2 Table of Contents E3 The Company 04 E3 Products – Overview 06 FireAxe 10RoadMaxx 18OS Solution 23WPCDSZWasteAway 44EcoBrixx 49Greenhouse Gases 55Carbon CreditsThe Future 76
3 Enzyme Enhanced Environmental Technology, Inc. E3 Presents a Groundbreaking Suite of Environmentally Beneficial ProductsConfidential – For Approved Use Only
4 The CompanyE3 is an Atlanta, GA-based manufacturing and distribution company formed in 2002 with the goal of offering effective, environmentally safe and cost-efficient solutions for multiple industries.Founded by Dr. Viktor Bouquette, the company has spent the last 6 years refining its products, identifying its market and identifying a potential management team.
5 Our Mission, Values & Vision Enzyme Enhanced Environmental Technology, Inc. (E3)Our Mission: To provide innovative products that are highly effective in solving industry specific problems that are not only environmentally friendly but are also environmentally beneficial.Our Values: Maintaining a corporate culture of honesty and integrity while nurturing and protecting people and the environment.Our Vision: To be the industry leader in enzyme based environmental technology.
6 Our Products have 16 Commercially Viable Applications Our groundbreaking products contain naturally-occurring enzymes, discovered over 40 years ago, that serve as catalysts to produce specific chemical reactions which effectively address the following:Enhanced oil recovery Hydrocarbon and wildfire controlCrude oil bio-desulphurization Indoor mold remediationEnvironmental spill cleanup Farming waste and odor controlCarbon Credits creation Dust control for dirt roadsRoad construction Tar sands mining enhancementPipeline paraffin mitigation Storage tank cleaningWastewater treatment Building constructionHome/Office fire extinguishment Hospital/Home bacterial control
7 Our Proprietary Enzymatic-Fungal Formula An enzyme is a protein that exist in the cells of all living entities and acts as a catalyst to facilitate naturally occurring biochemical reactions.It is estimated that in nature there are tens of thousands of unique enzymes; there are well over 3,000 enzymes in the human body alone.A fungus is a parasitic organism.It is estimated that there are over 100,000 species of fungi on the planet (including molds, mildews, mushrooms, rusts and smuts).A rare fungus is the basis for E3’s proprietary formulae. By varying ingredients and concentrations of our proprietary baseline formulas and combining them with this rare fungus, extra-cellular enzymes are created via a fermentation process that amplify a specific reaction pathway by many orders of magnitude.
9 Product DevelopmentRoadMaxx: In commercial use globally for over 40 years.FireAxe: Tested, validated and ready to market with receipt of US regulatory approvals. Currently being used by Royal Dutch Shell in Nigeria.WPC: Tested in Alaska, Texas and in the Gulf of Mexico with ChevronOS Solution: In commercial use globally for over 10 years.WasteAway: Successful testing conducted in conjunction with Goldkist (poultry) in Georgia in the mid-1990’s.EcoBrixx Successfully tested in conjunction with major US manufacturer of Compressed Earth Block MachinesDSZ: In the final stages of R&D.
12 Safe, Rapid & Total Fire Suppression FireAxe™ is formulated to:Quickly extinguish even the most difficult hydrocarbon-based fires (i.e. oil well or pipeline fires) and wildfiresCompletely eliminate the possibility of re-ignition, even in high windsAct as a remediation agent to break down unburned hydrocarbon fuel on land or waterExclude ingredients harmful to the environmentCompete with aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) based on efficacy, price and the avoidance of green house gas hydro-fluorocarbons (HFC)
13 Fire TriangleFire needs three elements to propagate; the so-called fire triangle: Heat – can exceed several thousand degrees Fahrenheit (depending on fuel type and oxygen content) 2. Oxygen – room air contains 21%, the minimum needed for fire to propagate 3. Fuel – hydrocarbon based; liquids (e.g. gasoline) or solids (e.g., wood/foliage)Traditional methods of fire fighting are directed at control of one of these three aspects of the fire triangle.Water is used to extinguish a fire by disrupting and dissipating the heat aspect of the triangle.Foam (Aqueous Film Forming Foam or AFFF) is used to blanket the fire such that the triangle is denied oxygen.By and large, neither of these methods is particularly effective, as demonstrated by the massive loss of property and lives caused by wildfires annually.
14 Innovative AdvanceFireAxe™ employs a different mechanism of action; it works simultaneously on the first and third elements of the triangle; theheat and the fuel components:FireAxe™ locks-up the fuel component rendering it incapable of igniting. In addition, FireAxe bio-degrades the unburned fuel and therefore minimizes potential environmental contamination, as well as reduces the risk of re-ignition and the risk of explosion associated with fuel vapors.FireAxe™ also rapidly dissipates the associated heat necessary to propagate fire. This component will prove especially important in oil well fire and structure fires involving metals that transfer heat (e.g. skyscrapers).
15 New Firefighting EraFireAxe™ rapidly extinguishes the most extreme hydrocarbon and forest fires in a fraction of the time as compared to current technology.FireAxe™ acts as a biodegradable bio-remediation agent to clean up the unburned waste and residue from hydrocarbon fires that could potentially contaminate surrounding soil and water.Significantly, application of FireAxe™ does not require modification of existing equipment or acquisition of new skill sets.
16 BenefitsFireAxe™ is an environmentally friendly, natural enzyme-based liquid product.FireAxe™ can be introduced into the standard 1 ½ and 4 inch fire hoses as a 6% solution in the same manner as foam. No equipment modification is necessary.FireAxe™ can be easily and inexpensively induced into the existing sprinkler system of any structure and will act as a superior first line of defense. FireAxe is non-corrosive and will not adversely affect plumbing or sprinkler heads. A fire will be extinguished before significant damage is done and long before the Fire Department could arrive.Unlike AFFF (foam), FireAxe contains no greenhouse HFC.
17 Regulatory Requirements for Commercialization of FireAxe Underwriters Laboratory (UL)National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)US Forestry Service Testing (Missoula, Montana)
18 RoadMaxxIn use for over 40 years for road projects in the US, Central and South America and Africa.
19 Better and Cheaper Roadbuilding RoadMaxx alters the properties of earth material through acatalytic bonding process, producing a strong “cementation” action.Unlike inorganic or petroleum based products which temporarily hold soil materials together, RoadMaxx causes the soil to bond during compaction into a dense permanent base which resists water penetration, solid penetration, weather and wear.Under proper conditions, use of RoadMaxx eliminates the need for additional aggregate, reducing costs associated with acquiring and transporting fill dirt.Can be used in varied climates - hot or cold, wet or dry.
20 ApplicationRoadMaxx is easy to apply and requires no special equipment or application procedures. It can be used with recycle machines or applied with regular road building machines.RoadMaxx can be used with soils that contain a minimum of 20% cohesive fines.RoadMaxx is mixed with the water used for compaction during normal road building techniques. A typical application to stabilize a 6-inch existing or new road base is presented on the video to follow.
22 AS Durable As AsphaltAdding a Double Chip Seal to a base prepared with RoadMaxx will result in a road that is as durable as asphalt at less than one-third the cost.15 gallons of RoadMaxx will build an extremely durable road 1 mile long, 25 feet wide and 6 inches deep.
24 OS Solution: Oil & Chemical Spill Remediation OS Solution is formulated to:Rapidly and effectively remove oil spills from land or water by catalyzing naturally present bacteriaContain no ingredients that are harmful to the ecosystemRemediate recent or historic spills with equal effectivenessBe non-toxic to both marine life and mammals
25 OS Solution The Remediation Problem: Surface contamination resulting from spillage of crude oil, fuels, chemicals, heavy metals and other hazardous materials is costly and time consuming to effectively remediate.Remediation via current methods is often ineffective and abandoned before total elimination of toxins is completed.
26 OS SolutionOS Solution has been shown to accelerate the biodegradation of diesel fuel, BTEX, MTBE, TCE/DCE (chlorinated organics), motor oil, gasoline, and a wide variety of other petrochemicals contaminating a variety of surfaces including sand, soil, and costal aggregates.1 gallon of OS Solution mixed with 16 gallons of water will treat 8 cubic yards of contaminated soil.
27 OS Solution MechanismOS Solution transforms volatiles into non-volatile forms through direct enzyme action after an initial bonding to the protein matrix. This bonding is responsible for the immediate decrease in VOC (volatile organic compounds), followed by longitudinal decrease in VOC through microbial oxidation.OS Solution rapidly catalyzes the normal bacterial populations into a logarithmic growth phase, enhancing both DNA pro- duction and specific enzyme production.OS Solution bioremediation of effluent contaminated with heavy metal results in rapid precipitation, allowing for less costly recovery by appropriate technology. Under specific circumstances, OS Solution can be utilized as one component of a treatment "chain" to bio-remediate organics, followed by specific chemical recovery of lead and other heavy metals.
28 Example: Amrep Corporation In-situ OS Solution Remediation Chemical Blending PlantSoil Contaminated with Halogenated Organics, Mineral Spirits, Diesel FuelVolume: 2,000 cubic yardsTechnique: Soil pile with slotted PVC for injection of 4% OS Solution weeklyMoisture maintained at 15-20%, low-volume air injection to maintain aerobic conditions without volatilization
29 Amrep Corporation Graphed Results of OS Solution Remediation
30 Well and Pipeline Cleaner WPCWell and Pipeline CleanerParaffin Mitigation
31 WPC BenefitsInjection of Well & Pipeline Cleaner (WPC) enzyme formulation results in production increases of from 35% to 100%. WPC is a specialty enzyme-based, natural agent containing colloidal suspension and biocide additives.There are no bacteria or toxic solvents in WPC. The natural enzymes penetrate and break up the paraffin, asphaltenes, scale, resin and minerals that typically deposit on the walls of oil well tubing over time, restricting valuable oil and gas production.The colloidal suspension agents prevent the re-deposition of these materials during the "soak" cycle, keeping the loosened material in fluid suspension until the well is flushed.
32 WPC ApplicationWPC is pre-mixed with production brine and/or produced oil. The diluted mixture is then injected into the wellbore, using a surge pump or similar device.Typically, a water truck equipped with a high-pressure pump is used. Once the WPC mixture is injected, the well is shut in and allowed to soak for three to five days. The wellbore is then fully opened and allowed to "flush" into the production system.WPC is fully compatible with the crude oil and will not cause any problems in the crude oil separation and shipping system.Application typically will need to be repeated in nine to twelve months, depending on the natural production decline in each individual oil well.
33 WPC Field Demonstration A highly successful demonstration of WPC in the Gulf of Mexico with Chevron validates our claim that use of WPC:Dramatically increases BOPD (barrels of oil produced daily)Decreases the number of cuttings (graph on next slide).Analysis of the data provided by Chevron demonstrates:Use of WPC increased the BOPD by 52% for a period of four monthsA potential annual pre-tax cash flow improvement of roughly $330,000 for this single well (assuming three treatments per year and oil priced at $70.00 per barrel).
37 DSZDSZ utilizes specific proprietary enzymes in conjunction with genetically modified bacteria to catalyze (speed up) the natural process responsible for varying sulfur levels in specific crude oil.
38 Bio-desulphurization Approximately half of the 84 million barrels of crude produced each day is considered to have a high sulfur content or is “sour” as compared to the more valuable and high quality “sweet” crude oil.Our initial research indicates that bio-desulphurization is achievable; this represents an opportunity to significantly improve the operating efficiencies of refineries and the ultimate value of the products.
40 Bio-Desulphurization - History Energy BioSystems Corporation (EBC) of The Woodlands, TX was a pioneer in microbial desulphurization research in the early 1990’s.EBC spent approximately $50 million isolating, characterizing, and manipulating the desulphurization genes from a variety of microorganisms, as well as developing and testing the reactor, separations, and recovery technology that is required to commercialize bio-desulphurization.
41 Bio-Desulphurization History -Genetically Modified Bacteria One of the results of EBC’s research efforts was the production of superior genetically modified sulphurphilic (sulfur loving) bacteria.These modified bacteria have the ability to liberate sulfur from a hydrocarbon ring without damage to the ring itself.Though the EBC desired outcome was accomplished - sulfur was released into a water phase - the reaction was not rapid enough to render the process commercially viable.
42 The DSZ BreakthroughThe addition of E3’s proprietary enzyme formula to sour crude oil will exponentially increase both the reaction time and the percentage of sulfur liberated, resulting in a commercially viable bio-desulphurization process.DSZ’s bio-desulphurization process markedly decreases the costs incurred by refineries currently utilizing high pressure and high temperatures as hydro-desulphurization processes.DSZ is in the final stages of R&D.
43 Theoretical DSZ Application There are two containers that compose the DSZ product. One contains genetically modified bacteria and the other a bio-catalytic enzyme solution. These two containers form DSZ and are mixed on-site in a container with water.This mixture is introduced via distribution lines into a static mixer. The static mixer mixes the water, DSZ and sour crude.Hypothetical ratio of products is:One gallon of DSZ gallons of WaterTreats 20,000 gallons of crudeThis mixture moves into the crude storage tank for approximately 5 days.The crude mixture is then sent through an oil-water separator.E3’s research indicates that this process will significantly reduce the sulfur content of this treated un-refined crude.This separated crude is then sent to a refinery as “sweet” crude.
45 WasteAway Decreases GHG WasteAway is an effective extracellular enzyme formulation that will markedly decrease methane emission, nitrous oxide emission and hydrogen sulfide emission from the animal wastes generated by Confined Animal Feeding Organizations (CAFOs).
46 WasteAway Application WasteAway is simply applied to lagoons and holding pits, etc. as a dilute solution (100:1) mixed with local water.WasteAway is a pure extra-cellular enzyme formulation that does not contain exogenous bacteria.
47 WasteAway - Mechanism of Action The main determinant of the amount of GHG emmission is the amount of carbon in the organic waste. As the waste degrades, some of this carbon becomes part of the cellular material of the microbes (assimilated carbon) and the rest of the carbon forms methane and carbon dioxide (dissimilated carbon).The more anaerobic the process, the more of this carbon is converted to methane.WasteAway promotes an aerobic process and markedly increases assimilated carbon and thereby decreases the emission of GHG.
48 WasteAway BenefitsDramatic decrease (up to 90%) in green house gas emissions after theapplication of WasteAway.The immediate elimination of the atrocious odor associated with thehandling and storage of animal wastes.Markedly diminished potential for groundwater contamination andthe realization of significantly decreased costs associated with wastedisposal.Help solve significant environmental problems faced by the CAFOs in managing the massive amounts of animal waste that are produced annually.The creation of massive amounts of tradable carbon credits from WasteAway’s reduction of methane emissions.
49 Superior Compressed Earth Blocks EcoBrixxSuperior Compressed Earth Blocks
50 EcoBrixxEarth has been used as a building material for thousands of years.From ancient times to the present day, earthen construction has been used to build everything from modest shelters to elaborate temples and great walls using a wide variety of techniques -- adobe, cob, rammed earth and compressed earth blocks, to name but a few.
51 Compressed Earth Blocks Strong, dimensionally stable building blocks can be made by compressing slightly moistened earth under moderately high pressure using a device commonly known as a compressed earth block press and made specifically for this purpose.Modern earth block presses are inexpensive, portable, and highly reliable.
52 EcoBrixxMost soil types, when reasonably free from organic matter, will make good compressed earth blocks (CEB).Best results are obtained by first screening the soil through 1/8" wire mesh to remove any pebbles, rocks, chunks of compacted soil, etc.To produce a superior CEB, EcoBrixx and water are added to the soil to increase strength, resistance to erosion and water penetration.
53 EcoBrixx Superior Compressed Earth Blocks Earthquake Resistance Earth friendly construction Common availability of resources Tornado and Hurricane resistance Fire resistance Energy efficient Ease of construction
54 EcoBrixx AdvantagesThey have structural qualities superior to kilned brick and other masonry materials.They can be removed from the machine immediately after pressing and stacked for curing which requires generally no more than a week.They are extremely durable and resistant to erosion and water penetration.Having uniform dimensions, sharp edges and smooth surfaces, they are easy to lay.They can be produced at a fraction of the cost of conventional cement blocks.
57 Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Greenhouse gases (GHG) naturally blanket the earth and keep it approximately 33 degrees Celsius (91.4 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than it would be in the absence of these gases in the atmosphere.This gaseous blanketing is called the “Greenhouse Effect”.
58 Green House EffectShorter-wavelength solar radiation from the sun passes through Earth's atmosphere, and then is absorbed by the surface of the Earth, causing it to warm. Part of this absorbed energy is then re-radiated back into the atmosphere as long wave infrared radiation. Little of this long wave radiation however, escapes back into space; much of this radiation cannot pass back through the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.The greenhouse gases absorb some of this long wave infrared radiation and re-emit these long waves downward, causing the lower atmosphere to warm.
60 Anthropogenic Global Warming Over the past century, the Earth has increased in temperature by approximately 0.5 Celsius (32.9 degree Fahrenheit).Many scientists believe this increase is due to man-made increased emissions of the main greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorocarbons.This theory is known as anthropogenic global warming or AGW.
61 Consequences of Global Warming It is now a widely accepted belief that if this increase in greenhouse gas emission continues unchecked, the global warming that is produced as a consequence will negatively impact nature and produce severe climatic changes.Changes including; severe floods and droughts, increasing frequency and intensity of hurricanes and tornados, brutal heat waves, polar ice cap melting, rising sea levels and an increased incidence of communicable diseases secondary to an increased insect population.
62 Fossil FuelsFossil Fuels were created chiefly by the decay of plants over millions of years.Coal, oil and natural gas are used to generate electricity, heat our homes, power our factories and run our cars. These fossil fuels contain carbon, and when they are burned, they combine with oxygen, forming carbon dioxide.
64 Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas and is the most prominent GHG in Earth's atmosphere. CO2 is recycled through the atmosphere by the process of photosynthesis, which makes human life possible.Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. Light energy is trapped and used to convert carbon dioxide, water, and other minerals into oxygen and energy rich organic compounds. Every year humans add over 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and, data from polar ice sampling, suggest that this is a thirty percent increase since 1750.
65 MethaneMethane is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas. It is formed when plants decay where there is very little air (anaerobic decay). It is often called swamp gas because it is abundant around water and swamps. Polar ice cap sampling data indicate that since 1750, methane emissions have doubled, and could double again by 2050. Each year we add million tons of methane to the air by raising livestock, coal mining, drilling for oil and natural gas, rice cultivation, and decaying garbage sitting in landfills.Methane stays in the atmosphere for only 10 years, but traps 21 times more heat than carbon dioxide.
66 Methane (more)Rice cultivation has developed into a large business; farmland has doubled in the past 45 years. Rice feeds 1/3 of the World's population. Rice grows mostly in flooded fields, where bacteria in waterlogged soil release methane.Livestock such as cows, sheep, goats, camels, buffaloes, and termites release methane as well. Bacteria in the gut of the animal break down food and convert some of it to methane. When these animals belch, methane is released. In one day, a cow can emit ½ pound of methane into the air. A far greater source of methane emissions, however, is from decaying manure produced by livestock.
67 Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide is a colorless greenhouse gas; however, unlike the other GH gases, it has a sweet odor. It is used as a dental anesthetic because it deadens pain and for this characteristic is called “laughing gas”. This gas is released naturally from oceans and by bacteria in soils. Nitrous oxide gas has risen by more than 15% since 1750. Each year humans add 7-13 million tons into the atmosphere by using nitrogen based fertilizers, disposing of human and animal waste in sewage treatment facilities, automobile exhaust, and other sources not yet identified.
68 Nitrous Oxide (more)Use of nitrogen based fertilizer has doubled in the past 15 years. These fertilizers provide nutrients for crops; however, when they breakdown in the soil, nitrous oxide is released into the atmosphere. In automobiles, nitrous oxide is released at a much lower rate than carbon dioxide, because there is more carbon in gasoline than nitrogen.Nitrous oxide released today will still be trapped in the atmosphere 100 years from now.
69 FluorocarbonsFluorocarbon is a general term for any group of synthetic organic compounds that contain fluorine and carbon. Many of these compounds, such as chloro-fluorocarbons (CFCs), can be easily converted from gas to liquid or liquid to gas. Because of these properties, CFCs can be used in aerosol cans, refrigerators, and air conditioners. Studies in the 1970’s showed that when CFCs are emitted into the atmosphere, they break down molecules in the Earth's ozone layer. Since then, the use of CFCs has significantly decreased and they are banned from production in the United States.
70 Fluorocarbons (more)The substitute for CFCs is hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs). HFC does not harm or breakdown the ozone molecule, but it does trap heat in the atmosphere, making it a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming. HFCs are used in air conditioners and refrigerators and are a component of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF), the primary retardant used by fire departments around the world to control hydrocarbon-based fires.
71 Livestock and GHGAccording to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the livestock industry is responsible for 18 percent of greenhouse gas emissions measured in CO2 equivalents (CO2e).This represents a greater percentage than the emissions from transportation fuels (fourteen percent).
72 Livestock and ManureHuge factory farms known as Confined Animal Feeding Organizations (CAFOs) house millions of animals in close quarters.One million hogs generate 22 million tons of manure annually. Methane, nitrous oxide and hydrogen sulfide primarily originate from huge open lagoons that contain millions of tons of animal waste.One ton of methane is equivalent to 21 tons of carbon dioxide.
73 Environmental Pollution Not only are these GHG manure by-products contributing to global warming, but pollutants from decomposing livestock manure can cause other major environmental problems as well;Including surface and groundwater contamination, in addition to air pollution caused by odors, dust and ammonia.
74 Carbon Credits MarketThe carbon market was created after Europe signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on curbing green house gases.In 2005, European governments began a mandatory capping of the amounts of carbon dioxide that industries could emit, while letting them buy and sell CO2 emission allowances.The cap-and-trade system encourages factories and industries to cut emissions by giving them "pollution permits." If an entity produces less greenhouse gases than the total of their permits, that entity can sell the surplus certificates -- also known as credits -- to companies that find them cheaper than cutting their own emissions.
75 Carbon Market Valuation Every year humans generate about 38 billions tons of carbon dioxide.At its current price of about $3.50 per ton, the potential carbon market stands at roughly $133 billion (38 billion x $3.50) at today’s price.The second phase of the Kyoto Protocol (2008 – 2012) calls for further decreases of carbon emissions and sets limits on carbon credits. This will increase the price of the credits as more countries, including the US, adopt CO2 emission standards.
76 Quantifying the Credits An independent third party such as those who evaluate decreased GHG release in landfills can be utilized to quantify the decreased methane emissions from the CAFO using WasteAway and the resulting carbon credits.Biogas Technology promotes the recovery and use of biogas from landfills to generate electricity for heating and cooling needs. The calculations used in Biogas Technology can be adapted to measure the reduction of GHG gained with the use of WasteAway.
77 The FutureE3 products have the potential ability to greatly decrease the significant quantity of CO2e emitted by animal waste annuallyE3 will apply for a process patent for carbon credit generationE3 will trade surplus generated carbon credits globallyE3 will eliminate many of the most significant sources of water pollution and air pollutionE3 will introduce new technology that will markedly reduce the threat of massive wildfiresE3 will build inexpensive and durable housing and roads worldwideE3 will create lighter, sweet crude from unrefined existing stock
78 Introduces a New Era of Environmental Technology