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Some Sunny Tidbits… One square meter of south facing window will produce as much power as an electric baseboard heater. 10% of the space heating needs.

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Presentation on theme: "Some Sunny Tidbits… One square meter of south facing window will produce as much power as an electric baseboard heater. 10% of the space heating needs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Some Sunny Tidbits… One square meter of south facing window will produce as much power as an electric baseboard heater. 10% of the space heating needs of the average Canadian home is already supplied by solar energy Regina receives more solar energy year-round than Rome The 1 st solar heaters in Canada were installed in the 1890s The solar energy falling on 15 km 2 of land in southern Alberta equals the entire power capacity of all the nuclear power plants in Canada Solar energy is now a $15 billion industry worldwide Solar will be providing 10% of Germanys peak power requirements by 2015 (no more coal!)

2 Turning Ontarios Roofs into Green Generators Rob McMonagle – Toronto Atmospheric Fund April 30, 2010

3 A Roadmap to the next 90 minutes 1. Some solar myths 2. Solar technologies - as different as night and day 3. Toronto and solar 4. A little more on photovoltaics 5. Having a FIT over GEGEA - no its not about having a fit over Lady Gaga 6. Installing solar on roofs - challenges and opportunities

4 Myth #1: Canada does not have enough sunlight

5 Canadas Solar Resource is One of the Best in Industrialized Nations

6 Toronto Beats out Miami in the Summer

7 Myth #2: Solar is an expensive energy source

8 Solar is the Cheapest Energy Source for the Consumer

9 Sales are Growing – Prices are Dropping

10 PV & Electricity Pricing Crossover in Ontario Price crossover 2012 - 2018

11 Daily Power Peak and Solar Energy The price of electricity at peak capacity can be > $0.42 per kWh

12 Solar Technologies One energy source but three distinct technologies

13 Solar Technologies Passive solar – natural energy flow into a building Solar Thermal – generation of heat Photovoltaics – direct creation of electricity

14 Solar Has Public Support GPC Research – Public Opinion Poll – Oct 05

15 Global Renewable Energy Historic Growth 30% 20% 40%

16 Solar Thermal Installed Capacity (2001) (Source: IEA) Note: Israel (457), Austria (205) & Greece (190) not shown 16 th out of 26 reporting nations Sales are 23% of the international average

17 Solar Commercial Water Heating Only support by the Canada government for solar is for solar thermal commercial & industrial applications (but growing into the residential…)

18 Solar Domestic Hot Water Can provide 45% of hot water needs in Toronto Typical cost is $4,000-$5,000 for average house Currently 200-300 systems installed per year in Canada – mainly as retrofits Residential is the largest market for solar – but ignored in Canada until recently Huge opportunities for growth in this sector

19 Other Solar Water Heating Applications Combi Systems –Radiant floor heating –Combining with other heat sources (earth energy – recharging during the summer) Building Integrated –Displaces cost of building structure in new buildings –Cost of solar collectors comparable to high cost curtain walls

20 Solar Air Heating Canada is a world leader in this technology Commercial and industrial applications use a tremendous amount of make up air If integrated into the design of a new building there is no additional cost Worlds Largest Solar Collector – Bombardiers Canadair Assembly Plant – Ville St- Laurent, QC

21 Solar Pool Heating Average pool takes more energy to heat in the summer than it takes to heat the home in the winter Average pool costs $3,000 to solarize Average savings = $1,000 per year 600,000 swimming pools in Canada

22 PV Installed Capacity Canada: - 14 th of 20 reporting nations - Only 28% of the IEA average (0.28 v.s. 1.0 watts/capita) International growth was 36% in 2003 - Canada growth rate is 20%

23 Off Grid PV Remote Homes –50,000 remote cabins & cottages powered by solar Canada Remote Power Farmers – livestock, water pumping Canadian Coast Guard was a world leader in using PV

24 PV on the Grid This market is only beginning in Canada –100 home systems installed per year Biggest market and the greatest potential More on this later


26 Torontos Interest in Solar energy

27 Toronto is investing in its Renewable Energy Future Solar on municipal buildings –28 systems installed so far PV Solar Hot Water Solar Pool Heating Solar Air Heating Plus other renewable technologies –Geo-energy & Deep Lake Water Cooling –Wind generators (ground mount and on buildings)

28 Solar Air Heating

29 Photovoltaics

30 Solar Pool Heating

31 Solar Hot Water

32 Toronto Solar Neighbourhoods Pilot– the Highest Density of SDHW Systems in Canada Pilot in 1 ward –Toronto has 44 100 SDHW systems sold –1 in every 150 homes (100/15,000) If we did this in all of Toronto –4,400 systems sales National Average Sales in Canada – 400 – 1,000 per year

33 Photovoltaics – Solar Electricity The only true electrical generator … [moving us out of the steam engine era]

34 International Deployment of PV Source: IEA ( 78 % On grid

35 Photovoltaics (or PV) Photovoltaics can be installed: –As part of the building –On the ground –On the roof

36 Building Integrated Solar PV Reduces cost by 50 – 100% Eliminates other building materials The building becomes the power supply PV can be comparable in price to high-end glazing and curtain wall materials Result – modern design, a green statement, and energy savings Opportunities Galore!

37 Solar can be added in different parts of the building shell

38 Curtain Walls Modules are frameless which make them easy to fit into conventional building encasement systems

39 Overhead Glazing Architectural elements can be made functional with the addition of PV glazing Skylights made from solar modules manage light and reduce energy bills <>

40 Façade Glazing Thin Film PV technology is available with varying degrees of translucence – from opaque to transparent –Applied as the front piece of a glazing system –So you can see out of them and they produce electricity! Crystalline Silicon can be laminated between glazing material to form unique patterns

41 Building Components Building Components: –awnings –balcony railings

42 Cost of Façade Products vs. PV Cost of PV is comparable to cost of building facades Cost of other solar technologies is considerable less ($/m2 & $/kWt)

43 Solar Farms and Solar Parks Challenges with large ground mounted PV –Cost of land –NIMBYism – does it take away farm land? But why arent we complaining about urban sprawl? Its takes away the primary advantage of PV –Distributed generation –Close to demand – which eliminates infrastructure costs

44 However the majority of sales will be on roofs Expereince in Europe is its all on the roof (89%)

45 The Green Energy and Green Economy (GEGE) Act and Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs) Shedding a little light on the situation …

46 Electricity - Were Heading for the Perfect Storm Aging Fleet of Generators –Replacement should have started a decade ago –Most Power Stations take 5-15 years to construct Aging Distribution System –Replacement should have started a decade ago –Costs are huge (but not talked about) Energy Demand is Increasing –Air conditioning, increased usage, growing population Growing Demand for Natural Gas –Beginning to use NG for thermal and electricity –Our economy is driven by NG And lets not forget about climate change

47 Climate Change will Increase the Number of Hot Days in Toronto 1. A Scan of Climate Change Impacts on Toronto – Clean Air Partnership

48 Electrical Peaks will Increase Electricity demand decreases as air temperature rises until the point at which air conditioners kick it Source: Liu 2003 – 1994-2000 Toronto data Electricity Demand vs Daily Temperature

49 Air Conditioners in Ontario Ontario has the greatest # of central A/C While more efficient than window units they consume more energy (whole house vs. single room)

50 Ontarios Electrical Demand Peaks in the Summer source: Ontario IESO

51 PVs Generation is In Line with Ontarios Energy Needs The greater the demand the greater the solar resource Percentage of Peak Demand Power DemandPVs Capacity Factor 98%>24,906 MW64.3% 95%>24,143 MW58.6% 90%>22,873 MW51.9% All hours21.9%

52 Its About Building a New Economy New technologies create new opportunities –Britain resisted the trend to electrical power in the 1890s – was one of the last industrialized nations to switch to electrical street lights –Japan invested in solar to support their troubled electronics industries in the 1990s –Germany invested in solar to provide jobs in East Germany after reunification Globally solar is now a $15 billion CDN market and growing 35% annually –Germany and Japan are the major exporters and have over 50% of the market share In 2025 do we still want to be using the modern equivalent of coal gas street lighting when every other nation has moved on?

53 Its About Jobs A locally manufactured energy source –Solar Manufacturing is already being done in Ontario Highest Job Potential of any energy source –Per 1,000 GWh Nuclear Power – 72 jobs –Recent OPG advertisement: It costs us over $1million to train each of our nuclear technicians – and theyre proud of this? Solar Thermal – 3,960 jobs Job market is local and spread across Canada – relating to engineering, sales, installation, and manufacturing –Potential job market is huge Germany – 50,000 workers – fastest growing job market in any industry sector in Germany Europe – estimated 350,000 full-time jobs by 2030

54 The Feed-in Tariff Program What is it? –Allows anyone to generate electricity from renewable energy sources and sell it into the grid. –You sign a contract with the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) for 20 years –For PV, the rates are dependent on the system size

55 FiT Rates for PV SizeRate ($/kWh) <10 kW$0.802 10 – 250 kW$0.713 250 – 500 kW$0.635 >500 kW$0.539 < 10 MW ground mount$0.443

56 How much money will you make? While the rate ($/kWh) is set the energy output will vary dependent on a number of conditions –Amount of solar radiation (kWh/m2/year of sunshine) –Efficiency of power conditioning equipment and line losses Note efficiency of PV modules has no impact on output – just on size of array –Orientation of the solar modules –Shading Unique attribute of PV is that even partial shade will drop output to 0! Note: Ontario has no solar access legislation – will the project be shaded by new development in the next 20 years?

57 Torontos experience with PV performance ProjectArraySizeAngleDirectionOutput (kWh/kW) Solar Radiation1558 PV Potential (75%)1161 Horse Palace#1461020oE930 #2462020oE981 #35020oE976 #452020oE1051 Fire Hall 33432515oE1268 Fire Hall 42414010oW972

58 Potential Income for PV Payback will be dependent on cost of PV system –Great unknown Toronto experience - $7,000 - $10,000 kW installed –For medium roof top systems (10-250 kW) = 10 years SizeRate ($/kWh) $/kW of PV <10 kW$0.802$802 10 – 250 kW $0.713$713 250 – 500 kW $0.635$635 >500 kW$0.539$539 < 10 MW ground mount $0.443$443

59 Installing Solar on Roofs Th e solution is right over our heads …

60 PV on Roofs Will be three configurations –Ballasted – floating –Connection to structural elements –Roofing material

61 Ballasted Mounts

62 Connection to a Structure

63 Roof Material Roofing material and integrated into roofing membranes

64 Integrating solar with green roofs High political interest in green roofs Solar and green roofs are a good mix Solar can shade the plants Green roof can provide the ballast

65 Solar Green Roof

66 Challenge: Just how heavy is that solar system on my roof? Could this be an actual concern? Items (including solar collectors) on a building roof need to comply with the Ontario Building Code

67 Solar on Sloped Roofs

68 Solar on Flat Roofs

69 What Types of Solar on Roofs are Problems? PV?


71 The Toronto Solution for residential solar City of Torontos Building Department has developed a simple 3-step methodology to determine if the roof conditions can withstand the structural loading of the renewable energy projects for rafter roofs Step 1: Product Span Table –As part of the structural drawing a span table is developed showing the types of roof conditions that the product can be installed on

72 Step 1: Structural Drawing with Span Table

73 Toronto Solution - Step 2 Roof inspection report is done showing the conditions of the roof at site of proposed solar installation

74 Step 3: Verify that roof conditions are greater than product span table If the roof is composed of 2x8 rafters on 16 spacings then this solar collector can be installed on a maximum rafter span of 3.18 m with no structural alterations

75 A cautionary tale for the past The market for solar PV in Ontario is high right now PV module prices worldwide are low (due to recession) FiT rates right now are lucrative (but there is a lot of hype on installed prices and performance) Proceed with caution – experience in the 1980s…

76 Solar Hot Water Sales in Canada (1970-2003)

77 Solar Water Heating in Canada and Austria Austria – with ¼ the population, a smaller solar resource and similar energy costs has 150 Xs the annual sales.

78 City of Toronto Contacts Rob McMonagle SolarCity Program Manager Toronto Atmospheric Fund 416-393-6371 Solar Neighbourhoods Information Line 416-393-6370 Solar Permits

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