5Transportation and Residential take half of the total energy. We can make a difference here.
6Part of the problem is energy efficiency: more than half is currently wasted.
7The energy available from the sun can suffice for our needs. We can make use of it from wind-power and from solar collectors.
8Solar cells generate electricity directly from sunlight.
9This solar collector concentrates the sun's rays and generates electricity directly from photovoltaic cells.
10This solar parabolic dish 24 feet in diameter collects 30,000 watts. The energy is converted to electricity at 30% efficiency bya small heat engine.
11The Solar Electric Generating Systems plant in the Mohave desert is the largest solar collecting plant in the world. An array of parabolic trough reflectors heats oil which transfers the heat efficiently to the electric plant, where steam turbines generate electricity. This plant has 400,000 mirrors in 1000 acres and generates 354 MW of power.More of these plants are under construction, and many are planned for N. Africa and the US Southwest.
12The Ausra system uses flat mirrors which are less expensive and stronger than curved mirrors. They can be turned over to protect against the weather.
13Solar heat can be utilized by anyone Solar heat can be utilized by anyone. A simple enclosure with reflector can cook a meal. A solar concentrator can cook quickly.deg Fdeg F
14Some facts about solar power: 1) A solar thermal power plant built on about 1% of the surface of the Sahara Desert (200 miles squared) would be sufficient to generate electricity for the whole world.2) Solar thermal power can used be with energy storage systems or combined with other energy sources to provide all day power.3) Solar thermal power is reliable and available when needed most - during peak demand hours4) Solar thermal power can be cheaper than power from fossil fuels when all external costs are considered (and even when they're not).
15Arrays of solar photo-voltaic panels are being installed everywhere. They pay back in energy terms in 1-2 years, and in money in about 30 years.CIS Tower, Manchester, England“Solar tree” in Gleisdorf, Austria
16Most of the energy we use at home is for heating and cooling. USA Household Energy Use, 2004
17A very important way to reduce carbon emissions is to purchase wind energy from PECO.It only costs 2.54 cents/kWH more than carbon-basedelectricity (15 cents/kWH), so costs only about 17% more.And here are some more ways:
18Install a more efficient home heating system. a) Modern high-efficiency furnaces are twice as efficient astraditional designs. More of the heat from oil or gas is convertedinto heat for your house, and less heat goes up the chimney. Tojustify the added cost, add up the savings you will get over 20years. When you sell your house, you can get a higher price if thebuyer knows that the heating bill is very low.b) Install a modern thermostat that turns heat off during day andnight when heat is not needed. Set thermostat at day=65,night=55 deg F.c) Install a geothermal heat pump. This is about 3-fold more efficientthan electric heating. It is more expensive to install than a furnaceburning fossil fuel but it pays back in 3-5 years.d) Install a solar heating system.
19Insulate your home and living spaces. a) Add insulation between exterior and interior walls and in theattic floor. An excellent choice is cellulose, because it is resistantto air currents, is fire-resistant, and can be blown in throughholes drilled in the plaster. Other good choices are “expandedpolystyrene” and “phenol-based” foam. This is especially importanton the second and third floors of your house, because they aregenerally warmer (heat rises). Fiberglass is less effective becauseit allows air flow. Good insulation can save up to 50%-75% of yourheating bill and will pay back in 5-7 years.b) Replace old windows with thermo-pane style (2 layers of glass).Add storm windows on the outside of your house.c) Cover air spaces and cracks around windows and doors withweather-stripping. Cover leaky windows with plastic, seal around edge.d) The GMM Property Committee is considering all of these ideas. Anotherpossible course might be to add insulation on the outside of the walls.This is called EIFS (“Exterior Insulation Finishing System”).
20Insulate windows & frames. a) Modern double-glazed (“thermo-pane” or “insulated glass”) windowshave 2 panes of glass which are sealed around the edge. This providesinsulation between the panes and reduces the amount of heat that canpass through the window.b) For double-glazed insulated window, the loss of heat is:Loss = 10 R-valorL = 0.56 watts / m2 / deg CFor 10 degC (18 degF), the loss is 5.6 watts / m2c) Several types of window frame are available. A good choice is wooden frames becausethe wood has relatively good insulation properties. For better weather resistance, somemodern windows are coated with plastic (vinyl or PVC). Metal window frames are alsoavailable but they may not have as much thermal resistance.d) You can improve insulation with curtains and window blinds (when they're closed).They can add an extra R 1-2 to the window's total insulation.
22How to calculate R-Values for typical house wall Estimate of R values of stone/brick wallsR-value of 12” stone wall = R-0.15/inch = R-1.8R-value of 1" air space = R-1R-value of wooden studs = R-0.5R-value of wood lath, plaster = R-1Total = R-4.3R-value of wood siding = R-1.6R-value of 1” air space = R-1R-value of 2” foam insulation = R-5/inch = R-10R-value of 1/2” drywall = R-0.45Total = R-13.81 R-value = degF * ft2* hr / BTU= degC*m2/W12
23EIFS - Exterior Insulation Finishing System “Drainable EIFS” is:1) Foam insulation board attached to the wall.2) A durable, water-resistant base coat is applied on top of the insulation, into which is embedded a layer of coated fiberglass reinforcement mesh.3) A finish coat gives the insulation a stucco-like appearance.4) Flashing is installed around windows and between joints to allow trapped water to escape.EIFS works well on the outside of stone or brick buildings. It is compatible for retro-fits because it does not disturb the inside of the building. Because it keeps the stone/brick wall warm in winter, there is little tendency for moisture condensation and therefore a moisture-barrier on the inside of the wall is unnecessary.Typical EIFS R-value = 20-30/4”
24To improve efficiency, get a home energy audit. Measures:a) Air leakage.b) Thermal efficiency of walls and windows.c) Efficiency of furnace.
25For sustainable home heat, use solar, wood or geothermal: 1) Wood burned in a stove does not add carbon to the atmospherebecause atmospheric carbon is incorporated into new treegrowth.2) A modern wood stove can burn very cleanly without addingsmoke to the atmosphere because it has an “after-burner” likemodern automobiles, which makes the stove more efficient.3) Solar energy is an excellent fit to the requirements for househeating. The basic requirements for solar heating are:a) an insulated window.b) a way to transfer the heat into the house where it is needed.c) a way to store the heat. A modern method is called“seasonal heat store”, where the heat is stored for weeksor months in the foundation of the house.4) There are other possibilities for heating, such as heat pumpsand geothermal, running on wind-powered electricity. Theseare efficient when combined with solar.Catalytic combustors for wood stovesSimple solar heating system.
26Solar energy for heating homes: 1) Passive solar energy heating means adding large windows to thesouth-facing side of a house, and then adding some heat storagecapacity to the house, typically in the form of masonry or tanksof water. The heat storage capacity is large enough that thetemperature of the house does not fluctuate much between sunnyand cloudy days.2) A very effective way to add solar heating is to use awnings andplant deciduous trees on the south side of the house to provideshade in summer. Then add or enlarge south-facing windowsthat capture the sun's rays in winter.3) Active solar energy heating means adding solar collectorsthat heat air or water, which is pumped into a storagesystem. The system can be very simple and inexpensiveor can be more complicated and large enough to heatyour home.4) The term “seasonal heat store” means a solar storagedevice (insulated earth or water tank) that is big enoughto store summer heat, then release it during the winter.Passive solar heating system.An active solar collector system.
27Install a green roof. This absorbs rain and cools the building naturally.
28Install a geothermal heat pump. 1) A geothermal heat pump is about 3-fold moreefficient than electric heating and is competitivewith fossil fuels.2) In the winter, it draws heat from the ground,concentrates it, and transfers it to your house,much like running a refrigerator backwards.3) A geothermal heat pump is more expensive thana furnace burning fossil fuel but it pays back in3-5 years.4) A geothermal heat pump can be reversed for airconditioning in the summer.5) Geothermal wells are being installed at Friends Centerand for the new GFS Science Building on Coulter St.GFS Science building
29How a Seasonal Heat Store works: 1) A field of geothermal boreholes is drilled, apiping system installed, and then coveredwith insulation.2) Standard solar panels collect heat during thesummer. The heat is pumped into the heatstorage boreholes. Over several months thetemperature gradually increases.3) During the winter, the heat is pumped outof the heat storage to heat the houses.The houses are super-insulated withsustainable materials so they don't requiremuch heat.4) This design went into operation in 2007 atDrake Landing Solar Community in Okotoks, Alberta.
30Increase efficiency of domestic water heating: 1) Set water temperature lower, degrees F. It should be higherthan 125 deg to prevent disease.2) Add a blanket to your water heater. This reduces loss through theinsulation in the outer wall. Insulate your hot and cold water pipeswith foam.3) If you have water-based radiators or baseboard heaters, purchase ahome furnace system integrated with a water heater. The furnaceheats your radiators and also the hot water for your kitchen and bath.This is more efficient because the hot water storage tank does notneed a flue.4) Purchase an “on-demand” electric or gas-based hot water heater.This heats water instantly so a large tank filled with hot water isunnecessary.5) Purchase a solar collector and add it to your system of hot waterstorage.
31Solar energy for domestic hot water: 1) You can add a solar collector to your house very easily.Many brands of collector are available, ready to install.2) Solar collectors can be connected to your hot water tankfor domestic hot water throughout the year.3) Solar collectors pay back in 7-10 years and are durable for20-50 years.
32Reduce electric energy use: 1) Electric lights -- use compact fluorescents.2) Air conditioner -- use fan.3) Refrigerator/freezer -- purchase new efficient model.4) Electric dryer -- use clothes line instead.5) Unplug AC wall socket power supplies for devices such as cell phones, radios, and TVs in when they aren't being used.6) Check your power meter and see if you can count up all the watts you are using in your house.
33To increase the efficiency of lighting, Install compact fluorescent (CF) bulbs:a) They convert more of the electricity into light and therefore use80% less energy of a corresponding incandescent bulb, and theylast longer (5-7 years). Depending on how much use the bulbsget, the savings from this and the extra lifetime from CF bulbs paysfor their extra cost in a few years.b) They last the longest when not turned on and off a lot.c) They are available in several color termperatures:“warm-white” ( deg K), similar to incandescents,“medium-white”( deg K), better for most purposes,“cool-white” (4000 deg K), like traditional fluorescent tubes,“daylight” (5000 deg K), more accurate seeing of colors.d) Outdoor CF bulbs are available to withstand rain and cold. It isoften helpful to put them on an automatic photocell or motion detectorswitch so they aren't left on all night. Special CF bulbs are availablefor dimmers. When installing in closed fixtures, check heat generation.
35To increase the efficiency of air conditioning: 1) Use fans instead of air conditioning whenever possible. Overheadfans make the heat and humidity bearable by evaporatingmoisture to cool the skin. Drink plenty of fluids so you don'tbecome dehydrated by the heat.2) Window fans are helpful at night to bring in cool air from outsidethe house. A fan set to turn off at 2 AM is helpful – you can turnon the fan when going to bed, then it will turn off automatically.3) Only use the air conditioner when you need it. A typical smallwindow air conditioner typically uses 1500 watts, which over an8 hour day costs about $2. Larger units use more.4) Purchase the most efficient air conditioner possible. Check theSeasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) number – it should beat 13 or above, although smaller window units often have lowerratings. You can save 30% on an upgrade from SEER 9 to SEER 13.5) Make sure that the doors to the room where it is located are keptshut, and that the room is insulated well.6) Install a geothermal heat pump for heating in winter and air-conditioning in summer.
36To increase efficiency of refrigerator/freezer: 1) Purchase a “super efficent” (SERP) unit. The most recentrefrigerators use less than 1 kWH/day, and use less than $40 ofelectricity per year. Look carefully at the energy label andcompare models and brands. Sun-Frost has been the mostefficient brand but it is expensive and other brands havecompetitive efficient models. To justify spending more, addup the savings you will get over 20 years.2) Keep the condenser coil at the back of the refrigerator cleanand free of dust, with plenty of space for circulation of air.3) Place the refrigerator in a cool room. This lowers the amountof time it must run to remain cold.4) Purchase a super-efficient top-loading freezer and place it ina cool room. This type is more efficient and loses less cold eachtime you open it.5) Remember that electricity is a valuable resource, much morevaluable than it costs. Give yourself a 100% electricity tax,and spend it on new ways to reduce energy use.
37To increase efficiency of drying clothes: 1) Use the sun when you can. Set up wash drying lines outside in theback yard, and in the basement where you can hang up clothes to dry.This can save up to 20% of your electric bill. Partly drying in the sun orwind will save money – the dryer can finish it off.2) Remember that an electric dryer consumes the most electric power ofall the appliances in a typical home ( watts). Use it sparinglyand wisely. Don't put wet clothes in the dryer – they should be spundry by the washer. The best dryers have a moisture sensor in the drumto stop the drying cycle. This can save 10-15% over a timer.3) Always clean the lint filter after each use – this can save 20%. Use anexternal exhaust vent, but make sure vent is metallic because lint cancause a fire.4) You may have heard that gas dryers are more cost-effective thanelectric dryers. The cost of drying a typical load is $0.40 in an electricdryer and $0.20 in a gas dryer. But, please note that gas creates carbondioxide, whereas wind-powered electricity doesn't.5) To keep the “fluffy” look from the electric dryer, put clothes in foronly 5 minutes, then hang them up to dry outside or in the basement.
38To minimize energy use in transportation: 1) Walk or ride a bicycle whenever possible. This gives exerciseand is generally much more healthy. When shopping, go witha bike rack or shopping cart so you don't have to carry thegroceries.2) Take a train or bus instead of driving or flying.Trains are more energy-efficient than most other publictransportation methods. A bus is more efficient thandriving – you can find the schedule for city-to-city routeson the Internet.3) Car-pool to work or to events. You can effectively doubleor triple your mileage by driving 2 or 3 people.4) Support higher gasoline taxes which will tend to reducegasoline usage and support development of more efficientmeans of transportation.
39To reduce energy use in your car, improve your miles per gallon: 1) Keep up your car maintenance. Keep the tire pressure high,because a more fully-inflated tire is easier to move. Keep the oillevel correct with the proper oil weight. Check the air filter.2) Minimize speed, for speed increases friction, which requires moreengine power and uses extra gasoline. Slowing from 70 to 55 mph canincrease your mileage by 25%.3) Minimize acceleration by pressing gently on the accelerator andbrake pedals. When going up and down hills, allow speed to varyaccording to the slope: when going up, allow the car to go slower,and when going down, allow the car to go a little faster. In start-and-stop city driving, taking an extra 15 seconds to get up tospeed and 15 seconds to brake can increase your mileage by 20%.4) Purchase a higher efficiency car, rated 35 mpg or more, with manualtransmission. Keep the engine in its the low-to-medium RPM range,which is most efficient. Keep the car as light as possible. Remove theroof rack when not needed. Don't run the air conditioner unless you reallyneed it. The recently-developed “hybrid” cars get higher mileage,especially in city driving.
40An electric or hybrid vehicle is more efficient because it can regenerate electricity during braking. The engine charges a battery or ultracapacitor, which runs the electric motors attached to the wheels.When braking, the electric motor acts like a generator to make electricity, which is stored in the ultracapacitor.
41To save energy in several ways, dig a garden and plant some vegetables To save energy in several ways, dig a garden and plant some vegetables. You will be healthier and will save money and gas from fewer shopping trips.
42Support your local Community-Supported Agriculture farm Support your local Community-Supported Agriculture farm. You will help local farms be competitive with agri-business and this will save energy and give you healthier food.
43National and State policy issues to help prevent global warming: 1) Encourage energy efficiency at all levels of government and the private sector. This should encourage business, providing greater profitability and more jobs.2) Implement carbon use tax on major sources of fossil fuels to provide monetary backing for sustainable energy sources and to shift demand from carbon to sustainable sources.3) Start new research initiatives in generation of solar electricity and hydrogen, fuel cells running on hydrogen, and biomass conversion.4) Encourage private industry in efforts to build solar electricity and hydrogen plants, convert vehicles to hydrogen, build wind farms, and use renewable sources and solar for energy. Increase grants and loans to promote investment in renewable energy.5) Encourage utilities to implement smart electric meters to reduce electricity use during times of high demand. Give rebates for purchasing more efficient home appliances like refrigerators and air conditioners. Increase tax credits for residential and commercial solar-energy installations.6) Join with the international community to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and standardize economies around the use of solar and renewable energy sources.