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The Clean Air Act and Controlling Air Pollution

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Presentation on theme: "The Clean Air Act and Controlling Air Pollution"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Clean Air Act and Controlling Air Pollution


3 History of Legislation
Original CAA of 1955 predates the EPA by 15 years It authorized technical and financial assistance to states Amendments were made in the 60’s, in 1970, 1977, and most recently in 1990

4 1960’s Amendments Amendments in the 60’s granted federal authority over vehicle emissions In 1970 requirements for national standards of ambient air quality were established NAAQS – w/ separate standards for new cars & stationary sources

5 1970 Amendments In 1970 air toxics were added as a new category of pollutants not covered under the original standards The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants or NESHAP Substances included arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, radon 222, and vinyl chloride

6 State Requirements – 1970, Title I
States were required to draw up state implementation plans – SIPs SIPs or State Implementation Plans are a collection of regulations a state will put into place to achieve the goals of the CAA These detail how ambient air standards would be met in each “air quality control region”

7 The plan must include an inventory of all present sources and operating standards for all new development The EPA oversees the individual states’ plans and will take over enforcement if the state’s plan is unacceptable

8 1977 & 1990 Amendments The 1977 amendment stated that new facilities could be built in an area that was not meeting standards if existing sources could reduce their pollution The original act was just 50 pages long The 1990 amendments are close to 800 pages!

9 The 1990 amendments addressed new issues such as acid rain emissions and moves to preserve the stratospheric ozone layer It established a system of tradable emission credits

10 Criteria Air Pollutants
Primary standards – maximum ambient concentrations for the protection of the public health Secondary standards – levels acceptable to protect the public welfare

11 Nonattainment Not meeting the EPA’s primary standards
90 million Americans, 35% of the population live in nonattainment areas (mostly in urban areas)

12 Levels of Nonattainment
Range from marginal to extreme Set for each of the criteria air pollutants The EPA tailors cleanup plans to the severity of the problem and sets goals that must be met or even stricter requirements will be enforced

13 Offsets When a company wants to expand
The effect of new pollution sources must be offset by reductions elsewhere within the company or somewhere in the nonattainment area

14 Title II Mobile Sources
Cars produce 60-80% less pollution than they did in the 1960’s However, automobiles still release over half of the smog-forming VOC’s and nitrogen oxides Motor vehicles emit 90% of the CO found in urban air

15 More Cars on the Road In 1970 Americans traveled 1 trillion miles
Today we drive 4 trillion miles a year Public transportation and car pooling have not been embraced by the general population

16 Removing lead from gasoline actually increased the amount of VOC’s released
Pollution control devices, added to cars in 1970, were only designed to function for 50,000 miles

17 New Solutions in 1990 Cleaner fuels Auto inspection requirements
Removing sulfur from diesel fuel Reformulated fuels with less VOC’s such as benzene Oxygenated fuels in cold areas to aid in more complete combustion

18 Detergents in gasoline prevents build-up of engine deposits which hamper efficient operation
Development of alternative fuel sources such as alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas Vapor recovery nozzles at gas stations

19 Title III Air toxics or hazardous pollutants
Benzene is released by motor vehicles Area emitter - Many small stationary sources include gas stations, paint shops and dry cleaners Major emitter - Chemical factories and coal-burning power plants are considered large stationary sources

20 Title IV Acid Rain Coal burning power plants in the Midwest and the Northeast are the primary source Coal from these regions has a much higher sulfur content Under Title IV, plants must have continuous emissions monitoring systems

21 A system of emission allowances has been imposed
These allowances can be traded or sold nationwide Bonus allowances are given to companies installing clean coal technology or using renewable energy sources

22 Title V Permit Program Permits are required by all major sources of air pollution and some smaller polluters, both for operating plants & new plants They include information on the type of pollutants emitted, how they’re controlled and how they will be monitored The EPA has the authority to fine violators

23 Title VI Stratospheric Ozone
1978 – propellants in aerosol can were banned 1990 – schedule set for the phasing out of ozone-destroying chemicals The EPA has issued allowances for these substances in the mean time

24 Recycling and labeling of these materials is required
Service and maintenance of car air conditioners is strictly regulated New substitute products are being tested before being put into use

25 Title VII Covers enforcement provisions

26 Title VIII - IX Miscellaneous topics Greenhouse gases
International issues Disadvantaged business concerns

27 End Legislation/Begin Sampling & Remediation Techniques

28 Sampling and Analysis of Emissions
Ambient monitoring data allows us to see trends in air quality over time Provides baseline information Helps in developing computer models Help predict potential episodes

29 Source emissions data is used to evaluate compliance
Determines whether equipment is efficient and effective Hazardous pollutants are monitored at their source under the provisions of the NESHAPs standards

30 Monitoring Process Two parts – sampling and data management
Sampling methods depend on the pollutant, its physical state and its expected concentration Concentrations are measured in mass per unit volume, usually micrograms per cubic meter or ug/m3

31 Calibration Checking and adjusting of instruments to insure quality control Comparing readings with a known standard

32 Quality Assurance Specific guidelines for analysis, calibration and calculation are listed as appendices of CFR 40 Part 50 The EPA publishes a three volume Quality Assurance Handbook Agencies are required to provide a daily air quality index report in all urban areas with at least 500,000 people

33 The Gravimetric Approach
Manual method used to measure particulate matter High volume method - catches material in a filter as it is drawn in by a blower The filter is weighed before and after

34 Lead is collected in a similar fashion
But must be separated from other particulates by dissolving it from the other particulates using acid The lead content of the solution is determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer

35 Carbon Monoxide Measurement
An automated method involving a infrared spectrometric principle CO absorbs infrared radiation at characteristic wavelengths

36 A sealed reference cell is compared to a sample cell through which the air passes
When CO is present, it absorbs the radiation and the change is detected electronically

37 Ozone An automated method which involves gas phase chemiluminescence, chemical reactions that produce light Air is drawn through a tube containing ethylene which reacts with ozone emitting light that can be detected by a photomultiplier tube

38 Nitrogen oxide Detected in the same way as ozone
But a different gas, ozone is used to create the reaction

39 Where Samples are Taken
Is not specified in the Federal Reference Methods Downwind – upwind Proximity to trees, buildings and roadways

40 New Sources Where construction begins after the EPA publishes standards in the Federal Register The New Source Performance Standards, or NSPS, apply to specific sources The type of pollutants to be monitored, the allowable concentrations, kinds of monitoring required and the reference method used

41 Isokinetic Sampling Velocity of the gas at the sampling probe nozzle is the same as the velocity of the gas stream in the stack

42 Grab Technique Measures the volume of a sample by taking it at only one location, during one short continuous period of time

43 Integrated Sampling Takes samples from different locations over an extended period of time that is not necessarily continuous

44 Continuous Sampling Measuring a sample continuously using a source emission monitor

45 Air Pollution Control Techniques
Equipment, processes or actions to reduce air pollution In serious nonattainment areas the Best Available Control Technology, BACT, will be required The Maximum Achievable Control Technologies, MACT, are required for sources emitting hazardous pollutants

46 Process Change Changing to low sulfur fuel Reformulated gasoline
Alternative energy sources Housekeeping and maintenance

47 Emission Allowances An allowance is the limited authorization to emit one ton of SO2 They can be traded or banked for future use Traded on the Chicago Board of Trade

48 They are not a license to violate federal or state standards
Companies without sufficient allowances are fined $2000 per ton for their excess emissions and will lose one allowance for each during the next year The bubble policy allow sources to be grouped to determine compliance

49 Control Equipment for Gaseous Emissions
Adsorption Absorption Condensation Combustion

50 Adsorption Allowing the pollutant molecules to become attached to a solid surface like activated charcoal Can be regenerative or non-regenerative

51 Absorption Dissolving of a gaseous pollutant in a liquid solvent
Spray towers, spray chambers, Venturi scrubbers and packed columns all maximize the opportunity for gas-liquid mixing

52 Condensation Gas or vapor is changed into a liquid by cooling or an increase in pressure Temperature reduction is the most cost effective

53 Combustion Combining a combustible material with oxygen producing heat and light Equipment includes flares, thermal incinerators and catalytic incinerators

54 Removing Particulates
Efficiency of devices is calculated by taking the difference in the weight of particles in the air before and after, divided by the weight of particles when entering Control devices include settling chambers, cyclones, wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, and fabric filters installed in a bag-house

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