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1 Geothermal Heat Pumps A - Z Session 1 Understanding Geothermal Heat Pumps and their Value to Utilities 2012 Illinois Geothermal Conference Peoria, IL.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Geothermal Heat Pumps A - Z Session 1 Understanding Geothermal Heat Pumps and their Value to Utilities 2012 Illinois Geothermal Conference Peoria, IL."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Geothermal Heat Pumps A - Z Session 1 Understanding Geothermal Heat Pumps and their Value to Utilities 2012 Illinois Geothermal Conference Peoria, IL February 28, 2012 Paul Bony Director Of Residential Market Development ClimateMaster

2 2 Introduction To Ground Source Heat pumps (GSHP) Subjects to be covered The history of GSHP How GSHPs Work Why GSHPs are of Value to Electric Utilities ClimateMaster

3 3 Earth Energy – Its Not New Earth energy system was first patented in Switzerland in 1912 Residential system installed in Canada in 1950 Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster

4 4 Heat Pump Systems are Reliable Mr. Bill Loosley installed geothermal system in his home in Burlington, ON in 1950 Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster

5 5 Mr. Loosleys System: Belt drive compressor Air coil in old oil furnace Desuperheater added to hot water tank Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster

6 6 Heat Pump Systems are Reliable Compressor was initially powered by hand crank diesel motor… changed to electric motor (still being used!!) in 1953 when his wife couldnt start it. Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster

7 7 GSHP Basics ClimateMaster

8 8 Geothermal Heat Pump Systems combine Sun, Earth and Water using proven technology… … to create the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space-conditioning system (according to U.S. EPA 1993)

9 9 Geothermal System Components Heat pump Ground loop ClimateMaster

10 10 Heat Pumps Are All Around Us Air conditioners and air-source heat pumps transfer heat from inside houses to the air outside Refrigerators transfer heat from food into the kitchen HEAT B B B ClimateMaster

11 11 Heat Pump Components Compressor Refrigerant reversing valve Fluid heat exchanger – ground loop (Coax) Metering device – TXV Air heat exchanger – air coil Electrical Controls ClimateMaster

12 12 Option ClimateMaster

13 13 Simple Concept Water moves energy better than air does Water in the ground provides renewable energy 13 Typical water-refrigerant Heat Exchanger used in most GSHP equipment

14 14 47% of the solar energy falling on our planet is absorbed by the Earths surface… ClimateMaster

15 15 … maintaining a nearly constant temperature throughout the year just below ground

16 16 Earth is a better Energy Source ClimateMaster

17 17 The Earth is the Source of Heat in Winter… Outdoor air design temperature: -5°F 72°F 50°F A geothermal heat pump transfers underground heat into the building to provide heating ClimateMaster

18 18 …and an Efficient Place to Reject or Store Heat in Summer… Outdoor air design temperature: 95°F 74°F 50°F A geothermal heat pump transfers heat from the building into the ground to provide cooling ClimateMaster

19 …using Heat Pump Technology ClimateMaster 19 Geothermal heat pumps circulate water through a sealed underground piping loop where it is naturally warmed (or cooled) by the Earth

20 20 Geothermal System Components Ground loop Three basic designs Horizontal Open Loop Vertical ClimateMaster

21 21 Vertical Closed-Loop Installation Drilling Pipe Loop Insertion Heat Fusing Inside Connection ClimateMaster

22 22 Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency 1 unit of energy from the grid Plus: 3-5 units of free energy from the earth Yields: 4-6 units of energy for the building 400-600% Efficient ClimateMaster

23 23 Total Geothermal System ClimateMaster

24 24 Geothermal Equipment The equipment keeps getting better COPs (% efficiency) are reaching 5 (500%) Hybrid units can greatly reduce installation costs Fits load control and peak time pricing Can be tied to a gas furnace for load control Water to water units can support thermal storage for expanded peak clipping ClimateMaster

25 25 Geothermal Heat Pumps Self-contained heating, cooling and hot water

26 ClimateMaster 26 Geothermal Heat Pumps are one of the Most Effective and Deployable Technologies… … producing the lowest carbon dioxide emissions, including all source effects, of all available space-conditioning technologies (EPA, 1993)

27 ClimateMaster 27

28 ClimateMaster 28 Ground Source Heat Pumps offer the greatest potential for energy efficiency of any existing technology (EPRI Dec 2009)

29 ClimateMaster 29 Buildings Dominate U.S. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions with Heating, Cooling, and Water Heating being the Largest Contributors Thermal Loads Heating 9.2% Cooling 4.3% Hot Water 3.8% Total 17.3% ~ 20% of all U.S. Carbon Emissions

30 ClimateMaster 30 HVAC Energy Use Comparisons Reduces energy consumption by 50% Conventional HVAC - Home Geothermal HVAC - Home

31 ClimateMaster 31 Ordinary Furnace Efficiency 5 - 30% of Energy Lost (unusable energy) To Outdoors Through the Chimney Only 70 - 95% of Energy Purchased Gets Into the Home (usable energy) 1 Unit Of Fuel Used To Generate Heat (Purchased)

32 ClimateMaster 32 Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency 1 unit of energy from the grid Plus: 3-5 units of free energy from the earth Yields: 4-6 units of energy for the building 400-600% Efficient

33 ClimateMaster 33 Geothermal Heat Pumps Demonstrated Residential Savings… 1300 Square Foot Habitat for Humanity Home Energy Savings - Residential

34 ClimateMaster 34 Habitat for Humanity Average of 16 Homes - Total Site Energy Use in 2007 47% Site Energy Savings

35 ClimateMaster 35 Demand Impacts Each residential heat pump linked to geothermal system can reduce peak loads in (US DOE) Summer by 1–2 KW vs. AC Winter by 4–8 KW vs. AAHP & ER Residential (Electric Program) Over 10 million residential consumers Assume just 1 KW reduction per installation 10,000 MW demand reduction

36 ClimateMaster 36 Demand Impacts GHP Value.5 kW/ ton

37 ClimateMaster 37 Demand Impacts ClimateMaster is working with the Utility Geothermal Working Group and Oak Ridge National Lab to develop a national GSHP demand and energy savings map using eQuest (DOE 2) modeling for utility program managers. Austin TX model results

38 ClimateMaster 38 Demand Impacts 4 ton Geo vs. Conventional –Home Peaks – Denver Colorado Avg. of 2.1kw savings

39 ClimateMaster 39 Energy Savings - Commercial Demonstrated Commercial Buildings Savings

40 ClimateMaster 40 A Tale of Two Buildings Palo Alto, CA Oklahoma City, OK PROJECT RESULTS FROM: A side by side Comparison of a Ground Source Heat Pump System vs. Conventional HVAC System between two identical buildings.

41 ClimateMaster 41 Oklahoma City - Garrett Buildings Conventional 15,000 sq ft Built in 1987 Conventional Roof Top VAV Building GHP 20,000 sq ft Built in 1997 40 boreholes drilled 250 feet deep on 20 foot centers and 3/4 inch PE pipe 16 Ceiling Mounted Units

42 ClimateMaster 42 Garrett Office Buildings Actual Metered Annual Energy Use 2006-2007 47% Site Energy Savings

43 ClimateMaster 43 Garrett Office Buildings Monthly Peak Demand 2006-2007 35% Peak Demand Reduction

44 ClimateMaster 44 Load Factor (4 yr Monthly Average)

45 ClimateMaster 45 Palo Alto, California Buildings

46 ClimateMaster 46 2183 and 2185 Park Blvd Buildings Two Stories 10,000 sq ft each Built in the 1960s

47 ClimateMaster 47 Palo Alto Buildings Energy Costs construction

48 ClimateMaster 48 Hourly Load Curve Sample 08/22/06

49 ClimateMaster 49 Proven Benefits: GSHP retrofit of 4,000 buildings/homes at Fort Polk - 1994 Evaluation showed 33% kWh savings, 43% lower summer peak kW demand, and improved load factor (0.52 to 0.62) ORNL/CON-460 @ Typical distribution feeder (16 in all) Buried phone line to nearest pedestal Current transducers on secondary leads to existing meter New recording watt meter, modem, and phone line To recorder Armys existing meter

50 ClimateMaster 50 Geothermal Heat Pumps The difference in the before and after system efficiency = carbon emissions savings. 300,000 GSHP retrofits could save approximately the carbon emissions of a 500 mW coal plant (which serves 300,000 +/- homes!)

51 ClimateMaster 51 Tri State Market Kansas City, MO Vs. Louisville, KY Kansas City – 4,750 heating degree days – 1,325 cooling degree days Louisville – 4,610 Heating degree days – 1,443 cooling degree days

52 ClimateMaster 52 Tri State Market US DOE Build America model home – 2,400 sq. feet – 6 tons of heating & cooling – Gas water heater GSHP with Desuperheater (TTS) Vs. Packaged Single Zone Unit with Gas Furnace – 10 SEER central AC – 78 AFUE gas furnace

53 ClimateMaster 53 Tri State Market

54 ClimateMaster 54 Tri State Market

55 ClimateMaster 55 Tri State Market Combined Electric & gas savings (site Btu) – Geo 25,913 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 88,441,069 Btu 7,025,000 gas Btus 95,466,069 annual Btus – Conventional gas & AC 19,634 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 67,010842 Btu 194,972,000 gas Btus 261,982,842 annual Btus 63.6 % annual savings – site Btu

56 ClimateMaster 56 Tri State Market 4.5 kW /.8 kW/ton 4kW/.7 kW per ton 40% peak demand reduction

57 ClimateMaster 57 Tri State Market

58 ClimateMaster 58 Tri State Market

59 ClimateMaster 59 Tri State Market

60 ClimateMaster 60 Tri State Market

61 ClimateMaster 61 Existing Housing Stock (# Homes) - 2005 Gas – 13.1million Electric – 1.3 million Propane – 1.1 million Heat Pump – 800k Oil – 700k Other – 700k Gas – 5.3 million Electric – 1.0 million Propane – 800k Heat Pump – 400k Oil – 200k Other – 200k Gas – 5.7 million Electric – 4.3 million Propane – 800k Heat Pump – 900k Other – 400k EIA 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

62 ClimateMaster 62 Geo Heat Pump Retrofits in Existing Homes - Example of Annual Energy and Carbon Savings Potential CO 2 – 10.0 MMT Summer Peak – 1.9 GW Winter Peak– 0.3 GW Electric – 6.8 Billion kWh Primary – 0.14 quad Btu Geo Units – 1.0 million Cost - $10 to $14 billion Savings - $2.7 billion / yr Assumed Market Penetration: 25% of homes without access to natural gas CO 2 – 8.4 MMT Summer Peak – 1.2 GW Winter Peak– 0.8 GW Electric – 6.3 Billion kWh Primary – 0.12 quad Btu Geo Units – 0.6 million Cost - $6 to $8 billion Savings - $1.6 billion / yr CO 2 – 14.4 MMT Summer Peak – 3.1 GW Winter Peak– 9.7 GW Electric – 25.4 Billion kWh Primary – 0.21 quad Btu Geo Units – 1.5 million Cost - $15 to $21 billion Savings - $3.3 billion / yr

63 ClimateMaster 63 Geothermal Heat Pumps are the Most Efficient way to convert Green Energy into Heating, Cooling and Water Heating Making the most effective use of this precious resource No Carbon Electricity = carbon free heating, cooling & water heating

64 ClimateMaster 64 Geothermal Heat Pumps Source- Scientific American Louisville KY eQuest whole house

65 ClimateMaster 65 The payback on Geothermal Systems is many times faster than solar PV But….Geo plus PV (or micro wind) can provide a zero energy home/building with no net off-site electricity or fossil fuel required

66 66 Market Growth ClimateMaster

67 67 North American Geothermal Industry Shipments Single Family Residential - 63% of Total Continued Growth Despite a Slow Economy

68 68 GHP Market Growth Since their introduction in the 1980s, over 1.5 million geothermal heat pumps have been installed in the united states ClimateMaster

69 69 Geothermal Heat Pump DOE Industry Roadmap Growth Goal 1 Million GHPs Annually by 2017 (39% CAGR) Results in 3.3 million cumulative GHP installations by 2017 26 MMT annual CO 2 reduction 520 MMT lifecycle CO 2 reduction over 20 yr GHP life Creates 100,000 new jobs Conventional A/C and heat pump market is 6 to 8 million units annually ClimateMaster

70 70 Why All the Interest? ClimateMaster

71 71 Proven Technology Millions of units installed world-wide in commercial and residential applications Most Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly HVAC System Widely Available Water is a better heat transfer medium than air Heat exchange loops tap the renewable energy of the Earth

72 ClimateMaster 72 No Fossil Fuel Improves safety Eliminates service lines, flues, outside air intakes No site emissions Long Equipment Life Factory sealed systems Indoor installation – no exposure to the elements Moderate compressor loading vs. air-source systems Self Contained Compact Units Hidden within attics or installed in closets No vandalism or theft concerns Up-flow, horizontal, or down-flow single-package units Split system and water-to-water units available If outdoors Better aesthetics No noise

73 ClimateMaster 73 Using a Single Geothermal Heat Pump is Equivalent to Planting an Acre of Trees

74 ClimateMaster 74 The payback on Geothermal Systems is many times faster than solar PV

75 ClimateMaster 75 Geothermal Systems can be Classified as: Solar Geothermal Renewable Alternative Demand-Side Conservation Energy-Efficiency Zero-Ozone Depleting Environmentally Responsible

76 76 Heat Pump Energy Efficiency Take -aways Geothermal is the most efficient method of heating and cooling a home Geothermal is both a renewable and energy efficient technology Geothermal reduces utility peaks and improves load factor There is no question – IT DOES WORK! ClimateMaster

77 77 Thank You For Your Attention! Questions? Paul Bony 970-249-8476 If you ever need a hand you can reach me at: ClimateMaster

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