3 High Performance Building Strategies Design and build a better building envelopeBuild tight, ventilate rightSize the HVAC to the building loadReduce avenues for water penetration (flash =cash)Specify high efficiency HVAC, appliances, & lightingSpecify materials with fewer pollutantsReduce water usage in buildingsNo unproven technologies, gadgets, or high costs
4 Stack EffectStack effect is the pressure driven flow produced by convection (the tendency of warm air to rise).The stack effect exists whenever there is an indoor-outdoor temperature differenceIt becomes stronger as the temperature difference increases.As heated air escapes from upper levels of the building, indoor air moves from lower to upper floors,Replacement outdoor air is drawn into opening at the lower levels of buildings.
5 It’s all in the envelope Building Energy LossBy Infiltration and VentilationBy air movement into, through, and out of conditioned spacesStack and wind effects, shafts & by-passesExhaust & supply fansIt’s all in the envelope
6 What wastes the most energy in my building? Use flip chart and ask people what they think. Stress the need for control over these systems.Bad Windows?Building Penetrations?Old Boiler?Appliances?Lighting?Walls and Roof?Air Conditioning?
7 A physicist would consider your building a “system” The building consists of an envelopewalls, floors, windows, roofs, doorsBut also equipment:elevators, lights, boilers, Domestic Hot Water heaters, chillers, air conditioners, motors, plumbing, etcAnd all of which are connected to the most important part of the system…The building occupants!
8 Most common energy hogs Building envelopeNon-insulated roofBroken windowsSingle-pane windowsPoor air-sealing tightnessPhoto on the top left is showing a single glazed window on the top and double glazed on the bottom.Photo on the top right is a roof showing deteriorating insulation.Photo on the bottom left is a wall penetration (handicap bar) during a blower door test.Photo on the bottom right is an interior corridor, drop ceiling with missing insulation.
9 Most common energy hogs Building equipmentNon-insulated piping in basementLeaks (steam, water)Inefficient or oversized boiler/burnerPoor or no heating control equipmentPoor heating Distribution: balancing problemsIncandescent lightingObsolete refrigeratorsDC motor elevatorsThis is a leaking pump.
10 Most common energy hogs Common area lighting on 24h/dayOccupant behavior and poor use of equipmentControls are not set properly: typically generates overheatingWindow opening during winter timeApartment lights on 24h/dayLack of maintenance on mechanical equipmentThe photo is typical poor design with an exterior door on the left that is south facing.
11 Top Strategies for Greening Existing Buildings Air SealingLighting & AppliancesHeating & Domestic Hot Water (DHW)InsulationMotors & PumpsWindowsPreventative Maintenance!
12 AIR SEALING Holes High and Low in the Building 1
13 So, all this heat crawls into these bypasses, where does it end up?
16 Windows Not the Best Opportunity for Savings 1Windows Not the Best Opportunity for Savings“Typical” percentage of total envelope area for a 5-story walkup building:Walls 60% R R-19Roof 20% R R-49Windows 15% R R-3*Basement % R R-13Doors 2% R R-3**This is dependant on your climate, but only varies fromTypical Recommended
17 Most Common Air Sealing Opportunities 1Most Common Air Sealing OpportunitiesElectrical penetrationsPlumbing penetrationsWindow framingWall to floor connectionDoors and vestibulesBasement ceilingRadon…?Checking concentration before sealing
18 Air Leakage – Compartmentalization 1Air Leakage – CompartmentalizationCardinal Care Covers: meant for safety but helps in air sealing.Same old thingOften the sample apartment will not be completely finished. Lights, showerheads, sprinklers, etc. may not be installed and will have to be covered to ensure testing will reflect actual operating leakage levels. Final visual inspection will be necessary for these components.
21 Under side of the bathtub being insulated and air sealed.
22 AIR SEALING Specifications needed: 1AIR SEALING Specifications needed:“Concealed spaces within partitions, walls, floors, roofs, stairs, furring, pipe spaces, column enclosures, etc. that would permit passage of flame, smoke, fumes, or hot gases from onefloor to another floor or roof space, or from one concealed area to another, shall be sealed to form an effective draft barrier, or shall be filled with noncombustible material”oops, that’s “Firestopping”
23 Lighting Don’t ignore because: 2Lighting Don’t ignore because:It could be the highest electricity usage and costFor some buildings it’s 40% of the cost.Fluorescents use 1/3 of the energy used by incandescent lighting and last 10 times longerBefore you retrofit, beware of:Code minimumsRetrofit vs. ReplaceRewiring
24 Screw-in base CFLs 2 Globe Tubular Spiral Flood lamp Lots of bulbs of various styles, not just the original version squigglyTubularSpiralFlood lamp
25 Lamar Occusmart dimming fixture - Savings and Payback 2Lamar Occusmart dimming fixture - Savings and PaybackThis assumes changing 20 fixtures and reducing to 20% light levels.
26 Opportunities for Occupancy, Photo Sensors & Bi-level Lighting 2Opportunities for Occupancy, Photo Sensors & Bi-level LightingBoiler roomsStorage roomsGarbage roomsEquipment roomsElevator roomsSlop sink roomsMeter roomsOfficesLaundry roomsApartments?Exterior lighting during the day!!!!!Garage lightingAsk them which retrofit is appropriate for each area of the building.Stress the importance of cleaning the lens of a photosensor.
29 Air Conditioners 2 Need to be sized to the apartment load If they are too big, they will cool the room but not remove humidityNeed to be Energy StarCannot put a window unit in a sleeveSleeve units are less efficient
30 2AC COVERSFor window units, they cover and protect the condensing unit while stopping some air leakage.For sleeve units, they also protect the unit and prevent leakage through the sleeve.
31 2Get the American Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) guide to purchasing and sizing room A/C units:
32 Refrigerators & Dishwashers 2Refrigerators & DishwashersRefrigeratorsSpecify Energy StarUse a Kill-o-Watt meter to determine real usage of older modelsDishwashersUses less water than hand washing dishes
33 Clothes Washers and Dryers Usually leased with a service contractAsk for Energy Star washersFront load washers use less water, less hot water, and wring clothes out betterDrying time is shorter, clothes are cleanerDryers should NEVER be electric, gas is more efficientYour supplier carries Energy Star appliances and will install if you pester themRequire that all gas dryers be vented to the exterior. Require CO detectors in all rooms with gas dryers.
34 Energy Saving Solutions: 2Lighting & AppliancesEnergy Saving Solutions:Specify Energy Star (ES) lighting: all bulbs, all fixtures, all exit lightsSpecify ES appliances: refrigerators, dishwashers, washing machines (even contracted from laundry services), ventilation fans, etc.Specify high efficiency motors (MotorMaster computer software free!)Use any incentives available for electrical upgrades (www.dsireusa.org)
35 HEATING/DHW EQUIPMENT 3HEATING/DHW EQUIPMENTSolutionsSpecify heating systems – don’t just replace with sameStop specifying inefficient/cheap equipment (min efficiency 85% efficient)Specify Energy Star equipmentHave the equipment sized to load, make your engineer show the math (Ask for the Manual J report)Consider DHW storage from boiler or combined DHW/furnace
36 3 Who has seen one of these before? Who has a building manager who uses it correctly?Heat timer panel/control most widely used and easy to run equipment; easy to service
37 4INSULATION Insulation is incorrectly or poorly installed, or sometimes not installed at all.
39 Missing insulation in the ceiling 4Missing insulation in the ceiling
40 4INSULATIONSolutions:Use infrared imaging as a method of identifying missing and/or sagging insulationTrain and oversee insulation subsFit insulation in place and cut around plumbing and wiring boxes to fit in place without compressionChange framing practices; specify framing to be optimum value engineered (OVE) framing
41 MOTORS 5 Elevator Fans Motors use ½ of all electricity in the US! Boiler PumpsHot Water PumpsWater Booster PumpsMany others specific to your buildingsMotors use ½ of all electricity in the US!Ask where we find motors in
42 5To find the most efficient replacement motors available, download the FREE MotorMaster software:
43 “Cool” suggestions for improving chiller operation 5“Cool” suggestions for improving chiller operationOil-free, magnetic bearing Turbocor compressors: can save up to 40% of electricity on electric chillers. New high efficiency chillers include this technology: McQuay, Smardt,… but retrofit kits can be installed on existing chillers.Soft start capabilityVariable Frequency Drives on circulating pump motors, condenser water pumps motor, cooling tower fans.
44 (they are rarely cost-effective as an energy item) 6WINDOWSPoor window specifications and resistance to the use of vinyl or other higher performing windows cause poor performance and complaints.(they are rarely cost-effective as an energy item)
45 6 Windows Measuring Effectiveness of Low-E Coatings Radiant heat bulbs able to measure exact temp in a location – can tell if colder next to window.
46 6No Low-E CoatingNo coating you see the temp results – purple line closer to window
47 Retrofitted w/ Low-E Coating 6Retrofitted w/ Low-E CoatingConsistent temperature – coating helps stop solar gain, helps stop radiant moving through windows
48 Retrofitting w/ Low-E Coating* 6Retrofitting w/ Low-E Coating*Low-E window film = $3/sfNew window = $40/sfLow-E film provides 6.6 times greater energy cost savings that total replacement with low-e windowsIn the south, savings were 10.2 times greaterRetrofitting averaged 5% total building energy cost savings, but ranged as high as 10% in the southern climate zoneFind someone who knows what they are doing to explore this, may only want it on some sides of the building due to temp.*Source: Comparative Analysis of Retrofit Window Film Replacement w/ High Performance Windows, Steve DeBusk Global Energy Solutions, 2005
49 New windows need to have: 6New windows need to have:Minimum double paneFrame that conducts less heat/coldProper installation proceduresLow emissivity (low-e) coatings particular to your regionOverall R-Value established by NFRC
50 Preventive Maintenance Prepared by Steven Winter Associates, Inc.7May 8, 2008Preventive MaintenanceScheduled maintenance rather than emergency calls for services can significantly reduce operating costsKeep documentation on:Equipment inventoryInspection and maintenance scheduleWork order systemResponse policy and proceduresContractors and vendorsKeep electronic recordsBuilding Envelope: EEBO Training
51 Prepared by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. 7May 8, 2008Log bookOne book per buildingLog date of eventCompare complaints and building activitiesBuilding Envelope: EEBO Training
52 Boilers Hot water makers Furnaces 7All heating and hot water appliances that burn fuel should be tested annuallyBoilersHot water makersFurnaces
53 This burner is worthless if not properly adjusted! 7This burner is worthless if not properly adjusted!
54 This control panel is worthless unless properly adjusted! 7This control panel is worthless unless properly adjusted!
55 What are you going to do today. Go to www. dsireuse What are you going to do today? Go to and see what incentives are available in my area.
56 What are things you’re going to do in next week? Talk to lighting supplier; change to all fluorescentGet the instructions for all of the HVAC ventilation, and control equipmentRequest a printout of all of your energy bills for 2 years from your suppliersChange your appliance purchasing to all Energy Star
57 What are things you’re going to do in next month? Calculate your heating usage in Btu/ft2/HDDCheck firing rate and combustion efficiency of all combustion appliancesTest selected showers, sinks, and toilets for water usageBegin air-sealing protocols throughout your building
58 What are things you’re going to do in next year? Have an energy audit done in your buildingPlan long-term capital intensive system replacements (HVAC, roof windows, elevators) for highest efficiency and greatest durabilityReduce your energy usage by 20%
59 The Checklist Get all of your energy usage and cost Vow to cut the biggest costs by 20%Change all your lights to compact fluorescentShut off stuff when you’re not using itShut off Phantom LoadsTurn the temperature of your heat and hot water downTurn you’re A/C temperature UPFind Hole, Seal HoleStop using your windows to control heat
60 Top Strategies for Greening Existing Buildings Air SealingLighting & AppliancesHeating & Domestic Hot Water (DHW)InsulationMotors & PumpsWindowsPreventative Maintenance!
63 Energy Audits Follow ASHRAE and BPI Standards for auditing BPI is specific to MF buildingsDifferent levels of auditing by increasing complexityWalkthrough auditsWeatherization auditsWhole building auditsInvestment grade auditsDepending on the consultant, you could be provided with a wide range of information
64 Who can do an energy audit? Building Performance Institute certified:Multifamily Building AnalystBuilding AnalystAffiliated OrganizationCertified Energy ManagerAssociation of Energy EngineersWeatherization Agencies
65 Typical Scope of Work Boiler replacement Air sealing Atmospheric to condensing; separate smaller boiler for DHWAir sealingVentilation balancing and aerosealingCAR damper installationDuct cleaningRoof fan replacementLighting changeCFLs in the units or LED stripsBi-level fluorescent lighting in common areasLED exit signsMotion sensors wherever applicable
66 Typical Scope of Work Low-flow faucet aerators and showerheads Thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) and orificesAdded insulation to the roof cavityAC coversEnergy Star appliancesReplace motors with premium efficiency motorsWeatherstripping doors
67 Importance of Training & Tools for Building Staff Building staff need to understand, know how to operate and optimize the new equipment in their buildingUse videos for on-site toolsImportance preventative maintenance and action planEnergy Efficient Building Operator (EEBO) TrainingBuilding Performance Institute (BPI) certification for all building operatorsA push towards building efficiency causes a need for trained operators
68 Implementation, Construction Management & Quality Control Coordination: construction team, project team, building occupants, building users
69 Air Leakage – Compartmentalization Same old thingOften the sample apartment will not be completely finished. Lights, showerheads, sprinklers, etc. may not be installed and will have to be covered to ensure testing will reflect actual operating leakage levels. Final visual inspection will be necessary for these components.
71 6 Small Buildings in Brooklyn 6 small affordable housing buildingsAll unitsSame ownerSame atmospheric gas boilers in every oneAll gut rehabbed in the late 80’s
72 Typical Energy Consumption Breakdown of the 6 Buildings Each building had atmospheric gas boilers that were less than 75% efficient. They all were gut rehabbed so the building was really leaky.Typical Energy Consumption Breakdown of the 6 Buildings
73 Audit Process Visiting apartments Interviewing staff and tenants Find the person who’s worked there the longestBenchmarkingCombustion efficiency testingAir leakage testing
74 Scope of Work Air sealing Energy efficient lighting and appliances Very common energy efficiency measureEnergy efficient lighting and appliancesLow-flow aerators and showerheadsMake pictures
75 Scope of Work Boiler replacement Upgrade roof insulation Fix the existing controlsUpgrade roof insulationBoiler Control Turned OffBad roof insulation
76 2 Story Garden Style Building 1987 refrigerators and heat pumpsKitchen, laundry and bath venting into the atticOld commercial kitchen ventilation not sealed offMoisture damage throughout the buildingNo controls for the boiler100% outdoor airT12 and Incandescent lighting
77 Possible Scope Replace all refrigerators and heat pumps Combine groups of attic vents and vent through the roofAIRSEALProperly decommission commercial kitchen equipmentAirsealing and fixing the ventilation will fix moisture problem and save energyEnergy recoveryFull lighting retrofit
78 Conclusion You can always find ways to increase efficiency Talk to the tenants and maintenance staffBuilding psychologyInvestigate all possible funding opportunities for the ownerKnow when to call in the experts