Prior Knowledge Linkage Temperature difference Heat flow Change of internal energy Transfer process General Introduction Heat capacity
is transferred by 1.2.1Conduction ( ) Conduction Conductors Heat Convection Radiation Insulators Solidsfluids vacuum Molecular collisionsElectronic motion
General meaning of heat conduction Concept maps Many cooking utensils are made of metal with plastic handles. Do you know why? Conduction is a process in which heat flows through a from places of temperature to places of temperature. It takes place fast in but not in. Conduction along metal rods
are good conductors of heat while are poor conductors (i.e., good ) of heat Conduction of heat in solids Concept maps Arrange the above materials in descending order of ability to conduct heat. polystyrenesilverglassbrickwaterwoodaluminium Experiments Conduction of heat in solids Good conductor Good insulator silveraluminiumglassbrickwaterwoodpolystyrene In winter, the tile floor usually feels colder than a carpet floor, do you know why?
Water and air are both conductors of heat. Conduction of heat in fluids Concept maps Experiments Conduction of heat in water and air If air is a good conductor of heat, would we feel colder or hotter in a room of temperature 25 o C? Can conduction occur in vacuum?
Microscopic interpretation of conduction Concept maps Molecules in the hot region of a body move more and than those in the cold region. The forces between molecules in turn set the neighboring molecules also vibrate. The process continue and ( ) energy is transferred along the body as a result of molecular. hot end cold end Liquids and gases are conductors of heat than solids because the intermolecular forces in them are than those in solids, and so molecular collisions do not occurs as as those in solids for fast energy transfer. Conduction in solids, liquids and gases
All metals contain, which are electrons that can move freely within the metals. Conduction in metals Concept maps hot end cold end Metals possesses which can carry energy directly from the hot end to the cold end. Therefore, most metals are conductors of heat. Good conductors of heat Good insulators of heat Daily applications of conduction
is transferred by Conduction Radiation Convection current 1.2.2Convection ( ) Convection Heat Solidsvacuum fluids Rising of hot fluids Falling of cold fluids
General meaning of convection Air-conditioners are usually installed high in a room. Do you known why? Convection is the process in which heat is transferred by the movement of hot fluid (liquid / gas) due to a temperature difference along a direction. Convection in air Experiments Heat transfer in water by convection Experiments Convection in air Experiments Convection current Concept maps
Convection current Convection occurs only in, not in nor. When a fluid is heated from, that part of the fluid and thus becomes. That part of fluid therefore and is replaced by the fluid coming down from above, forming a flowing in the fluid. Hot air rises Cold air sinks Do you know why candle flames always point upwards? Concept maps
When a small region of the fluid near the bottom is heated, the molecules there move and collides with each other more. The spaces between molecules there then, making the fluid there becoming dense. Microscopic interpretation of convection In a fluid of uniform temperature, each part of the fluid shows no net movement because it is subjected the same gravity and buoyancy force. The gravity force on that part of fluid therefore, which results in a net force on the part and so it. buoyancy force Heated region Gravity force buoyancy force Concept maps
Heaters and air conditioners The running lantern Daily applications of convection Formation of sea and land breezes During day times, lands have temperature than sea (why?). Warmer air over the land while cooler air from the sea flows in to take its place forming the. Day times Warm air rises Cooler air moves towards lands At night Warm air rises Cooler air moves towards sea During the night, lands have temperature than sea (why?). Warm air over the sea while cooler air from the land flows in to take its place forming the.
Infra-red radiation is transferred by 1.2.3Radiation ( ) Radiation Heat Conduction Convection Electromagnetic radiation Dull black surface Green house effect Solidsfluidsvacuum Shiny white surface
General meaning of heat radiation When we put our hand near a lamp, our hand feel warm quickly. Is energy transferred from the lamp to our hand by conduction or convection? Heat transfer by radiation Heat radiation is the process in which heat is transferred from one place to another by means of electromagnetic waves ( ) called. How can energy from the Sun arrives the Earth? Concept maps
Properties of electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves are sometimes called EM radiations. Visible lights are members of electromagnetic waves. They all travel at metres per second in lines. Other members of electromagnetic radiations are radio waves, microwaves, ultra-violet, x-rays, gamma rays. All radiations undergo reflection. Concept maps
Emission of radiation All objects of temperature above o C (the absolute zero) emit infra-red (heat) radiation in direction. The hotter an object is, the the heat radiation it emits. The internal energy of an object on emitting heat radiation. Experiments Good and bad radiators of heat What are the factors affecting the rate of emission of radiations? Concept maps
Absorption of radiation When radiation falls on an object, it is partly, partly and partly. A shiny silvery surface tends to most of the radiation. A transparent surface tends to most of the radiation A dull black surface tends to most of the radiation. The internal energy of an object on absorbing heat radiation. Reflection of radiation Experiments Good and bad absorbers of heat Concept maps
Good and bad absorbers and radiators Dull black surfaces are absorbers and radiators of radiation. Shiny silvery surfaces are absorbers and radiators of radiation. Why is a kettle usually made with shiny surface? Concept maps
The thermal flasks A thermal flask (or thermos) can keep foods hot or cold by reducing heat exchange with the surrounding through conduction, convection and radiation. Fabrication of thermal flasks Experiments The thermal flasks Silvery glass wall to reduce heat loss by. Vacuum layer to reduce heat loss by. Plastic stopper to reduce heat loss by.
1.The sun emits radiations that are energetic enough to get through the glass. 2.Radiations after passing though the glass become. 3.The low energy radiations can no longer pass through the glass but is repeatedly inside the house. 4.Radiations are thus inside the house and warm up the plants inside. The greenhouse effect Concept maps A green house has a glass roof and glass walls constructed to keep plants warm. Experiments The greenhouse effect