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Lunette Semicircular frames. Orants Praying figures. Torah The scroll containing the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures. Galla.

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Presentation on theme: "Lunette Semicircular frames. Orants Praying figures. Torah The scroll containing the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures. Galla."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Lunette Semicircular frames. Orants Praying figures. Torah The scroll containing the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures. Galla Placidia The half-sister of Honorius, emperor of the Western Roman empire. She ruled after his death, after being returned from a kidnapping by the Visigoths, one of whom she had married. Sol Invicturs Christ represented as a pagan deity, the Invincible Sun (Helios in Greek). Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths who conquered Ravenna in 476. He ordered the construction of a three-aisled basilica later known as SantApollinare Nuovo. Visigoths Pagan invaders of the Roman empire from the northwest, ruled by Alaric. Codex Like a modern book, it is composed of separate leaves enclosed within a cover and bound together at one side. This form superseded the manuscript scroll. Continuous narrative Separate episodes of a story appearing in the same frame. Diptych A hinged writing tablet, often of ivory and carved on the external sides. Illuminated manuscript Luxurious painted books produced before the invention of the printing press. Vellum Calfskin used as a writing surface.

3 Crucifixion of Christ ca. 29 Crucifixion of St. Peter ca. 64 Persecution of Christians Trajan Decius Diocletian Edict of Milan313 Foundation of Constantinople324 Christianity becomes state religion390 Fall of Rome to Alaric the Visigoth410

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5 Synagogue Dura Europos, Syria ca Dura Europos contained both a synagogue and a Christian community house

6 Synagogue Interior Wall paintings of Old Testament scenes from Dura Europos, Syria ca tempera on plaster

7 Synagogue Interior Wall paintings of Old Testament scenes from Dura Europos, Syria ca tempera on plaster

8 Samuel Anoints David Synagogue Interior Wall paintings of Old Testament scenes from Dura Europos, Syria ca tempera on plaster Although the Jews did not worship idols, Biblical scenes were painted on synagogue walls and used to illustrate manuscripts. God is never shown except as a hand.

9 Synagogue Interior Wall paintings of Old Testament scenes from Dura Europos, Syria ca tempera on plaster Ark of the Covenant in the Temple of Dagon True or False God appears as an old man in the synagogue frescoes at Dura-Europos. False God never appears in synagogue paintings or illustrated Bibles

10 Reconstruction of Christian Community House Dura Europos, Syria ca

11 Baptistery from Christian Community House Dura Europos, Syria ca

12 Baptistery from Christian Community House Dura Europos, Syria ca tempera paintings Christ Walks on Water

13 Baptistery from Christian Community House Dura Europos, Syria ca tempera paintings Christ the Good Shepherd

14 Baptistery from Christian Community House Dura Europos, Syria ca tempera paintings Christ Healing the Paralytic

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16 Catacomb showing loculi Rome 3rd-4th centuries The catacombs were subterranean networks of galleries and chambers designed as cemeteries for the Christian dead, many of them sainted martyrs. They also housed the graves of Jews and other groups, to a lesser extent. Catacombs included galleries, cubiculae, and loculi

17 Good Shepherd, Orants, Story of Jonah Catacomb of Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy early 4th century fresco Jonah symbolism for Early Christians; Jonah prefigured Christ, because he spent three days in the belly of a sea monster (or whale) before being spat back out. Christ was buried for three days in the tomb before emerging alive. Jonah and the Whale is a biblical story that prefigured Christ's resurrection

18 Good Shepherd, Orants, Story of Jonah Catacomb of Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy early 4th century fresco True or False A cubiculum is a catacomb chamber. True

19 Good Shepherd Catacomb of Pietro and Marcellino, Rome, Italy early 4th century fresco Christ was most often represented during the Period of Persecution as; The Good Shepherd, a youthful and loyal protector of the Christian flock. A teacher or learned philosopher.

20 Orant figure Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome,Italy 3th century fresco Three attributes he acquired during the Period of Recognition; Halo. Purple robe. Throne.

21 Sarcophagus with Old and New Testament Scenes from Rome, Italy ca. 270 marble 1 ft. 11 1/4 in. x 6 ft. 2 in. Borrowed Classical motifs is a feature of the Santa Maria Antiqua sarcophagus and is typical of the emerging Early Christian style

22 Sarcophagus with Old and New Testament Scenes from Rome, Italy ca. 270 marble 1 ft. 11 1/4 in. x 6 ft. 2 in.

23 Sarcophagus with Old and New Testament Scenes from Rome, Italy ca. 270 marble 1 ft. 11 1/4 in. x 6 ft. 2 in.

24 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus from Rome, Italy ca. 359 marble 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. x 8 ft.

25 One of the scenes depicted on the Junius Bassus Sarcophagus is the Entry into Jerusalem

26 Significance themes that appear on the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus; Christ seated between Saints Peter and Paul: He is a teacher enthroned between his chief apostles. Christ on a donkey: Christs earthly triumph, entering Jerusalem; the pose is reminiscent of Roman equestrian portraits of emperors and generals. Adam and Eve: Their Original Sin of eating the apple required Christs death to atone for their sin. In the New Testament Christ is considered the new Adam and Mary the new Eve. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus from Rome, Italy ca. 359 marble 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. x 8 ft.

27 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus from Rome, Italy ca. 359 marble 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. x 8 ft. Significance themes that appear on the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus; Daniel and the lions: Daniel is saved by his faith, prefiguring Christs triumph over death. Abraham and Isaac: Abrahams willingness to sacrifice his only son prefigures Gods sacrifice of his son Jesus. Christ before Pontius Pilate: This is the only scene that alludes to his death; the crucifixion was not shown in the earlier era of Christian art.

28 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus from Rome, Italy ca. 359 marble 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. x 8 ft. Raising of Lazarus Fall of Adam and Eve

29 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus from Rome, Italy ca. 359 marble 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. x 8 ft. Christ Entering Jerusalem

30 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus From Rome, Italy ca. 359 marble 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. x 8 ft. Christ Enthroned The fourth-century marble statue of Christ Enthroned is one of the rare examples of early Christian full-round sculpture

31 Christ Enthroned ca marble approximately 2 ft. 4 1/2 in. high

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33 Old Saint Peters Basilica (plan) Rome, Italy ca Nave 2. Aisles 3. Apse 4. Transept 5. Narthex 6. Atrium True or False An atrium is a passage around the apse of a church. False. An atrium is a open colonnaded courtyard The St. Peter's relics were located in the transept of Old St. Peter's.

34 Old Saint Peters Basilica (restoration drawing) Rome, Italy ca. 320 Two architectural sources for the Early Christian Basilica of Old St. Peter's in Rome were the Basilica Ulpia in the Forum of Trajan and the Aula Palatina at Trier. The Early Christian builders modified the plan of the Roman pagan basilica in order to convert it to Christian use modifying the transept, or transverse aisle, ran perpendicular to the nave and lay just before the apse. It housed relics of St. Peter in the Old St. Peters basilica and much later became a standard element of church design when its crossing with the nave and apse took on the symbolism of the cross.

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36 Old Saint Peters Basilica (section) Rome, Italy ca. 320

37 The narthex was the entrance porch of Old St. Peter's in Rome.

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39 Aula Palatina (basilica) Trier, Germany early 4th century

40 Aula Palatina (basilica) Trier, Germany early 4th century

41 Aula Palatina (basilica) Trier, Germany early 4th century

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43 Santa Sabina Rome, Italy ca Like Old St. Peter's and other early Christian churches, Santa Sabina features a timbered ceiling

44 Santa Sabina Rome, Italy ca

45 Santa Costanza Rome, Italy ca

46 Santa Costanza Rome, Italy ca The Church of Santa Costanza differs from basilican churches in that it has a central plan, where the buildings parts are all of equal dimension around the center; in this case round. Its original purposec ould have been the mausoleum for Constantina, the daughter of Constantine. Which of the following is a centrally-planned structure? Church of Santa Costanza

47 Santa Costanza Rome, Italy ca Longitudinal Section Plan

48 Santa Costanza vault mosaic Rome, Italy ca tessera mosaic

49 Santa Costanza vault mosaic Rome, Italy ca tessera mosaic Early Christian mosaics distinguish them from earlier Roman examples in that; Tesserae are usually made of glass, in order to create sparkle and to catch and reflect the light. Tesserae in Christian mosaics were larger because they were situated far above spectators heads. The mosaic of the grape harvest at Santa Costanza symbolizes the Eucharist and blood of Christ

50 Santa Maria Maggiore Rome, Italy tessera mosaic Drowning of the Egyptians in the Red Sea Qualities of the mosaic medium that made it the favorite of Early Christian and Byzantine artists: Glass tesserae mosaics caught light flooding through windows and could direct attention towards a compositions most important features.

51 Christ as Sol Invictus from the Mausoleum of the Julii Rome, Italy late 3rd century tessera mosaic Christ appears as Sol Invictus, a familiar pagan diety, in the mosaic from the Mausoleum of the Julii.

52 THE PARTING OF LOT AND ABRAHAM, c , a mosaic in the nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome. Roman illusionistic elements retained in the Early Christian mosaic The Parting of Lot and Abaham: The background and city were similar to those on Trajans Column. The figures are solidly represented with cast shadows and modeled in light and dark. Their purpose: The realistic illusionism used here emphasizes that this scene occurred in the earthly world, whereas the flat images used in later Christian art emphasized the spiritual world.

53 Santa Maria Maggiore Rome, Italy tessera mosaic Hospitality of Abraham

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55 Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna, Italy ca. 425

56 Christ as the Good Shepherd from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna, Italy ca. 425 tessera mosaic Two remnants of Roman illusionism that can be found in the mosaic Christ as the Good Shepherd in the mausoleum of Galla Placidia. The landscape extends from foreground to background in a naturalistic way. All the forms cast shadows and have three-dimensional bulk. Christ as the Good Shepherd appears in Mausoleum of Galla Placidia

57 Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna, Italy ca. 425 tessera mosaics

58 Dome Mosaic of Heaven Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna, Italy ca. 425 tessera mosaic

59 Teodorico Mausoleum - Ravenna, Italy. The type of palace church erected in Ravenna by Theodoric is known as a Basilica.

60 Two features of the mosaics of St. George at Thessalonika that will become standard for Byzantine art is: The formality of the poses and flat, curtainl-ike drapery. Golden background. The Martyrs Onesiphorus and Porphyrius Late 4th century

61 Saint Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy dedicated 504

62 Saint Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy dedicated 504

63 Saint Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy dedicated 504

64 Saint Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy dedicated 504 tessera mosaic Raising of Lazarus

65 Saint Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy dedicated 504 tessera mosaic Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes

66 Saint Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy dedicated 504 tessera mosaic Christ Foretelling Peters Denial

67 Saint Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy dedicated 504 tessera mosaic Ascension of Christ

68 Vienna Genesis Early 6th century tempera, gold, silver on purple vellum 12 1/4 x 9 1/4 in. The Vienna Genesis is a/an continuous narrative

69 Vienna Genesis Early 6th century tempera, gold, silver on purple vellum 12 1/4 x 9 1/4 in. Genesis chapter 32 Jacob travels to meet Esau Jacob travels over the Jabbok brook Jacob wrestles with the Angel Jacob blessed by the Angel Jacobs 11 sons

70 Vienna Genesis Early 6th century tempera, gold, silver on purple vellum 12 1/4 x 9 1/4 in. Genesis chapter 24:15 Rebecca Leaves Nahor Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well An early Christian manuscript can also be called a codex

71 Rossano Gospels early 6th century tempera on purple vellum 11 x 10 1/4 in. The Rossano Gospels is the earliest illuminated manuscript that contains illustrations of the New Testament

72 Rossano Gospels early 6th century tempera on purple vellum 11 x 10 1/4 in. Matthew chapter 27 Christ before Pilate

73 Pilate Washing his Hands, Christ Carrying the Cross, Denial of Peter from a casket ca. 420 ivory 3 x 3 7/8 in.

74 Suicide of Judas and Crucifixion from a casket ca. 420 ivory 3 x 3 7/8 in.

75 Basilica Nova reconstruction drawing Rome, Italy C.E. Old Saint Peters Basilica (plan) Rome, Italy ca. 320 Compare the basilica of Old St. Peter's with the reconstruction of the Basilica Nova. What similarities and what differences do you see in the plans, elevations, and building materials used? How did the purposes of the varying parts of the two buildings differ? How was the more "spiritual" purpose of the Christian building reflected in the structure?

76 Basilica Nova reconstruction drawing Rome, Italy C.E. Old Saint Peters Basilica (plan) Rome, Italy ca. 320

77 Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus from Rome, Italy ca. 359 marble 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. x 8 ft. Write at least a page in analysis of the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus which contains a number of Christian scenes. First describe the architectural framework that surrounds the scenes. What types of columns and capitals do you see? How many are there? What type of entablature is used on the top row and what on the bottom? What sorts of arches are used and what type of creatures decorate the spandrels.

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