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Mechanical Provisions

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1 Mechanical Provisions
STD , A FIRST LOOK Mechanical Provisions Drake H. Erbe Airxchange, Inc. Rockland, MA X313 Std Mechanical Provisions 6/29/2010

2 Summary of areas, changes, addenda
Equipment Efficiencies tables Changes in existing equipment-a,k,y,ao,t,bw,aj,bk Addition of new equipment-l,o,co,ad, cp,bg,bu Part load-s,m Expanded certified conditions-bl,bt Equipment Requirements/Limitations 2 speed fans-n VSD on pumps and fans-ak,cv,n Demand control on simple systems-ap Open cooling towers >1100-u Fan power-p, dj, Dampers-at,cb

3 Summary of areas, changes, addenda
Airside System Requirements Supply air reset-bh Ventilation reset-ck VAV single zone fan power-ca Energy Recovery-e Zone controls-h,as,bx Waterside System Requirements Pump head calculations-v WSHP systems-ak Pipe sizing-af,cc Piping Insulation-ba,bi

4 Summary of areas, changes, addenda
Economizers Data Centers-bu Trade-off-au New/different requirements-cy Additional miscellaneous Laboratory Systems-as,bx Kitchen Hoods-ax Duct Leakage-cq Garage Ventilation-di Elevators-df

5 Cooling Towers Addenda a,l
This adds minimum efficiency and certification requirements for both axial and centrifugal fan closed-circuit cooling towers (also known as fluid coolers) into Table 6.8.1G. And clearly identifies open and closed requirements. 5

6 Cooling Towers Addendum u
This addendum puts a limitation on centrifugal fan cooling tower which typically use more energy than axial fan cooling towers. Above 1,100 gpm at standard rating conditions the centrifugal fan cooling towers will have to meet the efficiency requirements for axial fan towers with a few exceptions 6

7 Dehumidification Addendum b
This addendum provides some clarification to dehumidification requirements in when applied to laboratories and other spaces covered by other standards. 7

8 Humidification Addendum c
This addendum makes some further revisions to the humidification section 8

9 Zone Controls Addendum h
This change includes a new exception to Section that is geared toward zones with direct digital controls (DDC). The new exception (exception b) largely addresses the apparent conflict between Standards 55, 62.1, and This conflict is that the current 30% reheat maximum typically requires very high supply air temperatures (e.g., >100°F) to meet peak heating load. High supply air temperatures result in poor comfort per Standard 55 and poor ventilation effectiveness per Standard 62.1. 9

10 Laboratory Exhaust Systems Addendum as
This addendum makes some revisions to and completely redoes to clearly outline requirements for laboratory exhaust systems, and adds a definition for sensible effectiveness used in major revisions Adds exception a4. The air flow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards, such as pressure relationships or minimum air change rates. 3c Deletes Zones where special pressurization relationships, cross-contamination requirements, or code-required minimum circulation rates are such that variable air volume systems are impractical. Laboratory exhaust systems that comply with Section 3.2 add sensible recovery effectiveness: change in the dry-bulb temperature of the outdoor air supply divided by the difference between the outdoor air and return air dry-bulb temperatures, expressed as a percentage. 10

11 Laboratory Exhaust Systems Addendum as
Changes to 6.5.7 Now for laboratory exhaust systems Reduced from to 5000 cfm exhaust Better definition of VAV with heat recovery 11

12 Zone Controls Addendum bx
Revises exceptions to , which expands upon revisions made by addendum-h and as to Change limits ceiling supply air temperature to 20oF 12

13 Furnaces & Water Heating Addenda k,ao
These addenda revise Tables 6.8.1E and 7.8 to more clear and informative. Table 7.8 is updated to reflect the current federal efficiency levels for residential water heaters, and adds a requirement for electric table top water heaters. 13

14 Heat Pump Pool Heaters Addendum y
This addendum establishes ARI 1160 as the test procedure for heat-pump pool heaters and requires that the minimum coefficient of performance (COP) of 4 be met at the low outdoor temperature of 50°F (instead of the high outdoor temperature of 80°F currently required). 14

15 Chillers Addendum m This addendum establishes, effective January 1, 2010 an additional path of compliance for water-cooled chillers. Path A is intended for applications where significant operating time is expected at full-load conditions. On the other hand, Path B is an alternative set of efficiency levels for water cooled chillers intended for applications where significant time is expected at part load. Compliance with the standard can be achieved by meeting the requirements of either Path A or Path B. However, both full-load and IPLV levels must be met to fulfill the requirements of Path A or Path B. The addendum also combines all water-cooled positive displacement chillers into one category and adds a new size category for centrifugal chillers at or above 600 tons. The air cooled chiller without condenser equipment category has been eliminated. All air-cooled chillers without condensers must now be rated with matching condensers. 15

16 Chillers Addendum m 16

17 Chillers Addenda bl,bt These addenda are intended to bring a total of approximately 85% of the chillers under the standard. Addendum bt extends the range where the Kadj can be used for centrifugals thus expanding the range where certification can be applied for centrifugals and the scope of the minimum efficiency requirements. The kadj equation has been revised and also includes a leaving evaporator temperature correction. A manufacturers nameplate requirement is also included Addendum bl includes glycol and brine Positive displacement (air- and water-cooled) chilling packages. Equipment with a leaving evaporator fluid temperature higher than 32°F, shall show compliance with Table 6.8.1C when tested or certified with water at standard rating conditions, per the referenced test procedure. 17

18 DX & AHU Speed Control Addendum n
Variable-air-volume fan control is currently required in the standard for multiple-zone systems. This proposal extends these requirements for large single-zone units. Important aspects of this proposal include the following: It applies to both unitary (packaged) equipment and chilled water air-handling units. It only applies to DX units with a cooling capacity greater than or equal to 110,000 Btu/h. It only applies to chilled water systems with motors greater than 5 HP The proposal can be met using either two-speed motors or variable-speed drives on the supply fan(s). The minimum speed requirement is set at 67% fan speed to avoid coil freezeup problems It does not take effect until 1/1/2012 for DX systems and 1/1/2010 for chilled water systems 18

19 Energy Recovery Addendum e
This addendum revises the requirements for exhaust air energy recovery and extends the requirements to a broader range of buildings. Exhaust Air Energy Recovery. Each fan system shall have an energy recovery system when the system’s supply air flow rate exceeds the value listed in table based on the climate zone and percentage of outdoor air flow rate at design conditions. The simplified version now refers to 6.5.6 The addendum also revises the some of the wording of the existing requirements and exceptions Adds exception j Systems expected to operate less than 20 hrs per week at the outdoor air percentage covered by table 19

20 Fan Power Limitation Addendum p
This addendum is the second phase of correcting the fan power limitation deficiencies of Standard The first phase was corrected by Addendum ac to the 2004 standard and is included in Standard That addendum addressed all fan systems with exception of those systems serving fume hoods. 20

21 Fan Power Limitation Addendum dj
The current wording of Table B does not provide any limit on the pressure drop of energy recovery devices. This addendum limits the fan energy allowance for energy recovery devices to values that approximate the results of the economic analysis conducted for addendum e, with some allowance to permit adequate pressure drop for products near the minimum recovery effectiveness of 50%. A separate allowance is also created for coil runaround loop systems. TABLE B Fan Power Limitation Pressure Drop Adjustment (Revisions to the table in part) 21

22 IEER Addendum s This addendum is actually a continuation of addendum g to the 2004 standard which increased the efficiencies of packaged equipment This addendum completes the change by adding new minimum efficiency requirements for the new AHRI 340/360 IEER part load metric The new metric corrects some issues with the old IPLV and better reflects the operation of commercial equipment indoor fans. New AHRI IEER part load metric 22

23 Efficiency Moves Packaged and Split system unit efficiencies
In 2010 the HCFC refrigerants are eliminated and HFC’s must be used Packaged and Split system unit efficiencies (ASHRAE 2010) 23 23

24 IEER Addendum s There are also additional Tables for water cooled, and heat pumps 24

25 PTAC & PTHP Addenda t,bw On October 7, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) completed a rulemaking and published a final rule establishing new federal minimum energy efficiency standards for package terminal air conditioners (PTACs) and heat pumps (PTHPs). 25

26 Liquid-to-Liquid Heat Exchangers Addendum ad
This addendum adds a requirement for liquid to liquid heat exchangers A future addendum will add minimum efficiency requirements 26

27 Pump Head Calculation Addendum v
Addendum v added a requirement that pump head must be calculated. A reference to the Handbook of Fundamentals was deleted and an ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA standard inserted. 27

28 Radiant Panels Addendum ae
This addendum adds a requirement for insulating the surfaces of radiant panels that do not face conditioned spaces. 28

29 Pipe Sizing Addenda af,cc
These addenda add a requirement for pipe sizing based on a table which is a function of the flow and number of operating hours. It currently only applies to chilled water and condenser water 29

30 Pipe Insulation-Heating Addendum bi
This addendum makes significant changes to the requirements for pipe insulation 30

31 Pipe Insulation-Cooling Addendum bi

32 Non-Metallic Piping Addendum ba
This addendum clarifies how to apply the piping insulation to non-metallic piping 32

33 Hydronic Addendum ak This addendum makes changes to the pumping requirements including dropping the HP from 10 HP to 7.5 for variable speed pump plus and eliminates the pump head requirement It includes some new requirements for WSHP loops 33

34 Demand Control Ventilation Addendum ap
This addendum corrects a loop hole for the requirements of demand control ventilation in the simplified section of chapter 6 34

35 Dampers Addendum at Revises the requirements for dampers and damper leakage as defined in section 35

36 Dampers Addendum cb This addendum addresses a number of issues with dampers The simplified approach now matches the prescriptive requirements Allows backdraft dampers only on exhaust and relief, not outside air Requires low leak dampers in Zone 5a 36

37 Economizer Trade-Off Addendum au
This addendum complements the addendum g to the 2004 standard and addendum s to the 2007 standard which increased the efficiency of packaged equipment and added the IEER This addendum implements a new requirement for the elimination of the air economizer in applicable zones and is based on the new IEER metrics The full load metrics stay the same but the IEER levels increase to compensate for the lost energy savings without the economizer 37

38 Economizers Addendum cy
This addendum makes several revisions to the economizer requirements in section and in section With increased envelope insulation levels and higher internal plug loads commercial buildings are operating in cooling at lower ambient temperatures. This allows for greater air and water economizers to be used instead of mechanical cooling. Using the ASHRAE benchmark building models a detailed energy and economic analysis was conducted and found that requirements for the use of economizers can be justified in additional zones including 2a, 3a, and 3b. the threshold limit on the size of the unit above which economizers are required can be decreased from 135,000 and 65,000 Btu/h to 54,000 Btu/hr. Integrated economizers allow for the use of economizers and mechanical cooling to meet the cooling loads of the building. With advanced controls for economizers it is now possible to eliminate the exception c which exempted zones 1, 2, 3a, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7 and 8 from using integrated economizers. Tables A & B have eliminated fixed dry-bulb control in zones 1a,2a,3a,4a 38

39 Economizers Addendum cy
As part of this addendum the table which allows for the elimination of economizers thru the use of higher efficiency HVAC equipment was also updated . The table has been modified to reflect the new ASHRAE benchmark building models and to expanded to allow it to be used for any type of HVAC system and not just Unitary air cooled equipment currently covered by the table. 39

40 Water-Water HP Addendum bg
This proposal establishes for the first time a product class for water- to-water heat pumps. The intent is to recognize the technology in Standard 90.1 by requiring minimum energy efficiency standards. Cooling EERs and heating COPs are established for products with cooling capacities below 135,000 Btu/h at standard rating conditions listed in ISO standard 40

41 Kitchen Exhaust Hoods Addendum ax
This addendum replaces the existing the requirements for kitchen exhaust hoods in 41

42 Supply Air Reset Addendum bh
This addendum adds a requirement for supply air temperature reset at part load conditions. This can result in significant energy savings. It does include exceptions for humid applications 42

43 Data Centers-Computer Room Units Addendum bu
This addendum adds efficiency requirements for computer room units. There are several new requirements added as well as a new rating metric (SCOP), test procedure, and efficiency table Note: This is only part of the table 43

44 Data Centers- Economizer Requirements Addendum bu

45 Data Centers- Essential Facilities Addendum bu
This area will be refined over time 45

46 Single Zone VAV Fan Power Addendum ca
This change closes a loophole in the fan power allowances for Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems. A VAV system without terminal units (typically serving a single zone) does not need this added fan power allowance and should reasonably comply with the constant volume fan power requirements. Each HVAC system at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) as shown in Table A. This includes supply fans, return/relief fans, exhaust fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability. Single zone variable-air-volume systems shall comply with the constant volume fan power limitation. 46

47 VAV Ventilation Optimization Addendum ck
This addendum addresses demand control in multiple space VAV systems and adds ASHRAE Standard as a reference 6.5.3 Air System Design and Control. Each HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate hp exceeding 5 hp shall meet the provisions of Sections through Multiple-zone VAV System Ventilation Optimization Control Multiple-zone VAV systems with DDC of individual zone boxes reporting to a central control panel shall include means to automatically reduce outdoor air intake flow below design rates in response to changes in system ventilation efficiency as defined by ASHRAE Standard 62.1, Appendix A and as determined in part by the zone requiring the highest fraction of outdoor air in the zone discharge air stream, and in part by variations in zone-level discharge airflow and outdoor air intake flow requirements. Exceptions to (a) Dual-path systems which recirculate plenum air locally, as defined by Standard VAV systems with zonal transfer fans that recirculate air from other zones without directly mixing it with outdoor air, dual-duct dual-fan VAV systems, and VAV systems with fan-powered terminal units. (b) Systems required to have Exhaust Air Energy Recovery complying with Section (c) Systems where total design exhaust airflow is more than 70% of total design outdoor air intake flow requirements. Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Exceptions to (h) Single-path multiple-zone VAV systems meeting the ventilation control requirements in Modify the following reference in Section 12 ANSI/ASHRAE Standard Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality 47

48 Unitary Efficiency Addendum co
This addendum makes three major amendments to Table 6.8.1A. it updates EER and IEER values for all condensing units and water and evaporatively cooled air conditioners with cooling capacities greater than 65,000 Btu/h. establishes a separate product class for evaporatively cooled air conditioners with different energy efficiency standards replaces the IPLV descriptor for condensing units with the new IEER metric and amends the EER’s with more stringent values 48

49 New Class IEER & Higher EER

50 Unitary Efficiencies-VRF Addendum cp
This addendum addresses VRF systems and sets efficiency requirements and references AHRI Standard 1230 Adds definition for VRF systems in Section 3 as follows: Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System. An engineered direct expansion (DX) multi-split system incorporating at least one variable capacity com­pressor distributing refrigerant through a piping network to multiple indoor fan coil units each capable of individual zone temperature control, through integral zone temperature control devices and common communications network. Variable refrigerant flow utilizes three or more steps of control on common, inter-connecting piping. This is not the complete table IEER increases 7/1/2012 50

51 Duct Leakage Addendum cq
This addendum: Addresses Duct Sealing and Leakage and eliminates the B/C classes of duct and Tables A&B Adds a definition for ductwork and seal class A Includes a reference for SMACNA Duct Leakage Test Procedures HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual Sections 3, 5, and 6 51

52 Garage Ventilation Addendum di
This addendum relates to garage ventilation. In 2001 this type of requirement was removed from the standard due to liability concerns. Sensors and controls have improved and again allow inclusion of this energy savings in the 2010 standard. Add new definition to section 3.2: Ventilation system motor nameplate hp: the sum of the motor nameplate horsepower (hp) of all fans that are required to operate as part of the system. Modify Section 6 as follows: Enclosed Parking Garage Ventilation. Enclosed parking garage ventilation systems shall automatically detect contaminant levels and stage fans or modulate fan airflow rates to 50% or less of design capacity provided acceptable contaminant levels are maintained. Exceptions: Garages less than 30,000 ft2 with ventilation systems that do not utilize mechanical cooling or mechanical heating Garages that have a garage area to ventilation system motor nameplate hp ratio that exceeds 1500 ft2/hp and do not utilize mechanical cooling or mechanical heating. Where not permitted by the authority having jurisdiction. 52

53 Motor Efficiencies Addendum aj
This addendum adds new efficiency requirements for motors. They are actually defined by DOE but have been added it to section 8 for clarification Note that DOE has implemented changes to increase the motor efficiencies for integral HP motors to premium levels. They go into effect on Dec 53

54 Motors Addendum bk This addendum adds 2 new definitions and clarifies some of the requirements and exemptions to addendum aj which added the motor efficiencies 54

55 Water Booster Systems Addendum cv
This is an example of an energy savings idea submitted outside the committee by CMP Service water (domestic water) booster pump systems can waste substantial energy in three ways: It is common to boost pressure beyond the pressure needed under most conditions and then to reduce that pressure with one or more pressure reducing valves. Even relatively efficient systems incorporating variable speed drives may be controlled in ways that require the pumps to run even when there is no service water flow. The pressure maintained may be more than needed during low flow conditions when there is less piping pressure loss to account for. Service Water Pressure Booster Systems. Service water pressure booster systems shall be designed such that: a. One or more pressure sensors shall be used to vary pump speed and/or start and stop pumps. The sensor(s) shall either be located near the critical fixture(s) that determine the pressure required, or logic shall be employed that adjusts the setpoint to simulate operation of remote sensor(s). b. No device(s) shall be installed for the purpose of reducing the pressure of all of the water supplied by any booster system pump or booster system, except for safety devices. c. No booster system pumps shall operate when there is no service water flow. 55

56 Elevators Addendum df This is an example of an energy savings idea generated by a cross-functional WG with members from at least 2 subcommittees and stakeholders outside the committee ACEEE and the European E4 committee estimate elevator energy to be in the range of 2-5% of building electric consumption. Elevators waste energy in several ways: Ventilation fans often run 24/7 regardless of load or occupancy Cab lighting often operates 24/7 regardless of occupancy The energy consumption of the elevator moving apparatus varies over a range of around 5:1 between the least and most efficient units. This addendum takes a first step in addressing the first two sources of inefficiency listed above. Elevators. Elevator systems shall comply with the requirements of this section: Lighting. All cab lighting systems shall have efficacy of not less than 35 lumens per Watt. Ventilation Power Limitation. Cab ventilation fans for elevators without air-conditioning shall not consume over 0.33 Watts per cfm at maximum speed. Standby Mode. When stopped and unoccupied with doors closed for over 15 minutes, cab interior lighting and ventilation shall be de-energized until required for operation. 56

57 Thank You

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