Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Introduction Capital budgeting is the decision-making process used in the acquisition of long-term physical assets. Traditional capital budgeting."— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 9 IntroductionCapital budgeting is the decision-making process used in the acquisition of long-term physical assets.Traditional capital budgeting projects include decisions to invest in the following:A new hotelA casino expansionAddition of a bar to a restaurantReplacement of a sprinkler system at a hotel
2Chapter 9 IntroductionCapital budgeting decisions are crucial to a firm’s long-term financial health.Successful capital budgeting projects usually generate a positive cash flow for a long period of time.Unsuccessful capital budgeting projects do not return sufficient cash flow to justify the investment. Such projects usually continue to generate losses or are liquidated for a large one-time loss.Capital budgeting decisions set a firm’s future course by determining what services will be offered, how they will be offered, and where they will be offered.
3Organization of Chapter 9 Different types of capital budgeting projects; classification of projects by purpose and by type of analysisProject cash flows and principles of cash flow estimationProject cost—net investment estimation
4Organization of Chapter 9 A project’s future cash inflows—net cash flow estimationProject termination—after-tax salvage value estimationProject depreciation and its impact on cash flow
5Classifying Capital Budgeting Projects The purpose of a project may be to:Grow the firm causing future sales, profits, and cash flows to increase; includes typical expansion projects.Reduce the firm’s future operating costs causing future profits and cash flows to increase; examples include new, more efficient air conditioners or new kitchen equipment requiring less maintenance.Meet legal requirements or satisfy ethical considerations; examples include fire alarm and fire suppression systems.
6Classifying Capital Budgeting Projects Independent versus mutually exclusive projects.An independent project requires a stand-alone decision. The project is analyzed in isolation and not compared to other projects. An example is a proposal to add a new 200-room tower to a hotel.
7Classifying Capital Budgeting Projects Mutually exclusive projects require a choice between two or more projects. For example, a decision to replace the air conditioning system with brand x, brand y, or brand z is a mutually exclusive decision. If you decide to invest in a new air conditioning system by brand x, then brands y and z have been excluded!
8Project Cash FlowsEstimating a project’s impact on a firm’s future cash flows is a crucial part of the investment decision. Some basic principles need to be followed when estimating a project’s cash flows:An incremental basisAn after-tax basisIndirect effects should be includedCosts should be measured as opportunity costs and not based upon historical or sunk costs
9Project Cash FlowsThe capital budgeting decision is essentially based upon a cost/benefit analysis.The cost of a project is called the net investment.The benefits from a project are the future cash flows generated. We call these the net cash flows.
10Net InvestmentThe net cash outflows required to ready a project for its basic operation; the net investment includes:Cost of any assets+ Delivery costs+ Installation costs+ Any required increase in net working capital– After-tax salvage value from replaced assets
11Net Cash FlowsThese are the future cash flows generated from a project once it commences operation. The net cash flows are expected to continue throughout the project’s economic life.The net cash flow for each year is: Earnings before taxes x (1 – t)+ Depreciation- Net working capital
12Net Cash Flows And Earnings before taxes is estimated by: Sales revenue– Operating expenses– DepreciationInterest expense is generally not included in the net cash flows since it will be taken into account later through the firm’s required rate of return.
13Terminal Nonoperating Cash Flow These are special one-time cash flows that only occur at the end of a project’s life. They are added to a project’s last net cash flow. They include:After-tax salvage value of the project’s assetsReturn of any increased net working capital
14Computation of After-Tax Salvage Values Taxes owed on salvage value depend upon the salvage price relative to the asset’s book value.As asset’s book value is the asset’s original acquisition cost minus all depreciation taken on the asset (accumulated depreciation).
15Computation of After-Tax Salvage Values If an asset is sold for its book value then no taxes are owed.If an asset is sold for more than book value, then taxes are owed on this excess.If an asset is sold for less than book value, then taxes are reduced. The loss acts as a tax shelter, reducing taxes by an amount equal to the firm’s marginal tax rate times the deficit.
16DepreciationThe depreciation actually affecting cash flow is MACRS depreciation used for taxes.MACRS depreciation varies by type of asset but always depreciates to a zero value, not an estimated salvage value.Here we will simplify by assuming straight-line depreciation to a zero value.
17Depreciation Depreciation shelters income from taxes. Thus, greater depreciation reduces taxes.Depreciation is not an out-of-pocket expense.Thus an increase in depreciation will reduce profit but increase cash flow.
18Summary of Chapter 9 Topics The significance of good capital budgeting decisions to a firm’s long-term financial healthProjects can be classified according to:PurposeIndependent versus mutually exclusive decisions
19Summary of Chapter 9 Topics The cash flows associated with a project are crucial to the investment decision. They include:Net investmentNet cash flowsTerminal nonoperating cash flows