7Indoor air pollutionAir pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological material-- that cause harm discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment,-- into the atmosphere.
8What is Ventilation??A process, whereby air is supplied and removed from an indoor space by natural or mechanical means. Why ventilation is needed indoors? To remove heat or moisture OR to reduce the concentration of one OR more indoor pollutants.
10Natural Ventilation :1-It lnvolves flow of outdoor air through windows, cracks and a variety of openings in the buildings. 2-Movement of air from indoor spaces to outdoor. Limitation of Natural Ventilation - Fairly inefficient as it is NOT UNIFORMLY distributed. -It brings POLLENS & OTHER POLLUTANTS from outside air.
11Mechanical ventilation It involves use of fans and heating / air conditioning equipments. Principle of mechanical ventilation -Pulling fresh air from outside to indoor spaces. -Exhaust stale air. -Control temperature and humidity inside.
12INDOOR AIR POLLUTION-Indoor air pollutants may be up to 100 times higher than outdoor levels. (Environmental protection agency). -Most people spend 90% of their time indoors. (American Lung Association) Dirty ventilation systems are a 50% contributor to sick building syndrome. (Healthy Buildings International).
13INDOOR AIR POLLUTION-50% of all illnesses are either caused or aggravated by polluted indoor air. (American College of Allergists). -Legionnaire’s disease was spawned in air conditioning ducts. (ALA) -Indoor airpollution is the primary cause in as many as 50 million cases of occupational chronic respiratory disease each year. (World Health Organization). -
14INDOOR AIR POLLUTIONOne out of six people who suffer from allergies do so because of the direct result of the fungi and bacteria in the air duct systems. (Total Health & Better Health Magazine)-As many as one billion people, mostly women and children, are regularly exposed to levels of indoor air pollution exceeding WHO guidelines by up to 100 times. (WHO).
15What Causes Indoor Air Pollution?? · Air tightness of buildings · Poorly designed air conditioning and ventilation systems · Indoor sources of pollution · Outdoor sources of pollution
16What Causes Indoor Air Pollution?? Air Tightness in Buildings Causes inadequate supply of fresh air, as a result, negative pressure develops, which causes: Ground level pollutants, e.g. CO, Radon etc.to be drawn inside the buildings. Release of odor (Bioaerosols) and other pollutants.
17What Causes Indoor Air Pollution?? Pull outside polluted air from vents, cracks and openings and increase dust, pollen etc.Causes “Sick Building Syndrome”.Poorly Designed Air Conditioning Systems Results into the production of fungi, molds and other sickness causing microbes.
18What Causes Indoor Air Pollution?? · Air tightness of buildings· Poorly designed air conditioning and ventilation systems· Indoor sources of pollution· Outdoor sources of pollution
19What Causes Indoor Air Pollution?? Air Tightness in Buildings Causes inadequate supply of fresh air, as a result, negative pressure develops, which causes:· Ground level pollutants, e.g. CO, Radon etc.to be drawn inside the buildings.· Release of odor (Bioaerosols) and other pollutants.· Pull outside polluted air from vents, cracks and openings and increase dust, pollen etc.· Causes “Sick Building Syndrome”.
20What Causes Indoor Air Pollution?? Poorly Designed Air Conditioning Systems Results into the production of fungi, molds and other sickness causing microbes.Problems of IAQ Enclosed spaces inhabited by humans produce following effects-· Reduction in oxygen level of spaces.· Increase in CO2 level.· Increase in temperature.· Increase in humidity· Increase in Bioaerosols and odor
21How can I tell that indoor air is contaminated? Sniff the air. The nose is the best odor and gas detector, and a good particle detector as well, especially when first entering a contaminated environment.
22Pollutants primary pollutants Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondaryprimary pollutantsare substances directly emitted from a process, such as the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories.
23Pollutants Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone.
32Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants Health effects due to indoor air pollutants may be short- as well as long-term.Short-term problems include a stuffy, odorous environment and symptoms such as burning eyes, skin irritation, and headaches.
33Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants Long-term health problems have a longer latency period or are chronic in nature.Health conditions involving some allergic reactions, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic rhinitis, and some types of asthma, are triggered by bioaerosols.
34Control of Indoor Air Pollution Basic approaches to control indoor air pollution include source control, source isolation, increased ventilation, dehumidification, and the use of filters. Possible sources of contamination are eliminated in a source-control strategy.
35Control of Indoor Air Pollution Examples include banning smoking in public buildings.Source-isolation strategy is used in situations where a source cannot be completely eliminated. For instance, copy machine areas, food service stations, and bathrooms are often separately vented outside buildings to avoid the recirculation of return air.
36Control of Indoor Air Pollution Low humidity should be maintained inside a house to limit the growth of such bacteria.Indoor air pollution can be a very serious problem. You should be aware of the potential health hazards within your home, and you should also know how to effectively reduce the levels of air pollutants
37What is sick building syndrome ? The feeling of illness among majority of occupants of a conditioned space is called “Sick Building Syndrome”.A variety of illness symptoms reported by occupants in sick buildings are – Headache, fatigue, irritation in eyes, nose and throat, shortness of breathe etc.
38What is sick building syndrome ? Causes Inadequate ventilation insufficient supply of outside air; poor mixing; fluctuations in temperature & humidity;
39Main indoor pollutants and their sources Main indoor air pollutant and their sources,continueSourcesPollutantCigarette and water pipe smokingEnvironmental tobacco smokeUnburned kerosene, gas water heaters, gas stoves, automobile exhaust, tobacco smokeCarbon monoxideLead based paints, contaminated soil, dust and drinking waterLeadDeteriorating, damaged, or disturbed insulation, fireproofing, acoustical materials, and floor tilesAsbestos
40Main indoor air pollutant and their sources Kerosene heaters, un-vented gas stoves and heaters. Environmental tobacco smokeNO2Furniture made with pressed wood products, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, environmental tobacco smoke, gluesFormaldehydePaint, paint stripper, solvent aerosol spraysVolatile organic compoundsKerosene heaters, wood stoves, fireplaces, environmental tobacco smokeRespirable particlesDust mite, Pet dander, droppings and body parts of cockroaches rodents and other pestsBiological pollutantsBuilding materials and well waterRadon
41Common pollutants:Respirable ParticlesRespirable particles come from wood stoves, fireplaces, kerosene heaters, and tobacco smoke. They can cause eye, nose, and throat irritation, as well as respiratory infections and ailments (such as bronchitis and lung cancer).
42Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs are volatile organic compounds. Breaking down the words in the phrase leads to clarity - Volatile - readily vaporized, rapidly changeable Organic - Of, relating to, or derived from living organisms: organic matter. In Chemistry - of or designating carbon compounds. Compounds - (In Chemistry,) consisting of atoms or ions of two or more different elements .VOCs are the most difficult to detect and measure. VOCs often affect the nervous and immune systems, causing loss of productivity, nausea, long-term chronic illness, cancer or death
43FormaldehydeWhat are the major sources of formaldehyde?It is used in a variety of products, ranging from lipstick and shampoo to kitchen cabinets and carpeting, because it is an excellent preservative and bonding agent. Pressed wood products and furniture made with these products are found in offices and homes throughout the world.
44PesticidesIf the pesticides must be used indoors, make sure the area is well ventilated
45LeadAirborne LeadIndoors, the chief source is paint. Additional sources of airborne lead include art and craft materials.Significant quantities are found in many paints and glazes, stained glass, as well as in some solder.Repair and cleaning of automobile radiators in inadequately ventilated premises can expose workers to perilous levels of airborne lead.
46AsbestosWhen asbestos-containing material is damaged or disintegrates with age, microscopic fibers may be dispersed into the airAsbestos is found in some older insulation and fireproofing materials. Prolonged exposure to asbestos particles can cause cancer and lung diseases. Smokers are at a higher risk to asbestos than non-smokers. If you live in an older home, be sure to have professionals inspect your house before. disturbing any potential sources of asbestos.
47Biological Pollutants Biological pollutants include molds, mildews, bacteria, and small insects and other pests. They are found in damp places, in bedding, and on pets. There are many illnesses that are associated with biological pollutants, including respiratory irritations and some serious diseases.
48Carbon MonoxideCarbon Monoxide (CO) comes from incomplete burning. CO can come from all fuel-burning appliances (furnaces, water heaters, stoves, ovens), as well as from fireplaces and wood stoves. Car exhaust is also a major source of CO, as well as tobacco smoke. Carbon monoxide can cause headaches, nausea, fatigue, blurred vision, rapid heart beat, loss of muscle control, and flu-like symptoms. Breathing carbon monoxide can be fatal.
49OzoneIt is produced by ultraviolet light from the Sun hitting the Earth's atmosphere , lightning, certain electric devices (such as air ionisers), and as a byproduct of other types of pollution. Ozone itself is irritating to lung tissue and harmful to human health.
50Nitrogen DioxideNitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas produced by kerosene heaters, and unvented gas stoves.NO2 can case eye, nose, and throat irritation, and it may impair lung function in young children.
51RadonRadon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, following smoking. Radon is odorless, colorless, and tasteless. It is a naturally occurring radioactive gas resulting from the decay of radium, itself a decay product of uranium.Radon is a radioactive gas that comes from the decay of uranium in the Earth. It comes up through cracks in the ground and can get into your basement. It can accumulate in the basement up to levels which can cause lung cancer. Smokers are at an especially high risk of getting lung cancer from radon.
53Environmental Tobacco Smoke Environmental tobacco smoke is a major source of indoor air contaminants.Acute cardiovascular effects of ETS include increased heart rate, blood pressure, blood carboxyhemoglobin; and related reduction in exercise capacity in those with stable angina and in healthy people. Studies have also found increased incidence of nonfatal heart disease among nonsmokers exposed to ETS, and it is thought likely that ETS increases the risk of peripheral vascular disease, as well.The most effective solution is to eliminate all smoking from the individual's environment, either through smoking prohibitions or by restricting smoking to properly designed smoking rooms. These rooms should be separately ventilated to the outside.
54Keep Your Home HealthyIndoor air quality is important because we breathe about 5,000 gallons of air daily and spend 90 percent of our tme in doors.Everyone's health is affected by indoor air quality, but children and the elderly are at higherisk of adverse effects. Indoor air quality problems can be life threatening, such as exposure to carbon monoxide.
55Moisture Keep Your Home Healthy Many activities in the home produce moisture that needs to be removed. Remove moisture by ventilation when outside temperatures are cool and with airconditioning when outside temperatures are warm.
56MoldS Keep Your Home Healthy A major problem with excess moisture in the home is mold.Exposure to mold can cause cold-like symptoms, respiratory problems, nasal and sinus congestion, watery eyes, sore throat, coughing and skin irritations, and can trigger asthma attacks.
57Dust mites Keep Your Home Healthy Dust mites are tiny creatures (too small to see) that feed on human skin cells that we shed each day. Mites may cause symptoms such as a runny nose or watery, itchy eyes in allergic people.Keep humidity levels less than 50 percent and provide ventilation to minimize dust mites. Wash sheets weekly in water that is 130 F or warmer.Mattress pads and other bedding also should be washed in hot water..
58Keep Your Home Healthy Bathroom exhaust fan Run the bathroom exhaust fan during and for a few minutes after showers to exhaust the moisture. You should be able to feel air entering the bathroom under the bathroom door while the exhaust fan is running. Keep surfaces dry to prevent mold growth.
59Keep Your Home Healthy Closets The relative humidity of the air in a closet may be at a level conducive to mold growth. Leave closet doors open during very cold weather. Clothes stored in a basement may become musty, particularly during the summer, if the humidity is above about 70 percent. Stored clothes should be clean and dry. Boxed articles will stay wet if they become damp, creating an environment conducive to mold growth.
60Keep Your Home Healthy Furniture Keep furniture away from outside walls to permit air circulation. Cool areas behind furniture will be high humidity areas conducive to mold growth.
61Keep Your Home Healthy Clothes dryer Vent a clothes dryer outdoors. About 5 pints of water are removed per load of clothes. This amount of moisture could cause severe moisture problems,such as mold growth, if vented into the house.
62Keep Your Home HealthyPeriodically vacuum the mattress to remove skin fragments that create an environment conducive to dust mites. Special pillow and mattress covers can minimize dust mite exposure. Replace pillows about every five years.
63Can carpet make people sick? Carpet can be a source of chemical emissions. Carpet emits volatile organic compounds, as do products that accompany carpet installation such as adhesives and padding. Carpet can also act as a "sink" for chemical and biological pollutants including pesticides, dust mites, and fungi.Opening doors and windows and increasing the amount of fresh air indoors will reduce exposure to most chemicals released from newly installed carpet. During and after installation in a home, use of window fans and room air conditioners to exhaust fumes to the outdoors is recommended.
64Can plants control indoor air pollution? Recent reports characterize plants as "nature's clean air machine", claiming that plants remove indoor air pollutants. While it is true that plants remove carbon dioxide from the air, the ability of plants to control indoor air pollution is less well established.In other words, the ability of plants to actually improve indoor air quality is limited in comparison with provision of adequate ventilation.