Presentation on theme: "سورة البقرة آية ٣٢ INDOOR AIR POLLUTION BY ISMAEL ABD ELMONEM ATTIA PROFESSOR OF CHEST DISEASES AL AZHAR UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:
سورة البقرة آية ٣٢
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION BY ISMAEL ABD ELMONEM ATTIA PROFESSOR OF CHEST DISEASES AL AZHAR UNIVERSITY
Indoor air pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological material-- that cause harm discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment,-- into the atmosphere.
What is Ventilation?? A process, whereby air is supplied and removed from an indoor space by natural or mechanical means. Why ventilation is needed indoors? To remove heat or moisture OR to reduce the concentration of one OR more indoor pollutants.
Types of Ventilation 1-Natural 2-Mechanical
Natural Ventilation : 1-It lnvolves flow of outdoor air through windows, cracks and a variety of openings in the buildings. 2-Movement of air from indoor spaces to outdoor. Limitation of Natural Ventilation - Fairly inefficient as it is NOT UNIFORMLY distributed. -It brings POLLENS & OTHER POLLUTANTS from outside air.
Mechanical ventilation It involves use of fans and heating / air conditioning equipments. Principle of mechanical ventilation -Pulling fresh air from outside to indoor spaces. -Exhaust stale air. -Control temperature and humidity inside.
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION -Indoor air pollutants may be up to 100 times higher than outdoor levels. (Environmental protection agency). -Most people spend 90% of their time indoors. (American Lung Association) Dirty ventilation systems are a 50% contributor to sick building syndrome. (Healthy Buildings International).
-50% of all illnesses are either caused or aggravated by polluted indoor air. (American College of Allergists). -Legionnaires disease was spawned in air conditioning ducts. (ALA) -Indoor airpollution is the primary cause in as many as 50 million cases of occupational chronic respiratory disease each year. (World Health Organization). - INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
One out of six people who suffer from allergies do so because of the direct result of the fungi and bacteria in the air duct systems. (Total Health & Better Health Magazine) -As many as one billion people, mostly women and children, are regularly exposed to levels of indoor air pollution exceeding WHO guidelines by up to 100 times. (WHO). INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
What Causes Indoor Air Pollution?? · Air tightness of buildings · Poorly designed air conditioning and ventilation systems · Indoor sources of pollution · Outdoor sources of pollution
Air Tightness in Buildings Causes inadequate supply of fresh air, as a result, negative pressure develops, which causes: Ground level pollutants, e.g. CO, Radon etc.to be drawn inside the buildings. Release of odor (Bioaerosols) and other pollutants. What Causes Indoor Air Pollution??
Pull outside polluted air from vents, cracks and openings and increase dust, pollen etc. Causes Sick Building Syndrome. Poorly Designed Air Conditioning Systems Results into the production of fungi, molds and other sickness causing microbes. What Causes Indoor Air Pollution??
· Air tightness of buildings · Poorly designed air conditioning and ventilation systems · Indoor sources of pollution · Outdoor sources of pollution
Air Tightness in Buildings Causes inadequate supply of fresh air, as a result, negative pressure develops, which causes: · Ground level pollutants, e.g. CO, Radon etc.to be drawn inside the buildings. · Release of odor (Bioaerosols) and other pollutants. · Pull outside polluted air from vents, cracks and openings and increase dust, pollen etc. · Causes Sick Building Syndrome. What Causes Indoor Air Pollution??
Poorly Designed Air Conditioning Systems Results into the production of fungi, molds and other sickness causing microbes. Problems of IAQ Enclosed spaces inhabited by humans produce following effects- · Reduction in oxygen level of spaces. · Increase in CO2 level. · Increase in temperature. · Increase in humidity · Increase in Bioaerosols and odor What Causes Indoor Air Pollution??
How can I tell that indoor air is contaminated? Sniff the air. The nose is the best odor and gas detector, and a good particle detector as well, especially when first entering a contaminated environment.
Pollutants Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process, such as the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories.
Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone. Pollutants
Indoor air quality Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term referring to the air quality within and around buildings and structures.
IAQ can be affected by microbial contaminants (mold, bacteria), gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds),and particulates. Indoor air quality
Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants Health effects due to indoor air pollutants may be short- as well as long-term. Short-term problems include a stuffy, odorous environment and symptoms such as burning eyes, skin irritation, and headaches.
Long-term health problems have a longer latency period or are chronic in nature. Health conditions involving some allergic reactions, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic rhinitis, and some types of asthma, are triggered by bioaerosols. Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants
Control of Indoor Air Pollution Basic approaches to control indoor air pollution include source control, source isolation, increased ventilation, dehumidification, and the use of filters. Possible sources of contamination are eliminated in a source-control strategy.
Examples include banning smoking in public buildings. Source-isolation strategy is used in situations where a source cannot be completely eliminated. For instance, copy machine areas, food service stations, and bathrooms are often separately vented outside buildings to avoid the recirculation of return air. Control of Indoor Air Pollution
Low humidity should be maintained inside a house to limit the growth of such bacteria. Indoor air pollution can be a very serious problem. You should be aware of the potential health hazards within your home, and you should also know how to effectively reduce the levels of air pollutants Control of Indoor Air Pollution
What is sick building syndrome ? The feeling of illness among majority of occupants of a conditioned space is called Sick Building Syndrome. A variety of illness symptoms reported by occupants in sick buildings are – Headache, fatigue, irritation in eyes, nose and throat, shortness of breathe etc.
Causes Inadequate ventilation insufficient supply of outside air; poor mixing; fluctuations in temperature & humidity; What is sick building syndrome ?
Main indoor pollutants and their sources Main indoor air pollutant and their sources,continue SourcesPollutant Cigarette and water pipe smokingEnvironmental tobacco smoke Unburned kerosene, gas water heaters, gas stoves, automobile exhaust, tobacco smoke Carbon monoxide Lead based paints, contaminated soil, dust and drinking water Lead Deteriorating, damaged, or disturbed insulation, fireproofing, acoustical materials, and floor tiles Asbestos
Kerosene heaters, un-vented gas stoves and heaters. Environmental tobacco smoke NO2 Furniture made with pressed wood products, urea- formaldehyde foam insulation, environmental tobacco smoke, glues Formaldehyde Paint, paint stripper, solvent aerosol spraysVolatile organic compounds Kerosene heaters, wood stoves, fireplaces, environmental tobacco smoke Respirable particles Dust mite, Pet dander, droppings and body parts of cockroaches rodents and other pests Biological pollutants Building materials and well waterRadon Main indoor air pollutant and their sources
Common pollutants: Respirable Particles Respirable particles come from wood stoves, fireplaces, kerosene heaters, and tobacco smoke. They can cause eye, nose, and throat irritation, as well as respiratory infections and ailments (such as bronchitis and lung cancer).
VOCs are volatile organic compounds. Breaking down the words in the phrase leads to clarity - Volatile - readily vaporized, rapidly changeable Organic - Of, relating to, or derived from living organisms: organic matter. In Chemistry - of or designating carbon compounds. Compounds - (In Chemistry,) consisting of atoms or ions of two or more different elements.VOCs are the most difficult to detect and measure. VOCs often affect the nervous and immune systems, causing loss of productivity, nausea, long-term chronic illness, cancer or death Volatile Organic Compounds
Formaldehyde What are the major sources of formaldehyde? It is used in a variety of products, ranging from lipstick and shampoo to kitchen cabinets and carpeting, because it is an excellent preservative and bonding agent. Pressed wood products and furniture made with these products are found in offices and homes throughout the world.
Pesticides If the pesticides must be used indoors, make sure the area is well ventilated
Lead Airborne Lead Indoors, the chief source is paint. Additional sources of airborne lead include art and craft materials.Significant quantities are found in many paints and glazes, stained glass, as well as in some solder.Repair and cleaning of automobile radiators in inadequately ventilated premises can expose workers to perilous levels of airborne lead.
Asbestos When asbestos-containing material is damaged or disintegrates with age, microscopic fibers may be dispersed into the air Asbestos is found in some older insulation and fireproofing materials. Prolonged exposure to asbestos particles can cause cancer and lung diseases. Smokers are at a higher risk to asbestos than non-smokers. If you live in an older home, be sure to have professionals inspect your house before. disturbing any potential sources of asbestos.
Biological Pollutants Biological pollutants include molds, mildews, bacteria, and small insects and other pests. They are found in damp places, in bedding, and on pets. There are many illnesses that are associated with biological pollutants, including respiratory irritations and some serious diseases.
Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide (CO) comes from incomplete burning. CO can come from all fuel-burning appliances (furnaces, water heaters, stoves, ovens), as well as from fireplaces and wood stoves. Car exhaust is also a major source of CO, as well as tobacco smoke. Carbon monoxide can cause headaches, nausea, fatigue, blurred vision, rapid heart beat, loss of muscle control, and flu-like symptoms. Breathing carbon monoxide can be fatal.
Ozone It is produced by ultraviolet light from the Sun hitting the Earth's atmosphere, lightning, certain electric devices (such as air ionisers), and as a byproduct of other types of pollution. Ozone itself is irritating to lung tissue and harmful to human health.
Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas produced by kerosene heaters, and unvented gas stoves. NO2 can case eye, nose, and throat irritation, and it may impair lung function in young children.
Radon Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, following smoking. Radon is odorless, colorless, and tasteless. It is a naturally occurring radioactive gas resulting from the decay of radium, itself a decay product of uranium. Radon is a radioactive gas that comes from the decay of uranium in the Earth. It comes up through cracks in the ground and can get into your basement. It can accumulate in the basement up to levels which can cause lung cancer. Smokers are at an especially high risk of getting lung cancer from radon.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Environmental tobacco smoke is a major source of indoor air contaminants. Acute cardiovascular effects of ETS include increased heart rate, blood pressure, blood carboxyhemoglobin; and related reduction in exercise capacity in those with stable angina and in healthy people. Studies have also found increased incidence of nonfatal heart disease among nonsmokers exposed to ETS, and it is thought likely that ETS increases the risk of peripheral vascular disease, as well. The most effective solution is to eliminate all smoking from the individual's environment, either through smoking prohibitions or by restricting smoking to properly designed smoking rooms. These rooms should be separately ventilated to the outside.
Indoor air quality is important because we breathe about 5,000 gallons of air daily and spend 90 percent of our tme in doors.Everyone's health is affected by indoor air quality, but children and the elderly are at higherisk of adverse effects. Indoor air quality problems can be life threatening, such as exposure to carbon monoxide. Keep Your Home Healthy
Moisture Many activities in the home produce moisture that needs to be removed. Remove moisture by ventilation when outside temperatures are cool and with airconditioning when outside temperatures are warm. Keep Your Home Healthy
MoldS A major problem with excess moisture in the home is mold.Exposure to mold can cause cold-like symptoms, respiratory problems, nasal and sinus congestion, watery eyes, sore throat, coughing and skin irritations, and can trigger asthma attacks. Keep Your Home Healthy
Dust mites Dust mites are tiny creatures (too small to see) that feed on human skin cells that we shed each day. Mites may cause symptoms such as a runny nose or watery, itchy eyes in allergic people. Keep humidity levels less than 50 percent and provide ventilation to minimize dust mites. Wash sheets weekly in water that is 130 F or warmer.Mattress pads and other bedding also should be washed in hot water.. Keep Your Home Healthy
Bathroom exhaust fan Run the bathroom exhaust fan during and for a few minutes after showers to exhaust the moisture. You should be able to feel air entering the bathroom under the bathroom door while the exhaust fan is running. Keep surfaces dry to prevent mold growth. Keep Your Home Healthy
Closets The relative humidity of the air in a closet may be at a level conducive to mold growth. Leave closet doors open during very cold weather. Clothes stored in a basement may become musty, particularly during the summer, if the humidity is above about 70 percent. Stored clothes should be clean and dry. Boxed articles will stay wet if they become damp, creating an environment conducive to mold growth. Keep Your Home Healthy
Furniture Keep furniture away from outside walls to permit air circulation. Cool areas behind furniture will be high humidity areas conducive to mold growth. Keep Your Home Healthy
Clothes dryer Vent a clothes dryer outdoors. About 5 pints of water are removed per load of clothes. This amount of moisture could cause severe moisture problems,such as mold growth, if vented into the house. Keep Your Home Healthy
Periodically vacuum the mattress to remove skin fragments that create an environment conducive to dust mites. Special pillow and mattress covers can minimize dust mite exposure. Replace pillows about every five years. Keep Your Home Healthy
Can carpet make people sick? Carpet can be a source of chemical emissions. Carpet emits volatile organic compounds, as do products that accompany carpet installation such as adhesives and padding. Carpet can also act as a "sink" for chemical and biological pollutants including pesticides, dust mites, and fungi. Opening doors and windows and increasing the amount of fresh air indoors will reduce exposure to most chemicals released from newly installed carpet. During and after installation in a home, use of window fans and room air conditioners to exhaust fumes to the outdoors is recommended.
Can plants control indoor air pollution? Recent reports characterize plants as "nature's clean air machine", claiming that plants remove indoor air pollutants. While it is true that plants remove carbon dioxide from the air, the ability of plants to control indoor air pollution is less well established.In other words, the ability of plants to actually improve indoor air quality is limited in comparison with provision of adequate ventilation.