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Geothermal Heat Pumps A - Z Session 1

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1 Geothermal Heat Pumps A - Z Session 1
Understanding Geothermal Heat Pumps and their Value to Utilities 2012 Illinois Geothermal Conference Peoria, IL February 28, 2012 Paul Bony Director Of Residential Market Development ClimateMaster ClimateMaster

2 Introduction To Ground Source Heat pumps (GSHP)
Subjects to be covered The history of GSHP How GSHPs Work Why GSHPs are of Value to Electric Utilities ClimateMaster

3 Earth Energy – It’s Not New
Earth energy system was first patented in Switzerland in 1912 Residential system installed in Canada in 1950 ClimateMaster Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy

4 Heat Pump Systems are Reliable
Mr. Bill Loosley installed geothermal system in his home in Burlington, ON in 1950 Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster

5 Mr. Loosley’s System: Desuperheater added to hot water tank
Belt drive compressor Air coil in old oil furnace ClimateMaster Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy

6 Heat Pump Systems are Reliable
Compressor was initially powered by hand crank diesel motor… changed to electric motor (still being used!!) in 1953 when his wife couldn’t start it. Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster

7 GSHP Basics ClimateMaster

8 Geothermal Heat Pump Systems combine Sun, Earth and Water
using proven technology… … to create “the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space-conditioning system” (according to U.S. EPA 1993) ClimateMaster

9 Geothermal System Components
Heat pump Ground loop ClimateMaster

10 Heat Pumps Are All Around Us
Air conditioners and air-source heat pumps transfer heat from inside houses to the air outside HEAT B Everyone here has at least one heat pump in their home right now…the fridge. You cannot make cold, all you can do is remove heat. They take heat inside and near zero and pump it to heat exchange coils on bottom or in the back that are much warmer than the temperature inside it AC is also same technology B B Refrigerators transfer heat from food into the kitchen ClimateMaster 8

11 Heat Pump Components Compressor Refrigerant reversing valve
Fluid heat exchanger – ground loop (Coax) Metering device – TXV Air heat exchanger – air coil Electrical Controls ClimateMaster

12 Option ClimateMaster 9

13 Typical water-refrigerant Heat Exchanger used in most GSHP equipment
Simple Concept Water moves energy better than air does Water in the ground provides renewable energy Typical water-refrigerant Heat Exchanger used in most GSHP equipment ClimateMaster 13

14 The earth itself is the best solar energy collection and storage medium we have available capturing 47% of all the energy our plant receives from the sun 47% of the solar energy falling on our planet is absorbed by the Earth’s surface… ClimateMaster

15 The earth is such a massive storage medium that when you get below 10 ft deep the temperature never changes This moderate temperature reflects the average amount of solar energy received at that location over the year … maintaining a nearly constant temperature throughout the year just below ground ClimateMaster

16 Earth is a better Energy Source

17 The Earth is the Source of Heat in Winter…
Outdoor air design temperature: -5°F 72°F Why should we utilize high quality fossil fuels that are a mobile fuel capable of burning at thousands degree just to heat a building to a low temperature barely above that in the earth right below it? This is like making electrical wire out of silver instead of copper… it works great but is a waste of a precious resource Compare the earth temperature to the outside air temperature 50°F A geothermal heat pump transfers underground heat into the building to provide heating ClimateMaster 8

18 …and an Efficient Place to Reject or Store Heat in Summer…
Outdoor air design temperature: 95°F 74°F Compare outside air to earth temperature and note how much higher cooling efficiencies can be when you are not working to pump the heat to a hot place 50°F A geothermal heat pump transfers heat from the building into the ground to provide cooling ClimateMaster 8

19 …using Heat Pump Technology
Geothermal heat pumps circulate water through a sealed underground piping loop where it is naturally warmed (or cooled) by the Earth ClimateMaster

20 Geothermal System Components
Ground loop Three basic designs Horizontal Open Loop Vertical ClimateMaster

21 Vertical Closed-Loop Installation
Drilling Pipe Loop Insertion Heat Fusing Inside Connection ClimateMaster

22 Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency
1 unit of energy from the grid Yields: 4-6 units of energy for the building Plus: 3-5 units of “free” energy from the earth % Efficient ClimateMaster 8

23 Total Geothermal System

24 Geothermal Equipment The equipment keeps getting better
“COP’s” (% efficiency) are reaching 5 (500%) Hybrid units can greatly reduce installation costs Fits load control and peak time pricing Can be tied to a gas furnace for load control Water to water units can support thermal storage for expanded peak clipping ClimateMaster

25 Geothermal Heat Pumps Self-contained heating, cooling and hot water
GHPs look like a high quality conventional furnace They are self contained in one box and sit inside, usually in basement or closet They operate off a normal thermostat and to the occupant would seem no different than any heating and cooling system There is nothing to see or hear outside Self-contained heating, cooling and hot water ClimateMaster 8

26 are one of the Most Effective and Deployable Technologies…
Geothermal Heat Pumps are one of the Most Effective and Deployable Technologies… … producing the lowest carbon dioxide emissions, including all source effects, of all available space-conditioning technologies (EPA, 1993) ClimateMaster

27 ClimateMaster

28 “Ground Source Heat Pumps offer the greatest potential for energy efficiency of any existing technology” (EPRI Dec 2009) ClimateMaster

29 Buildings Dominate U.S. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions
with Heating, Cooling, and Water Heating being the Largest Contributors Thermal Loads Heating % Cooling % Hot Water % Total % ~ 20% of all U.S. Carbon Emissions ClimateMaster

30 HVAC Energy Use Comparisons Reduces energy consumption by 50%
Conventional HVAC - Home Geothermal HVAC - Home ClimateMaster

31 Ordinary Furnace Efficiency
5 - 30% of Energy Lost (unusable energy) To Outdoors Through the Chimney 1 Unit Of Fuel Used To Generate Heat (Purchased) Only % of Energy Purchased Gets Into the Home (usable energy) ClimateMaster

32 Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency
1 unit of energy from the grid Yields: 4-6 units of energy for the building Plus: 3-5 units of “free” energy from the earth % Efficient ClimateMaster 8

33 Energy Savings - Residential Demonstrated Residential Savings…
Geothermal Heat Pumps Energy Savings - Residential This is a Habit for Home that is part of a new 220 home development being built in Oklahoma City. The development is going to be the first LEED certified Habitat development in the nation. Every home has a GHP, foam insulation, ducts in conditioned space, low E windows, CFL lighting The homes will use 60% less energy than the Habitat homes they were building last year… standard code homes This home is one of two that have a solar PV system also. This cuts total energy by 75% compared to last year homes. This small solar array will make ALL of the energy to run the GHP system. It also makes this energy during the hot sunny afternoons when the utility is on peak… This home should be a zero peak home, which mean uses no energy on peak 1300 Square Foot Habitat for Humanity Home Demonstrated Residential Savings… ClimateMaster

34 Average of 16 Homes - Total Site Energy Use in 2007
Habitat for Humanity Average of 16 Homes - Total Site Energy Use in 2007 47% Site Energy Savings This is the actual metered TOTAL energy consumption of 8 gas furnace with AC homes compared to 8 GHP homes These were homes built in 2006 that DO NOT include the insulation, window and lighting upgrades and DO NOT have a solar system. They are pretty much standard code homes with either a conventional gas AC system or a GHP ClimateMaster

35 Demand Impacts Each residential heat pump linked to geothermal system can reduce peak loads in (US DOE) Summer by 1–2 KW vs. AC Winter by 4–8 KW vs. AAHP & ER Residential (Electric Program) Over 10 million residential consumers Assume just 1 KW reduction per installation 10,000 MW demand reduction ClimateMaster

36 Demand Impacts GHP Value .5 kW/ ton ClimateMaster

37 Demand Impacts Austin TX model results
ClimateMaster is working with the Utility Geothermal Working Group and Oak Ridge National Lab to develop a national GSHP demand and energy savings “map” using eQuest (DOE 2) modeling for utility program managers. Austin TX model results ClimateMaster

38 Demand Impacts 4 ton Geo vs. Conventional –Home Peaks – Denver Colorado Avg. of 2.1kw savings ClimateMaster

39 Energy Savings - Commercial
Schools are the biggest market nationwide Demonstrated Commercial Buildings Savings ClimateMaster

40 A Tale of Two Buildings PROJECT RESULTS FROM:
A “side by side” Comparison of a Ground Source Heat Pump System vs. Conventional HVAC System between two “identical” buildings. Palo Alto, CA Oklahoma City, OK ClimateMaster

41 Oklahoma City - Garrett Buildings
Conventional 15,000 sq ft Built in 1987 Conventional Roof Top VAV Building GHP 20,000 sq ft Built in boreholes drilled 250 feet deep on 20 foot centers and 3/4 inch PE pipe 16 Ceiling Mounted Units ClimateMaster

42 Garrett Office Buildings Actual Metered Annual Energy Use 2006-2007
47% Site Energy Savings Actual metered energy use last year ClimateMaster

43 Garrett Office Buildings
Monthly Peak Demand 35% Peak Demand Reduction This really matters to utilities and to areas like NE with grid problems ClimateMaster 8

44 Load Factor (4 yr Monthly Average)

45 Palo Alto, California Buildings

46 2183 and 2185 Park Blvd Buildings
Two Stories 10,000 sq ft each Built in the 1960s ClimateMaster

47 Palo Alto Buildings Energy Costs
construction ClimateMaster

48 Hourly Load Curve Sample 08/22/06

49 Typical distribution feeder (16 in all)
Proven Benefits: GSHP retrofit of 4,000 buildings/homes at Fort Polk Evaluation showed 33% kWh savings, 43% lower summer peak kW demand, and improved load factor (0.52 to 0.62) Typical distribution feeder (16 in all) Army’s existing meter Current transducers on secondary leads to existing meter New recording watt meter, modem, and phone line To recorder Buried phone line to nearest pedestal ClimateMaster

50 Geothermal Heat Pumps The difference in the before and after system efficiency = carbon emissions savings. 300,000 GSHP retrofits could save approximately the carbon emissions of a 500 mW coal plant (which serves 300,000 +/- homes!) ClimateMaster

51 Tri State Market Kansas City, MO Vs. Louisville, KY Kansas City
4,750 heating degree days 1,325 cooling degree days Louisville 4,610 Heating degree days 1,443 cooling degree days ClimateMaster

52 Tri State Market US DOE Build America model home
2,400 sq. feet 6 tons of heating & cooling Gas water heater GSHP with Desuperheater (TTS) Vs. Packaged Single Zone Unit with Gas Furnace 10 SEER central AC 78 AFUE gas furnace ClimateMaster

53 Tri State Market ClimateMaster

54 Tri State Market ClimateMaster

55 Tri State Market Combined Electric & gas savings (site Btu)
Geo 25,913 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 88,441,069 Btu 7,025,000 gas Btus 95,466,069 annual Btus Conventional gas & AC 19,634 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 67, Btu 194,972,000 gas Btus 261,982,842 annual Btus 63.6 % annual savings – site Btu ClimateMaster

56 Tri State Market 4.5 kW /.8 kW/ton 40% peak demand reduction
4kW/.7 kW per ton ClimateMaster

57 Tri State Market ClimateMaster

58 Tri State Market ClimateMaster

59 Tri State Market ClimateMaster

60 Tri State Market ClimateMaster

61 Existing Housing Stock (# Homes) - 2005
Gas – 13.1million Electric – 1.3 million Propane – 1.1 million Heat Pump – 800k Oil – 700k Other – 700k Gas – 5.3 million Electric – 1.0 million Propane – 800k Heat Pump – 400k Oil – 200k Other – 200k Gas – 5.7 million Electric – 4.3 million Propane – 800k Heat Pump – 900k Other – 400k EIA 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey ClimateMaster

62 Assumed Market Penetration: 25% of homes without access to natural gas
Geo Heat Pump Retrofits in Existing Homes - Example of Annual Energy and Carbon Savings Potential CO2 – 10.0 MMT Summer Peak – 1.9 GW Winter Peak– 0.3 GW Electric – 6.8 Billion kWh Primary – 0.14 quad Btu Geo Units – 1.0 million Cost - $10 to $14 billion Savings - $2.7 billion / yr CO2 – 8.4 MMT Summer Peak – 1.2 GW Winter Peak– 0.8 GW Electric – 6.3 Billion kWh Primary – 0.12 quad Btu Geo Units – 0.6 million Cost - $6 to $8 billion Savings - $1.6 billion / yr CO2 – 14.4 MMT Summer Peak – 3.1 GW Winter Peak– 9.7 GW Electric – 25.4 Billion kWh Primary – 0.21 quad Btu Geo Units – 1.5 million Cost - $15 to $21 billion Savings - $3.3 billion / yr Assumed Market Penetration: 25% of homes without access to natural gas ClimateMaster

63 are the Most Efficient way to convert Green Energy
Geothermal Heat Pumps are the Most Efficient way to convert Green Energy into Heating, Cooling and Water Heating It has been approved by many studies that GHP is the most energy efficient way available to convert green power into heating, cooling, and water heating demanded in the buildings. That is why most zero energy buildings that have been constructed use both on-site renewable electricity generation and GHP. Making the most effective use of this precious resource No Carbon Electricity = carbon free heating, cooling & water heating ClimateMaster

64 Geothermal Heat Pumps Louisville KY eQuest whole house
ClimateMaster Source- Scientific American

65 The payback on Geothermal Systems is many times faster than solar PV
But….Geo plus PV (or micro wind) can provide a zero energy home/building with no net off-site electricity or fossil fuel required ClimateMaster

66 Market Growth ClimateMaster

67 North American Geothermal Industry Shipments
Single Family Residential - 63% of Total Continued Growth Despite a Slow Economy ClimateMaster

68 GHP Market Growth Since their introduction in the 1980’s, over 1.5 million geothermal heat pumps have been installed in the united states ClimateMaster

69 Geothermal Heat Pump DOE Industry Roadmap Growth Goal
1 Million GHPs Annually by 2017 (39% CAGR) Results in 3.3 million cumulative GHP installations by 2017 26 MMT annual CO2 reduction 520 MMT lifecycle CO2 reduction over 20 yr GHP life Creates 100,000 new jobs Conventional A/C and heat pump market is 6 to 8 million units annually ClimateMaster

70 Why All the Interest? ClimateMaster

71 Most Energy-Efficient and Environmentally
Proven Technology Millions of units installed world-wide in commercial and residential applications Most Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly HVAC System Widely Available Water is a better heat transfer medium than air Heat exchange loops tap the renewable energy of the Earth ClimateMaster

72 Self Contained Compact Units
No Fossil Fuel Improves safety Eliminates service lines, flues, outside air intakes No site emissions Long Equipment Life Factory sealed systems Indoor installation – no exposure to the elements Moderate compressor loading vs. air-source systems Self Contained Compact Units Hidden within attics or installed in closets No vandalism or theft concerns Up-flow, horizontal, or down-flow single-package units Split system and water-to-water units available If outdoors Better aesthetics No noise ClimateMaster

73 Using a Single Geothermal Heat Pump Planting an Acre of Trees
is Equivalent to Planting an Acre of Trees ClimateMaster

74 The payback on Geothermal Systems is many times faster than solar PV

75 Environmentally Responsible
Geothermal Systems can be Classified as: Solar Geothermal Renewable Alternative Demand-Side Conservation Energy-Efficiency Zero-Ozone Depleting Environmentally Responsible ClimateMaster

76 Heat Pump Energy Efficiency Take -aways
Geothermal is the most efficient method of heating and cooling a home Geothermal is both a renewable and energy efficient technology Geothermal reduces utility peaks and improves load factor There is no question – IT DOES WORK! ClimateMaster

77 Thank You For Your Attention! Questions?
If you ever need a hand you can reach me at: Paul Bony ClimateMaster

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