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Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.
Thermal management consulting company Located in the heart of Silicon Valley Provide solutions for thermal design problems Use of experience, modeling & experimental methods in the design process Clients include over 60 companies

3 Outline Introduction Need for Innovative Cooling Solutions Objective
Scope of this Presentation Cooling Solutions – Air-based Cooling Systems – Water-based Cooling Systems – Refrigerant-based Cooling Systems Comparative Analysis Conclusion Vendor Contacts

4 Introduction - Power Density and Heat Load Trends
Electrical Power = Waste Heat Increase in power densities from the CPU-level to the System-level Component level Board-level System-level Rack-level Room-level Current power density at the rack level = 1 to 3 kilowatts (up to 30 kilowatts per rack in two to four years - Hannemann and Chu ‘07)

5 Need for Innovative Cooling Solutions at Rack-Level
Datacenter TCO is characterized on a per rack basis Addition of newer and higher powered equipment in existing datacenters Hotspots in datacenter resulting from high-density servers Hotspots resulting from unavailability of cooling air from CRAC units Design shortcomings within the rack result in inefficient cooling

6 Objective Cooling of equipment in rack using airflow and impact of minor design changes for better cooling Cooling of high density equipment using water-based cooling techniques Cooling of high density equipment using refrigeration-based cooling techniques Provide vendor data for the above mentioned products

7 Scope of this Presentation
Limited to discussion of cooling solutions only at the rack level Closed racks and commercially available products Discussion on Component-level, Board-level and Room-level cooling can be personally consulted

8 Airflow-based Cooling Techniques

9 Cooling of Racks with Conditioned Air
Most easy to implement and maintain Limitation based on cooling capacity, acoustics and power consumption Detailed analysis could improve efficiency of air cooling Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Pressure drops and airflow patterns Determine by-pass air Determine areas of re-circulation Determine failure modes of cabinet fans Requires testing to develop confidence in models

10 Cooling of Racks with Conditioned Air
Airflow Enhancement in Racks Based on CFD Analysis Sample case study 1 Sample case study 2 Cabinet powered fans – airflow layouts Best practices Airflow enhancing products

11 Sample Case Study 1 Study done by Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.,
42U Cabinet fitted with twenty one 2U units 15.75 kilowatts per rack Inlet temperature of 40 deg C Airflow – 1932 CFM 10,000 ft Altitude Conditions Simplified cabinet shown here Objective was to optimize the cabinet for better cooling/use of higher powered equipment

12 Sample Case Study 1 (Contd …)
Higher temperatures at the inlet sides Inlet Temperature Re-circulation of Flow

13 Sample Case Study 1 (Contd …)
Added vertical blockages Open space between the rack rails and cabinet sides Vertical blockages between the rack rails and cabinet sides

14 Sample Case Study 1 (Contd …)
Added blockage above the topmost unit of the rack Top of 2U server Area above the topmost 2U rack is blocked Top of rack cover meant for passing cables from front to rear

15 Sample Case Study 1 (Contd …)

16 Comparison of Inlet Temperatures
Sample Case Study 1 (Contd …) Comparison of Inlet Temperatures No blockages Blocked passages

17 Sample Case Study 1 (Contd …)
Fixed Exhaust Temperature (deg C) 55 60 No Blockages With Blockages Mean Inlet Temperature (deg C) 43.9 41.2 Fixed Airflow 92 CFM Power (W) per unit 397 493 575 675 Total power of Rack (kW) 8.3 10.3 12.1 14.1 Current study shows 17 to 25 % increase in power dissipation based on exhaust temperature. By blocking re-circulating flow, it is possible to use higher powered equipment in the rack. Blocking can be done by employing Brush Strips. Avoid using larger racks with rails set to lower rack width settings (Using 23” rack with rails set to hold 19” equipment)

18 Sample Case Study 2 Study done by Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc.,
Container wall Study done by Electronic Cooling Solutions Inc., Racks placed in containers Create airflow model of blowers Evaluate alternate designs for blower module Heat Exchanger 2U Servers 2U Servers Blower Module Rack Model Symmetry Walls

19 Testing to collect data for modeling
Sample Case Study 2 Testing Module 1 – 860 CFM Module 2 – 1024 CFM Apprx 20% increase in airflow with the re-designed baffles and perforated casing Testing to collect data for modeling

20 Cooling of Racks with Conditioned Air
Airflow Enhancement in Racks Based on CFD Analysis Sample case study 1 Sample case study 2 Cabinet powered fans – airflow layouts Best practices Airflow enhancing products

21 Airflow Enhancers – Cabinet Powered Fans
Supply Air Ceiling Raised Floor Front In – Top Out Front or Footprint Inlet Supply Air Raised Floor Front In – Rear Out

22 Airflow Enhancers (Cabinet Best Practices)
Supply Air Raised Floor Raised Floor Supply Air

23 Airflow Enhancers (Cabinet Best Practices (Contd…))
Dropped Ceiling Dropped Ceiling Raised Floor Raised Floor Supply Air Supply Air

24 Airflow Enhancing Products
APC 2U Rack Air Distribution Delivers air directly from the raised floor into the rack inlet Minimizes top-bottom inlet temperature distribution Allows rack loads up to 3.5 kilowatts per rack Bottom-Top Rack Air Distribution Unit Side Rack Air Distribution Unit Roof Air Removal Unit Application View Images: APC (www.apc.com)

25 Airflow Enhancing Products (Contd…)
Rittal Side Breathing Air Baffle System Rittal Enclosure Blower Images: Rittal (www.rittal-corp.com) Higher density rear door rack air removal unit Allows rack loads up to 16.5 kilowatts /14 kilowatts per rack Challenges in obtaining flow through tiles in the datacenter Liebert XDA APC Images: and

26 Water-based Cooling Techniques

27 Water-based Cooling Basis: QLOAD = mCp DT = rVCp DT
(Water has 3000 times higher heat carrying capacity than air) Chilled water from building supply Cooling high density servers up to 70 kilowatts per rack Lower energy cost as some of the CRAC units can be removed Avoid hotspots due to high power-density equipment Possible to have redundant systems (Chillers, pumps, piping, and power supply) to avoid downtime Importance of CDU Electrically conductive, corrosiveness and high flow rates

28 Pure Water-based Cooling
Combination of Air and Water Cooling Pure Water-based Cooling Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger Raised Floor Raised Floor

29 Water-based Cooling Cooling system design by Naissus Thermal Management Solutions Heat removal of 20+ kilowatts Closed liquid loop with bottom mounted fin and tube heat exchanger Thermal test done with 5 blade servers Water from Chiller Water sent to Chiller

30 Temperature Distribution inside the Rack
Water-based Cooling Temperature Distribution inside the Rack

31 Water-based Cooling Cooling system design by Vette Corp.
Heat removal of up to 30 kilowatts Rear door closed loop liquid heat exchanger designed by IBM Currently available only for IBM Enterprise Rack Available from Rittal for retro-fit designs IBM Rear Door Heat Exchanger Images: Pressure drop across the heat exchanger for a typical 1U fan setup

32 Heat Exchanger and Fan Assembly
Water-based Cooling Cooling system design by APC. Heat removal of up to 70 kilowatts Controlled in-row cooling Row air containment Modularity Similar designs from HP (35 kilowatts) Similar concepts available from Rittal (30 kilowatts) Similar concepts available from Liebert (8 kilowatts and 17 kilowatts) Heat Exchanger and Fan Assembly Front View Rear View Images:

33 Refrigerant-based Cooling Techniques

34 Refrigerant-based Cooling
Phase change (latent heat transfer) Electronics-safe Low flow rates and non-corrosive Some systems are stand-alone and hence flexible CRAC units are the most common ones Chilled water from building supply may be used for supplemental cooling Expensive ( comparable to water+ additives)

35 Refrigerant-based Cooling
Cooling system design by Liebert XDF- Cooling capacity of 14 kilowatts Stand-alone unit Liebert XDF Self Contained Unit Images:

36 Refrigerant-based Cooling
Cooling system design by APC. Heat removal of up to 43 kilowatts Modularity Rack air containment APC In-Row Cooling

37 Refrigerant-based Cooling
Cooling system design by Liebert XDV- Rack mount air conditioners (10 kilowatts) - Almost no floor space required XDH-Rack Cooling capacity up to 30 kilowatts Also available from Rittal Liebert Roof Mount Cooling Liebert In-Row Cooling Rittal Rear Door Hx Images:

38 Liquid Based Touch Cooling

39 Water/Refrigerant-based Touch Cooling
Direct contact cooling combined with chip cooling Remove heat at the source Available from: Clustered Systems Rittal (Power electronics) SprayCool (20 to 30KW) Cold plate with Liquid Cooling Liquid Cooling of Boards Images: Images: Spray Cooling Images:

40 Refrigerant-based Touch Cooling
Cooling system design by Thermal Form and Function Pumped liquid multiphase cooling Heat removal of up to 10 kilowatts per evaporator (Modular) Designed for retro-fit applications Air/Water cooled condenser unit can be used Thermal Form and Function Refrigeration Unit Images: Two Phase Flow

41 Comparison of Cooling Techniques

42 Comparative Analysis Study by Hannemann and Chu – Interpack ’07
Comparative study of cooling technologies with a model datacenter Capital Expenditure of Cooling Equipment Area required for Cooling Equipment Power Consumption of Cooling Equipment

43 Conclusion Reviewed innovative and commercially available technologies for cooling racks Discussed design approaches with use of CFD to maximize performance of air cooling Reviewed products and techniques for enhancing airflow within a rack Reviewed cooling of high density equipment using chilled water and refrigerant Selection of cooling strategy will depend on the specific requirements of the client

44 Vendor Contacts APC – Morrison, Harold Wells Associates (925-355-9900)
Rittal – Sales ( ) Liebert – Frank Stone ( ) Spray Cool – Sales ( ) Clustered Systems – Phil Hughes ( ) Trox AITCS - Thomas Hudgens ( ) Thermal Form and Function – Joe Marsala ( ) Vette Corp - Skye Emerson ( ) Naissus Thermal Management Solutions - Mirko Stevanovic ( )

45 References Product websites and communication with vendors
Hannemann, R and Chu, H., (2007), “Analysis of Alternative Data Center Cooling Approaches”, ASME Interpack 1176, Vancouver, BC.

46 Acknowledgement Speck Design
Our colleagues at Electronic Cooling Solutions: Khyati Varma Ceferino Sanchez Adriana Romero Sridevi Iyengar

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