association DINGerman Standards IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission IEEEThe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISAInstrument Society of America ISOInternational Organization for Standardization JISJapanese Industrial Standards MILMilitary Standards SSSingapore Standards

12 12 Benefits in the use of standards: Reduce the possibility of accidents Reduce the possibility of liabilities, lawsuits, and other legal actions. Proof that an accepted standard was observed can be accepted and viable defense in a lawsuit for product liability Indicate the accepted practice in an industry Present previously evaluated methods of safe design Ensure proper adherence to laws, codes, and other legal criteria Observance lessens cost of insurance premiums Ensure compatibility of parts, materials, and processes Ensure similarity of suppliers and reduces quotations for, and costs of, equipment and supplies Permit worldwide interchange of products and parts

13 13 5. Advertise and market wisely. Occasionally, a company creates potential product misuse situations though its advertisements, marketing materials, and sales personnel. Product liability loss prevention is not the sole responsibility of the product designer or manufacturer; misrepresentation and exaggeration in advertisements and marketing materials may also be involved.

14 14 Voluntary and Mandatory Standards Mandatory standards are issued by governmental agencies. Violations are treated as criminal acts and the violators are subject to fines and/or imprisonment. It usually indicates the lowest safety level the government will accept. A voluntary standard is usually prepared by representative from industry, the government, and the general public. The acceptance of these standards bases on the consensus of these parties. A voluntary standard indicates the lowest safety level an industry or manufacturer intends to meet in the product it supplies.

15 15 Product Testing According to a products nature, specifications and international regulations, various types of tests such as Safety tests Life tests (reliability) Functional tests, and Packaging tests must be preformed to assure conformance and quality.

16 16 There are many different types of products and their associated tests. Test Categories Chemical Testing Construction Materials Electrical and Electronic Products Food Textiles and Garments Toys and Children's Products, etc

17 17 Manufacturers in gaining access to key international markets such as North America, Europe, Japan and Australia, their products must be in compliance with international regulations and standards. You may have seen some of the following marks/labels.

18 18 At the beginning of 1992, the European Single Market was created. A series of Directives are intended to provide controls on product design, with the principal objective being to provide common standards for product safety requirements across the European Community. CE Marking

19 19 The act of fixing the CE mark to the product, and signing the Declaration of Conformity, constitutes a declaration by the manufacturer that the product meets the requirements of all the Directives (official instructions) which apply to it. The CE Marking is a legal requirement for products covered by one or more of the European Union (EU) Directives stipulating its use. It signifies that the supplier of the product has verified that the product complies with the requirements of the relevant Directives.

20 20 The Manufacturer or their legally appointed representative in the EU can be liable to a fine or a prison sentence if the product is found not to comply with the requirements of all the relevant Directives. A challenge can be initiated by anyone who believes a product to be dangerous (including your competitors).

21 21 General Product Testing Procedures Raise problems: Emulation of practical using situation (proper and improper uses) Confirm test criteria: Directives and Standards Plan for the test: Facilities setup and test sequence Test implementation: Record and Analysis A product test should be also designed and performed to comply with industry standards.

22 22 Example: Product Testing for Safety of Toys Emulate the users of the toy under various situations (normal and abnormal) Analyze and study the features/functions of the toy Identify the potential hazards of playing the toy (include packing) According to the essential safety requirements for toys (Toy Safety Directive 2009/48/EC), there are many requirements and tests to assure the safety of toys. What tests we should do? (Ref: Step 1

23 23

24 24 Step 2. Look up the standards and confirm the test criteria. For example, EN-71 or ASTM F963 BS EN71-1: Mechanical & Physical Properties BS EN71-2: Flammability BS EN71-3: Specification for migration of certain elements BS EN71-4: Experimental sets for chemistry and related activities BS EN71-5: Chemical toys (sets) other than experimental sets BS EN71-6: Graphical symbols for age warning labelling BS EN71-7: Finger paints requirements and test methods BS EN71-8: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use BS EN71-9,10,11: Organic Chemical Compounds EN50088: Safety of electric toys Step 3. Plan for the tests. Step 4. Perform the tests.

25 25 Case Study: Safety of Toys (1)Select a toy from the market (Explain why it is selected) (2) Study its packing, features and functions (Must be specific) (3) Identify and explain at least x characteristics/features of the toy that will be critical to safety concerns. (x = number of subgroup members) (4) Based on these features, describe briefly the required testing standards, apparatus and procedure briefly. Each subgroup should give a x-page report (excluding the covering page) and submit the toy selected for this case study. Submission deadline: Tuesday 3 December 2013.

26 26 Introduction to RoHS and WEEE RoHS, also known as Lead-Free, stands for Restriction of Hazardous Substances. RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC restricts the use of six hazardous materials found in electrical and electronic products. Cadmium (Cd): 100 ppm Mercury (Hg): 100 ppm Lead (Pb): 1000 ppm Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB): 1000 ppm Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE): 1000 ppm Hexavalent Chromium (CrVI): 1000 ppm

27 27 The following product categories are impacted under the RoHS Directive: 1.Large household appliances: refrigerators, washers, stoves, air conditioners 2.Small household appliances: vacuum cleaners, hair dryers, coffee makers, irons 3.Computing & communications equipment: computers, printers, copiers, phones 4.Consumer electronics: TVs, DVD players, stereos, video cameras 5.Lighting: lamps, lighting fixtures, light bulbs 6.Power tools: drills, saws, nail guns, sprayers, lathes, trimmers, blowers 7.Toys and sports equipment: videogames, electric trains, treadmills 8.Automatic dispensers: vending machines, ATM machines RoHS impacts the entire electronics industry.

28 28 The following products are currently exempted from RoHS compliance: 1.Large stationary industrial tools 2.Control and monitoring equipment 3.National security use and military equipment 4.Medical devices 5.Some light bulbs and some batteries 6.Spare parts for electronic equipment in the market before July 1, 2006.

29 29 Countries work on their own version of RoHS: RPCEP (Regulation for Pollution Control of Electronic Products): China JGPSSI (Japan Green Procurement Survey Standardization Initiative): Japan SB20 (Electronic Waste Recycling Act of 2003): California, USA Adopting the EU RoHs Directive: Australia, Canada, Korea, Taiwan

30 30 WEEE Man WEEE stands for Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment. WEEE Directive 2002/96/EC mandates the treatment, recovery and recycling of electric and electronic equipment (90% ends up in landfills).

31 31 Objectives of the WEEE Directive to increase reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery, leading to a reduction in the amount of waste going to landfill or incineration to improve the environmental performance of all operators involved in the life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment to set criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling and recovery of WEEE making producers responsible for financing most of these activities - private householders are to be able to return WEEE without charge

32 32 The WEEE Directive requires producers to take a whole-life responsibility for their products and to meet given targets. They will also need to provide data to demonstrate compliance. The WEEE Directive covers all electrical and electronic equipment with voltages up to 1,000 AC and 1,500 DC Producers are defined as: Manufacturers who sell their own brand Resellers under their own brand Importers or exporters into an EU member state

33 33 Please complete also the reading assignment.

34 34 Thank you

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