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Chapter 17 Atmosphere Page 365 Page 365 What does the photograph show? What does the photograph show? How does the quality of the air in the photograph.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Atmosphere Page 365 Page 365 What does the photograph show? What does the photograph show? How does the quality of the air in the photograph."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Atmosphere Page 365 Page 365 What does the photograph show? What does the photograph show? How does the quality of the air in the photograph compare to that of your community today? How does the quality of the air in the photograph compare to that of your community today? How might the photograph be different if it was taken on the following day? How might the photograph be different if it was taken on the following day? What makes up the atmosphere? What makes up the atmosphere? How do human activities affect the atmosphere? How do human activities affect the atmosphere?

2 Chapter 17.1

3 The composition of the Atmosphere

4 The atmosphere in Balance The early atmosphere of the earth was primarily created through volcanic eruptions. The early atmosphere of the earth was primarily created through volcanic eruptions. –Consisted mostly of CO 2, SO 2, H 2 O, and Nitrogen Oxygen was thought to have been created in the upper atmosphere by the destruction of water molecules through Photosynthesis Oxygen was thought to have been created in the upper atmosphere by the destruction of water molecules through Photosynthesis Todays atmosphere (99%) is mostly nitrogen and oxygen Todays atmosphere (99%) is mostly nitrogen and oxygen

5 Recycling of Atmospheric materials Composition of the atmosphere changes very little because it is an efficient recycling system Composition of the atmosphere changes very little because it is an efficient recycling system P. 367 Picture explains the O 2, CO 2, and H 2 O cycles P. 367 Picture explains the O 2, CO 2, and H 2 O cycles

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9 A Delicate Balance The atmosphere may become unbalance by both natural and human origins The atmosphere may become unbalance by both natural and human origins –e.g. CO 2 levels in Hawaii have rose 16% between 1959 and 1999

10 Environmental Consultant Environmental Consultant Median annual earnings of environmental scientists were $51,080 in May The middle 50 percent earned between $39,100 and $67,360. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,610, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $85,940. Median annual earnings of hydrologists were $61,510 in May 2004, with the middle 50 percent earning between $47,080 and $77,910, the lowest 10 percent earning less than $38,580, and the highest 10 percent earning more than $94,460. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of environmental scientists in May 2004 were as follows: Federal Government$73,530Management, scientific, and technical consulting services51,190Architectural, engineering, and related services49,160Local government48,870State government 46,850

11 Chapter 17.2 Page 696 Page 696 Convert 70°F Celsius Convert 70°F Celsius When is the Fahrenheit Scale used? When is the Fahrenheit Scale used? The Celsius Scale? The Celsius Scale? Which do you prefer? Which do you prefer?

12 Heat and the Atmosphere Energy from the sun drives the atmosphere Energy from the sun drives the atmosphere

13 How Heat Moves Radiation – transfer of energy through space in the form of visible light Radiation – transfer of energy through space in the form of visible light –does not require a medium – pass through a vacuum Conduction – transfer of heat energy by touch Conduction – transfer of heat energy by touch –e.g. air bough warm ground becomes warmer Convection – Transfer of heat energy in a liquid or gas caused by differences in density Convection – Transfer of heat energy in a liquid or gas caused by differences in density –e.g. warm air heated by the surface of earth becomes less dense and rises

14 Heat and Temperature Temperature – is the measure of the average K.E. of the atoms in the substance Temperature – is the measure of the average K.E. of the atoms in the substance Heat is the total KE of all the particles in a substance Heat is the total KE of all the particles in a substance –e.g. A tablespoon of water at 100 Celsius has less heat than a cup of water at 100 Celsius Thermometer is used to measure temperature Thermometer is used to measure temperature –At sea level water freezes at 0 Celsius and Boils at 100° Celsius

15 Structure of the Atmosphere is divided into 4 layers based on temperature p. 371 is divided into 4 layers based on temperature p. 371

16 Troposphere – lowest layer of the atmosphere where all weather occurs Temperature decreases with height Temperature decreases with height

17 Stratosphere – clear dry layer above the Troposphere Contains the Ozone(O 3 ) Which absorbs UV radiation Contains the Ozone(O 3 ) Which absorbs UV radiation Temperature increases with increased height Temperature increases with increased height

18 Mesosphere - the 3 rd layer Temperature decreases with height Temperature decreases with height

19 Thermosphere – 4 th layer very thin and separated by layers of different gasses very thin and separated by layers of different gasses due to the intense solar radiation temperature increases with height due to the intense solar radiation temperature increases with height contain the ionosphere contain the ionosphere Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles Auroras are formed when electrically charged particles are attracted to the earths poles

20 Insulation and the Atmosphere Incoming solar radiation is called insulation Incoming solar radiation is called insulation Earth receives only two-billionths of the suns rays Earth receives only two-billionths of the suns rays Of 100 units (p. 373) of suns energy 30 reflected back into space, 19 Absorbed by the atmosphere, 51 absorbed by Earths surface Of 100 units (p. 373) of suns energy 30 reflected back into space, 19 Absorbed by the atmosphere, 51 absorbed by Earths surface Unequal insulation caused temperature differences Unequal insulation caused temperature differences

21 Discussion – Global Heat Budget Page 373 Page 373 Explain why most of the atmospheres heat energy comes indirectly from the sun. Explain why most of the atmospheres heat energy comes indirectly from the sun.

22 Chapter 17.3 Which surface is likely to be hotter on a sunny day: Which surface is likely to be hotter on a sunny day: –A parking lot blacktop –One with crushed white gravel

23 Local Temperature Variations Caused by insulation (energy) heats Earths surface and atmosphere unequally Caused by insulation (energy) heats Earths surface and atmosphere unequally

24 Intensity of Insulation The angle at which the suns rays strike the earth, the more overhead (90 ) the more energy The angle at which the suns rays strike the earth, the more overhead (90 ) the more energy Time of day - Suns rays are closest to vertical at noon. However, the highest temperature occur later in the day because of time needed for the surface to create heat using the insulation Time of day - Suns rays are closest to vertical at noon. However, the highest temperature occur later in the day because of time needed for the surface to create heat using the insulation Latitude and equator 90 more insulation where as high latitude sun rays strike at more of an angle less insulation Latitude and equator 90 more insulation where as high latitude sun rays strike at more of an angle less insulation

25 Time of year – mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter Time of year – mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter Time of year – mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter Time of year – mid latitude locations have higher temperatures in summer because the rays are more direct than in winter –Years maximum insulation occurs in June but max temperate are in July, weakest sunlight in December but lowest temps are in January Cloud Cover – more insulation on clear days because clouds reflect sunlight. However, they hold the heat in at night. Cloud Cover – more insulation on clear days because clouds reflect sunlight. However, they hold the heat in at night.

26 Heating of Water and Land Water and land warm up and cool off at different rates. Water warms more slowly than land and cools more slowly. Water and land warm up and cool off at different rates. Water warms more slowly than land and cools more slowly. –Suns energy penetrates water deeper spreading it out –Some energy is used in evaporation –Water has a higher specific heat Different hard surfaces absorb radiation differently Different hard surfaces absorb radiation differently –light colored surfaces absorbs less than dark e.g. blacktop gets warmer than grass e.g. blacktop gets warmer than grass

27 Temperature Maps (p. 377) Temperature Maps (p. 377) Land heats and cools off faster than water therefore continents are warmer than nearby oceans in summer and cooler than nearby oceans in winter Land heats and cools off faster than water therefore continents are warmer than nearby oceans in summer and cooler than nearby oceans in winter Isotherm lines on a map connect places of equal temperatures Isotherm lines on a map connect places of equal temperatures

28 Chapter 17.4

29 Human impact on the Atmosphere Human impact on the Atmosphere

30 Common Air Pollutants Air Pollution – any airborne gas or particle that occurs at a concentration capable of harming humans or the environment Air Pollution – any airborne gas or particle that occurs at a concentration capable of harming humans or the environment Air Pollution – any airborne gas or particle that occurs at a concentration capable of harming humans or the environment Air Pollution – any airborne gas or particle that occurs at a concentration capable of harming humans or the environment Clean air act 1970 Identifies 6 key pollutants – CO, NO 2, SO 2 Pb, O 3 and particulates Clean air act 1970 Identifies 6 key pollutants – CO, NO 2, SO 2 Pb, O 3 and particulates

31 Acid Rain – Forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water vapor in the air. Then falls out with rain and snow Life forms are sensitive to pH Life forms are sensitive to pH pH scale 0-14 each increase is 10x the prior pH scale 0-14 each increase is 10x the prior Increased Acid has killed off lakes in Canada and in upper New York Increased Acid has killed off lakes in Canada and in upper New York Can also damage limestone structures Can also damage limestone structures

32 Smog - Photochemical Smog - brown haze that forms in air pollution with nitrogen oxides and hydro carbons that come mainly from cars Creates ground level zones – irritant to lungs and stunts plant growth and yields Creates ground level zones – irritant to lungs and stunts plant growth and yields Temperature inversion – air at surface is colder than the air above trapping pollutants close to the ground Temperature inversion – air at surface is colder than the air above trapping pollutants close to the ground

33 Ozone Depletion Thought to be caused by Chlorofluorocarbons. CFCS are used in aerosols, air conditioners, and solvents that are banned in the U.S. Thought to be caused by Chlorofluorocarbons. CFCS are used in aerosols, air conditioners, and solvents that are banned in the U.S. Ozone absorbs UV form the sun that cause skin cancer in humans Ozone absorbs UV form the sun that cause skin cancer in humans

34 Global Warming Green house gases such as CO 2 trap heat at the earths surface Green house gases such as CO 2 trap heat at the earths surface Gasses could be increased form the burning of fossil fuels and global deforestation. Gasses could be increased form the burning of fossil fuels and global deforestation. Possible effects Possible effects –Rising seal levels –Increasing frequency and severity of storms –More frequent heat waves and droughts –Relocation of major crop-growing areas


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