Presentation on theme: "1 Basic laws of hygiene. Bases of preventive and current sanitary supervision. Sun radiation and health. Hygienic value of sun radiation, physical properties."— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic laws of hygiene. Bases of preventive and current sanitary supervision. Sun radiation and health. Hygienic value of sun radiation, physical properties and chemical composition of air environment.
THE PLAN Introduction. 1. The definition of hygiene. 2. The aim and tasks of hygiene. 3. Basic methods of hygienic researches. 4. Compositions and Structure of the Atmosphere 5. Natural Sources of Air Pollution 6. Human-caused Air Pollution 7. Indoor Air Pollution 8. Effects of Air Pollution Conclusions.
Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity.
To promote and maintain a state of positive health an individual needs the following prerequisites Healthful shelter Supply of fresh air and sunlight Balanced diet Safe and potable water supply Adequate clothing hygienic environmental sanitation Protection from communicable and other avoidable afflictions Complete sense of protection and security both socially and economically A congenial social and cultural atmosphere Regulated way of life with proper rest and relaxation and good and simple habits
Hygiene is a basic preventive science in medicine. It generalizes all dates of theoretical and clinical disciplines in the field of prophylaxis, integrates knowledges about complex influence of an environment for health of the man, work out principles and systems of preventive measures. The word Hygiene is derived from the Greek word Hygeia the goddess of health.
Prevention is better than cure is an old saying. Preventive medicine deals with the measures to protect the individuals from the diseases, and to keep them in a state of positive health. For this we have to ensure all the above-mentioned prerequisites required for the maintenance of positive health. The environments must be hygienic, with supply of fresh air, safe potable water and balanced diet.
physical factors Ecology is constituted by the total environment of man. The environment of modern man is partly natural and partly man-made. 1. air social factors 1. customs 2. water 3. food 2. beliefs 3. laws 5. modes of living of human beings 4. peculiarities 3. vectors biological factors 4. buildings 1. pathogens, 2. microorganisms as well as living beings 4. plants
Environmental Sanitation The word sanitation is derived from the Latin word Sanitas which means a state of health. Environmental Sanitation means the control of all those factors in man's surroundings, which cause or may cause adverse effects on his health. The sanitarian directs his efforts towards hygiene of water and food supply, hygienic disposal of human wastes, hygiene of housing and control of vectors and rodents etc.
Hygiene is a science, which investigates regularities of influence of the environment on the organism of the man and public health with the purpose of the substantiation of the hygienic norms, sanitarian rules and measures, realization of which will ensure optimum conditions for vital activity, improving of health and preventing of diseases. The following definition now is accepted :
The principal topics of the subject are: Hygiene of atmospheric air Water supply hygiene Hygiene of nutrition Occupational hygiene Radiological hygiene Hygiene of children and teenagers Hospital hygiene Hygiene of extraordinary situation Tropical hygiene
Hygiene is a science of preserving and promoting the health of both the individual and the community. It has many aspects: personal hygiene (proper living habits, cleanliness of body and clothing, healthful diet, a balanced regimen of rest and exercise); domestic hygiene (sanitary preparation of food, cleanliness, and ventilation of the home); public hygiene (supervision of water and food supply, containment of communicable disease, disposal of garbage and sewage, control of air and water pollution); industrial hygiene (measures that minimize occupational disease and accident); mental hygiene (recognition of mental and emotional factors in healthful living) and so on.
Basic aim of hygiene Preservation and improving the health of the man is a basic aim of hygiene. «...To make development of the man most perfect, life most intense, wasting least fast, and death most remote». In this occasion the English scientist E.Parce has told, that the hygiene has a great and generous aim: «...To make development of the man most perfect, life most intense, wasting least fast, and death most remote».
Tasks of hygiene : 1. Study of the natural and anthropogenesis factors of the environment and social conditions which influence on health of the man. 4. Introduction in practice of public health services and national economy developed hygienic recommendations, rules and norms, check of their effectiveness and perfecting. 5. Prediction of the sanitarian situation for the nearest and remote perspective in view plans of development of the national economy. Definition of appropriate hygienic problems, which implying from prognostic situation and scientific working out these problems. 2. Study regularities of influence the factors and conditions of an environment on an organism of the man or population. 3. Scientific substantiation and working out of the hygienic norms, rules and measures, which help use maximum positively influencing on an organism of the man the factors of an environment and elimination or restriction up to safe levels unfavourable operating ones.
Methods of hygiene Methods of hygiene 2. Methods of studying of environmental influence on human organism and health 1. Methods of environment studying
Methods of sanitary examination with further sanitary description Methods of environment studying Instrumental and laboratory methods Geographical Physical Sanitary-statistic chemical Biological
Methods of experimental investigation Methods of Studying of Environmental Influence on Human Organism and Health 1.Experiment with models of natural condition Methods of natural observation 1.Clinical 2.Laboratory experiment on animals 3.Laboratory experiment on humans 2. Physiological 3. Biochemical 5. Sanitary-statistic 4. Toxicological 6. Medical- geographical
Hygienic standardization: Environmental standards are definite ranges of environmental factors which are optimal or the least dangerous for human life and health. In Ukraine basic objects of hygienic standardization are: MAC – maximum admissible concentration (for chemical admixtures, dust and other hazards) MAL – maximum admissible level (for physical factors) LD – dose limit (for ionizing radiation) Optimum and admissible parameters of microclimate, lighting, solar radiation, atmospheric pressure and other natural environmental factors. Optimum and admissible daily requirements in food and water.
Let's study the methodical scheme of hygienic norms of substantiation using, the example of MAC for some toxic substance. The first stage is stud physical and chemical properties of the substance, elaboration of methods of quantitative determination of this substance in different subjects, determination of its regimen of action on the human (duration, interruption, changes of intensity), ways of getting into the organism, study migration in different elements of the surrounding, mathematical prediction of duration of existence in different surroundings. The second stage is study direct influence on the organism. It is started from 'sharp' experiments the main goal of which is getting initial toxicometric data about the substance (determination of LD 50, or LC50 threshold of strong action (LIMac) and other. With the knowledge of physical and chemical properties of t he substance, its initial toxicological characteristics and approximate level of MAC can be calculated.
The third stage - is conduction of 'subsharp' experiment during l-2 months for determination of cumulating coefficient and the most vulnerable physiologic systems and organs specification of mechanisms of action and metabolism. The fourth (basic) stage is carrying out chronic experiment which lasts 4-6 months in the case of modelling of working conditions, 8-12 - communal conditions, 24-36 - in study processes of aging or induction of tumours. During the experiment integral parameters are studied. They reflect condition of animals, degree of strain of regulative systems, functions and structure of organs which take part in processes of metabolism (activity of enzymes), influence of functional loadings. Numbers of MACs of toxic chemical substances in the Ukraine are various: - for the air of working zone - more than 800, - water- 700, - atmosphere air- 200, - food-stuffs - more than 200, - soil - more than 30.
The first group contains factors of anthropogenous origin which are unfavorable for human being, and are not necessary for the normal life activity (dust, noise, vibration, ionizing radiation, etc.). MAC, MAL and LD are those parameters which are set for this group of factors. The second group contains factors of natural surrounding which are necessary (in certain amount) for normal life activity (food-stuffs, solar radiation, microclimatic factors and others). For this group the following parameters, must be set: optimum, minimum and maximum admissible parameters. Basic objects which are under the hygienic norms setting can be divided into two groups.
At last, the modern hygiene should give the most serious attention to preventing of development of some pathological conditions, which are now the basic causes of mortality among the adult population (cardio – vascular diseases, malignant tumours, heavy chronic bronchitis). It is especially necessary, because it is possible to count proved connection of this diseases with unfavourable modifications of an environment.
Max von Pettenkofer, 1818– 1901, German chemist and hygienist. He studied medicine at Munich. Pettenkofer is considered a founder of epidemiology and is known for his researches in the ventilation of dwellings, sewage disposal, and the spread of cholera. He developed a method for the quantitative determination of carbon dioxide.
Max Rubner (1854-1932) studied with Voit ; constructed the first accurate respiration calorimeter in Marburg (1889); professor of hygiene (1891) and professor of physiology (1909) in Berlin; developed concepts of proportionality of body surface areas to energy requirements; collaborated with Heubner to measure energy needs of infants.
Erisman Fedor (Guldreich Friedrich) (1842-1915) is a founder of scientific hygiene in Russia. Hes Swiss by origin. In 1869-1896 he lived in Russia. Professor of Moscow university (since 1882). He had classical traits and guidelines in all principal parts of hygiene. In 1891 he organized the first sanitary- epidemiological station in Russia (now - Moscow Research Institute of Hygiene by Erisman)
Dobroslavin Alexey (1842-1889) is a founder of experimental and military hygiene in Russia. He created the first hygienic laboratory in St.-Petersburg.
Subbotin Viktor (1844 - 1898) was the first Ukrainian professor of hygiene. In 1871, V.Subbotin was elected an assistant-professor of the Kyiv University and soon appointed a head of the first Department of Hygiene, Medical Police, Medical Geography and Statistics. The works by V. Subbotin were mainly devoted to the problems of general and communal hygiene. Problems of hygiene of hospitals, sanitary protection of water bodies, medical geography occupied the leading place among them.
Air is vital to maintain life and serves to ensure a constant supply of life giving oxygen to the body through the process of respiration. One can refuse polluted food and water but not the polluted air. An unlimited, relatively clean air is necessary for comfortable and healthful living.
Air is absolutely essential for the maintenance of life. Besides supplying the life giving oxygen, atmospheric conditions and air serve several useful functions. Functions of Air 1. It serves to maintain Life through constant oxygen supply. 2. It helps in regulation of body temperature; cooling power of the air being an important factor. 3. It helps in functioning of sensations like smell and hearing. 4. The adverse function is through the polluted air, which becomes a source of spreading various diseases, whether bacterial or otherwise. Air is absolutely essential for the maintenance of life. Besides supplying the life giving oxygen, atmospheric conditions and air serve several useful functions. Functions of Air 1. It serves to maintain Life through constant oxygen supply. 2. It helps in regulation of body temperature; cooling power of the air being an important factor. 3. It helps in functioning of sensations like smell and hearing. 4. The adverse function is through the polluted air, which becomes a source of spreading various diseases, whether bacterial or otherwise.
The atmosphere may be divided into several layers The atmosphere may be divided into several layers
Gas Fresh air Percent by volume Nitrogen 78.8 % Oxygen20.94 % Carbon dioxide0.033 % Air is a mechanical mixture of gases and not a chemical compound. It is enveloping earth as atmosphere. Pure air has approximtely the following composition:
Natural Sources of Air Pollution Natural Sources of Air Pollution It is difficult to give a simple definition of pollution. The word comes from the Latin pollutus, which means made foul, unclean, or dirty. Some authors limit the use of the term to damaging materials that are released into the environment by human activities. There are, however, many natural sources of air quality degradation. Volcanoes spew out ash, acid mists, hydrogen sulfide, and other toxic gases. Sea spray and decaying vegetation are major sources of reactive sulfur compounds in the air. Forest fires create clouds of smoke that blanket whole continents.
Trees and bushes emit millions of tons of volatile organic compounds (terpenes and isoprenes). Pollen, spores, viruses, bacteria, and other small bits of organic material in the air cause widespread suffering from allergies and airborne infections. Storms in arid regions raise dust clouds that transport millions of tons of soil and can be detected half a world away. Bacterial metabolism of decaying vegetation in swamps and of cellulose in the guts of termites and ruminant animals is responsible for as much as two- thirds of the methane (natural gas) in the air.
Human-caused Air Pollution Human-caused Air Pollution Primary pollutants are those released directly into the air in a harmful form. Primary pollutants are those released directly into the air in a harmful form. Secondary pollutants, by contrast, are modified to a hazardous form after they enter the air or are formed by chemical reactions as components of the air mix and interact. Solar radiation often provides the energy for these reactions. Photochemical oxidants and atmospheric acids formed by these mechanisms are probably the most important secondary pollutants in terms of human health and ecosystem damage. Secondary pollutants, by contrast, are modified to a hazardous form after they enter the air or are formed by chemical reactions as components of the air mix and interact. Solar radiation often provides the energy for these reactions. Photochemical oxidants and atmospheric acids formed by these mechanisms are probably the most important secondary pollutants in terms of human health and ecosystem damage. Fugitive emissions are those that do not go through a smokestack. By far the most massive example of this category is dust from soil erosion, strip mining, rock crushing, and building construction (and destruction). Fugitive emissions are those that do not go through a smokestack. By far the most massive example of this category is dust from soil erosion, strip mining, rock crushing, and building construction (and destruction).
The most common gaseous pollutants are nitrogen oxides carbon monoxide hydrocarbons particulates photochemical oxidants sulfur dioxide lead
Indoor Air Pollution Asbestos Vinyl chloride Formaldehyde Smoking radon gas
The level of risk depends on several factors: the amount of pollution in the air, the amount of air we breathe in a given time our overall health. Other, less direct ways people are exposed to air pollutants are: eating food products contaminated by air toxins that have been deposited where they grow, drinking water contaminated by air pollutants, ingesting contaminated soil, and touching contaminated soil, dust or water. How does air pollution affect me? Many studies have shown links between pollution and health effects. Increases in air pollution have been linked to decreases in lung function and increases in heart attacks. High levels of air pollution directly affect people with asthma and other types of lung or heart disease. Overall air quality has improved in the last 20 years but urban areas are still a concern. The elderly and children are especially vulnerable to the effects of air pollution.
ILL-EFFECTS OF POLLUTED AIR ILL-EFFECTS OF POLLUTED AIR They are as follows:- 1.Due to physical change 1.Due to physical change Immediate effects : Nausea, vomiting, fever, annoyance, headache etc. Late effects :Anemia, Tuberculosis, Chronic bronchitis, Primary lung cancer 2.Due to chemical change 2.Due to chemical change Pneumoconiosis is the group of diseases which takes place due to inhalation of suspended dust particles. There is irreversible fibrosis in lungs. Asbestosis, silicosis, Siderosis are example of pneumoconiosis. 3.On plants and animals: 3.On plants and animals: Plants are very sensitive to sulphur dioxide, fluorine compounds, smoke etc. Spotting and burning of leaves, destruction of crops, and retarded growth of plants have been observed due to air pollution. Fluorides are very toxic to animals; catties suffer by eating foliage contaminated with fluorides. 4.Global effects: 4.Global effects: a - Ozone depletion b - Green house effect c - Acidic rain
a. Ozone Depletion Itroduction : Ozone is a gas having formula O3. It is present at a distance of 15-50 Km from earth. It has encircled the earth like a jacket. Function : It prevents some wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation, which are coming from the sun. Causes of Ozone depletion : Ozone layer is depleted from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). They cause a chemical interaction with Ozone and so lead to thinning of ozone layer. Chlorofluorocarbons are present in: Aerosol sprays Air conditioners Refrigerators Health Hazards : Ultraviolet radiation if comes directly with all wavelengths, they cause skin cancer and cataract. Health Hazards : Ultraviolet radiation if comes directly with all wavelengths, they cause skin cancer and cataract. If there is 1 % fall of ozone, there is 4-6% more chances of skin cancers, 0.8-1.5% increase in melanomas and 0.2-0.6% increase in cataract cases. Prevention : Prevention : I- Less use of Aerosol sprays (Ozone friendly sprays preferred) ii - Prevention of air pollution iii- Ban on nuclear tests.
b- Green House Effect: b- Green House Effect: introduction: Green houses are glass huts seen in hilly areas and in the agricultural processing areas. Mechanism : When light falls on any surface which is transparent, some rays are reflected and some are refracted. A process of partial retention of light takes place in the green house, so temperature in the glass house is increased. Mechanism : When light falls on any surface which is transparent, some rays are reflected and some are refracted. A process of partial retention of light takes place in the green house, so temperature in the glass house is increased. Causes of Green house effect: The air pollution causes emission of gases like CO 2 CH 4 CO CFC's NO 2 Chlorine Methyl chloroform Causes of Green house effect: The air pollution causes emission of gases like CO 2 CH 4 CO CFC's NO 2 Chlorine Methyl chloroform These gases are known as Green house gases. These gases cause partial retention of light in the air and so temperature of the atmosphere increases. These gases are known as Green house gases. These gases cause partial retention of light in the air and so temperature of the atmosphere increases. Annual Rise in Green House Gases : CO2 -- 0.4 % CH 4 - 1% CO 0.2% CCl 4 -1% NO 2 - 0.25% CFC'S ~ 10% Methyl chloroform - 0.7%. Hazards of Green House Effects: Hazards of Green House Effects: Global warming Global warming Increased evaporation from sea. Increased evaporation from sea. Melting of Ice at poles of earth. Melting of Ice at poles of earth. Increase in sea level. Increase in sea level. Floods. Floods. Disturbance at coastal areas due to increased sea level. Disturbance at coastal areas due to increased sea level. Prevention: Prevention: Decreased industrialization Decreased industrialization Treatment of Industrial smoke Treatment of Industrial smoke Check unfit automobiles. Check unfit automobiles.
c - Acidic Rain Cause : SO 2 & NO 2 are released by products of industries : They are also produced as a result of fuel combustion and organic decomposition. They come in atmosphere and cause rain acidic. Mechanism: When rainfalls, the water (rain drops) combines with NO 2 & SO 2 resulting in : NO 2 + H 2 O HNO 3 SO 2 + H 2 O -» H 2 SO 4 As HNO 3 & H 2 SO 4 are acids, they cause acidic rain.
Hazards of Acidic Rain :. Discoloration of houses, Discoloration of houses, Rusting of metals. Rusting of metals. Damage of crops. Damage of crops. Skin cancer Skin cancer Damage to marine life Damage to marine life Lead poisoning due to damage to lead pipes. Lead poisoning due to damage to lead pipes. Prevention: i.Treatment of industrial smoke i.Treatment of industrial smoke ii.Increase plant growing i.e. Forestration ii.Increase plant growing i.e. Forestration This chemical oxides causes acid rain
Acid rain causes damage to Lakes and rivers: Acid rain causes a lower pH in the lakes and rivers and that effects that fishes can't survive in that water and therefore there is a big fish dieing and the long term increases are that the fish reproducing will stop. Trees: The consequences are that the trees loose needles and no new trees can be produced. The acid also reacts with many nutrients the trees need, such as calcium, magnesium and potassium, which starves the trees. People: Many toxic metals are held in the groundwater, lakes and in the soil. In that case the people have to be careful what they eat and drink because that toxic chemicals cause different deceases like cancer, damage on livers, diarrhoea in young children and kidneys. Buildings: If the toxic chemicals in the rain react with the material in the stones, like calcium carbonate, the buildings will be destroyed and dissolved. Here you can see the damages Here you can see the damages
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL: AIR POLLUTION CONTROL: They use some directions in prevention of air pollution: technological methods technological methods technical methods (Fabric Filters: Baghouses; Dust Collectors; Weld Fume Collector; ; ; NOx Control – SNCR; NOx Control – SCR; ;) technical methods (Fabric Filters: Baghouses; Dust Collectors; Weld Fume Collector; ; ; NOx Control – SNCR; NOx Control – SCR; ;) architecture-planning measures architecture-planning measures administrative measures administrative measures At present the purpose of applying and/or developing a control technology is to meet ambient air quality standards and other source related regulations. A control technology can only be applied to a controllable source. Therefore, it will be difficult to think of controlling emissions from a volcano.
PURIFICATION OF AIR Air is purified naturally. But due to increased rate of pollution, there are artificial methods also required for air purification. A. Natural methods B. Artificial methods A- Natural Methods WINDS: Winds take away air from industrial areas to deserts, forests region, from where fresh air comes. WINDS: Winds take away air from industrial areas to deserts, forests region, from where fresh air comes. LARGE SIZE: Air purifies by dilution, as very large area occupied by air and as soon as polluted air comes it is diluted. LARGE SIZE: Air purifies by dilution, as very large area occupied by air and as soon as polluted air comes it is diluted. SUNLIGHT: Sunlight kills bacteria and neutralizes smell producing substances. SUNLIGHT: Sunlight kills bacteria and neutralizes smell producing substances. RAIN: Rainfall settles down the suspended air particles. RAIN: Rainfall settles down the suspended air particles. PLANTS: They purify air by process of photosynthesis. They take up CO 2 and give O 2, which is used up by human beings. They also lower the temperature. PLANTS: They purify air by process of photosynthesis. They take up CO 2 and give O 2, which is used up by human beings. They also lower the temperature.
B- Artificial Methods 1.CONTAINMENT: It means arresting pollutant air at the source, neutralizing it and detoxifying it and finally it is released in atmosphere, so that it is least toxic. 2.REPLACEMENT: It means either replacement of process (that is causing air pollution) or replacement of substance, (e.g.) Use of electricity in place of coal is an example of replacement. 3.DILUTION: The establishment of "green belts" between industrial and residential areas is an attempt of dilution. 4.DISINFECTION: The methods employed for disinfection are a.Ultraviolet radiation: They are used for disinfection in O.T. and wards. a.Ultraviolet radiation: They are used for disinfection in O.T. and wards. b.Chemical mist: Triethylene glucol vapours are effective bactericides. b.Chemical mist: Triethylene glucol vapours are effective bactericides. c.Dust control: Application of oil to floors of hospital wards reduces bacterial content. c.Dust control: Application of oil to floors of hospital wards reduces bacterial content.
Thank your for attention! Thank your for attention!