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Presentation on theme: "PROCESS BASED PRODUCTIVITY LOSS PREVENTION PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES Professor Janaka Ruwanpura Canada Research Chair in PM Systems Director,"— Presentation transcript:

1 PROCESS BASED PRODUCTIVITY LOSS PREVENTION PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES Professor Janaka Ruwanpura Canada Research Chair in PM Systems Director, Centre for Project Management Excellence University of Calgary

2 Forecasted Construction Industry Trends Forecast construction investment expenditures in Canada ALBERTAALBERTACANADACANADAGLOBALGLOBAL Global construction industry Grow by almost 70% from 7.2 trillion today to 12 trillion by Sources: Construction Sector Council ( ), Statistics Canada, Bank of Canada, CMHC, HRSDC.) Source: Views mixed on 2011 and beyond, Jim Barnes, 2010,

3 Productivity Performance Enormous expected growth and the weaker current performance in the construction industry calls for immediate actions to confront the poor productivity performances. CANADACANADAU.SU.S

4 Productivity Productivity is affected by many issues 4 Technical IssuesManagement Issues Market ConditionsExternal Issues/factors Human/Labour Issues

5 Canadian Government Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council A Unique Partnership 5 University of Calgary Construction Industry (Contractors, Claims Consultant, Associations) Canada Research Chair Hardware Support Engineering Municipality Software Support



8 Innovative Information Booth (Concept) 8

9 Information Booth: Direct Benefits Increased Tool Time by 10% Increased productivity by 17% Enhanced worker satisfaction over 70% Improved foremens ability to set better targets with the workforce and to proactively plan the work Improved two-way communication between foremen and the workers 9

10 Real Product – i-Booth 10

11 Current Version of i-Booth 11






17 Preliminary Research Findings Tool time analysis Work process studies Document analysis Previous research findings Other related literature Methods No dedicated person for productivity related tasks No detailed productivity plan available Productivity plan if available, prepared at the head office Productivity improvement activities not integrated Productivity control is situational and isolated No proper mechanism to monitor ongoing productivity Lack of crew awareness of productivity concepts and targets No proper productivity documentation and reporting method No dedicated person for productivity related tasks No mechanism to use productivity improvement lessons in future projects

18 Tool time Analysis Trends Non productive time is still a significant portion of workers time

19 Loss Productivity Impacts Reduced Profits Exhaustive work force Schedule Overruns Conflict with clients and trades Loss of credibility Loss of trade relationships Less competitiveness

20 Productivity Improvement Measures PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT Streamline Processes Technology Loss prevention Tools and Machinery Advanced Planning & controlling Capacity building New material

21 Research Direction Possible productive time losses on activity performances are analyzed, planned and prevented Productivity improvement process is developed as a key PM process and the activities, tools and techniques are developed to facilitate the proposed processes implementation Productivity improvement and loss prevention plans will be objectively implemented with the proposed new role of CPIO Loss prevention Process streamline Objective implementation

22 Productivity Loss Prevention Approach Executed by top management High level planning Budgetary allocations Productivity strategy development Project specific productivity targets Overall coordination arrangement Executed by top management High level planning Budgetary allocations Productivity strategy development Project specific productivity targets Overall coordination arrangement Strategic Pre productivity planning Overall productivity plan Productivity targets Communication arrangement Activity simulation Done by CPIO and site management Pre productivity planning Overall productivity plan Productivity targets Communication arrangement Activity simulation Done by CPIO and site management Management Continuous monitoring Collaborative decision making Tool time and process studies Documentation & reporting Team reviewing Continuous monitoring Collaborative decision making Tool time and process studies Documentation & reporting Team reviewing Operational

23 Important Characteristics Three tier approach, strategic, Management and operational level productivity loss control & improvement Provides standard framework and courses of action Potential losses are assessed on tasks and actions and are preventive measures are planned & implemented Quantitative impact of each productivity factor on an activity is done to decide feasibility of preventive measures Productivity loss control process continues through project lifecycle and applies to overall project management processes

24 Productivity Strategy Project based High level productivity Plan Productivity target definitionDefinition of Implementation measures Strategic goal and direction Productivity budget allocation Assign responsibilities Overall productivity requirements Productivity reporting requirements Overall Site productivity management plan Integrated productivity Inputs Productivity critical process assessment Activity productivity vulnerability assessment Process based loss prevention plan & implementation Productivity team reviews and adjustments Continuous process/tool time assessment Systematic documentation of BPs, issues & lessons Interpretation & decision making Activity selection Productivity data estimation Task/sub task division Activity simulation PROCESS MODEL

25 Possible indications of loss of productivity Applied for manageable task quantities Can be applied for both man-hour and non man-hour activities Possible triggering events/factors of productivity losses Productivity Losses Indicators(PLI)

26 Excess time Time spend on completion an activity beyond planned time, caused by lack of skills, expertise Under utilized time Idle time- process driven Pure idle time Skilled worker involved in unskilled works, Worker idling time or socializing caused due poor supervision, worker attitude Workers just idle in the work place or socializing

27 Waiting time Non value added time Unplanned or accidental time Unaccounted Time Workers time loss in waiting for material, instructions, tools or machinery Workers spend time on indirect work, house keeping, cleaning, Time loss in early day offs, late turn up after break and early leave before breaks Worker time spend on unplanned or accidental works due to poor planning or coordination Productivity Losses Indicators(PLI)

28 Integrated Productivity Plan Components Targets & objectives Roles and responsibilities Critical processes Key performance indicators (KPI) Productivity aspects on other PM functions ( safety, quality, procurement, storage, facility location) Communication strategy Schedule of activities Productivity improvement teams Documentation & reporting Critical activity assessment Tools and techniques

29 Benefits of Productivity Plan Productivity plan provides direction of productivity control Layout of the actions Baseline for the productivity control process Tangible productivity targets to follow Recognition and weight for the productivity control task

30 Productivity Critical Process Assessment Not every work at site equally impact the project performance Impact of the site specific attributes on the subsequent productivity performances Help identifying critical processes in advance Provide an idea of relative importance of different work processes.

31 Productivity Critical Process Assessment PROJECT List Project Specific Characteristics Identify Potential Productivity Loss Categories Develop the matrix of loss categories & project characteristics and estimate the impact of each category Prioritize potential productivity Loss categories Plan and prepare for the possible productivity losses Project characteristics and insights on crew resources and work processes From the work process studies, tool time studies and literature reviews, identify the potential productivity related activities and loss categories Define the relations of the productivity loss categories to the project characteristics and the weightings for each relation Based on these weights and different relations, then calculate the weighted impacts of each productivity impact categories Final output would be the prioritized list of productivity loss categories that need to be closely monitored and take preventive measures for

32 Process Based Activity Simulation Productivity of an activity is determined empirically, gut feeling, etc. An activity comprises of many tasks, actions and consume different resources Productivity of these individual tasks and associated resources impacts an activity productivity differently

33 Process Based Activity Simulation Model New Activity Division to Tasks Division to Sub tasks Estimate Minimum or optimistic man hours and resources required for individual tasks Assessment of productivity Factors related to impact categories Model selected activity in simulation platform Productivity Improvability Assessment OUTPUT No Yes Based on activity specific information, feasibility of activity improvement is assessed Selected activity is divided in to manageable rational sub activities Each sub activity is then divided in to tasks which directly consumes resources and produce outputs For each task, optimistic or minimum man hour requirement, resource requirement, crew members are assigned Productivity related to the crew, resources, work processes, information etc are then calculated or estimated based on historical data or expert opinion Real work process, task sequence is then modeled in the simulation platform

34 Activity Based productivity Planning and Monitoring Assess Productivity Improvability Assessment Activity selection Analyze Tasks –sequence, planned and realistic resource hours Actions- resources requirements, possible prod. Losses Tasks and action impacts on activity Plan Plan impact reduction actions discussing with productivity teams Plan for short terms(1-2 weeks) Review Productivity Improvement team formation Schedule productivity meetings Implement Implement the planned actions Delegate the responsibilities to the relevant staff

35 Important Attributes Activity details- duration, resource hours, Tasks and actions-significant and manageable tasks, and actions which consumes different resources Condition on information, supervision, tools, plant & machines, crew, material, location and other related activity dependencies

36 A dedicated person appointed for a single or multiple construction sites who undertakes all the activity and project productivity related task planning, communicating and implementing processes as directed by the Project Manager CPIO definition

37 Need for CPIO Unavailability of proper productivity control system Current Project staff overwhelmed with the regular work Loss of productivity accounts for a significant profit decline Productivity control has become increasingly important in construction operations Confusions in productivity loss claims Complexity in projects cause productivity control process more complex than a general site activity Current industry conditions required specialized expertise knowledge on productivity related issues

38 CPIO Tasks and Benefits CPIO Material Crew Finance Equipment Information Profit Repetitive business Reputation Trade relations Overall Productivity Plan, targets & tools Assign responsibilities Preparation for crucial activities Assess & plan for potential losses Monitor performance Review and re-plan Record, document and report Project Goals Project Output

39 CPIO new implementations CPIO Enhanced Coordination Productivity communication Accountability Continuous Improvement Collaborative decision making Productivity culture Dynamic planning Dynamic Planning: Plans are reviewed frequently and changed to suit the condition Culture: Productivity conscious planning inculcate new culture Effective coordination: Decisions are taken in a coordinated manner Accountability: CPIO and the crews are assigned with productivity tasks Continuous Improvement: Improvement teams and scheduled meetings continue to improve performance Collaborative Decision: Productivity decisions are taken with the input of teams

40 CPIO Planned Tasks Planning Co-ordination Reporting Documentation Overall productivity plan, Project based productivity targets, Activity selection Activity based productivity meetings, Overall productivity responsibility assignment, Feedback mechanism on sub trade performance Monthly or weekly reporting to the head office, Necessary reporting to the client on request, Reports on Scheduled productivity meetings Update database on detailed productivity issues, Failures in the proposed and tested tools, Success methods and tools

41 Monitoring Measuring and Analyzing Tool time studies, work process assessments scheduling and conducting, tool time & productivity rend analysis, Productivity plan, activity performance monitoring CPIO Planned Tasks Contd.

42 CPIOs Tool Box Planning Crew(Craft & Supervision) Material Managemen t Information & Communication Facility Planning Producti vity plan Worker Readiness Grid(WRG) 10 weeks testing model Material mgt. model I Booth & Virtual supervisio n model Site Layout Planning Model TASKS TOOLS Monitoring & control LEED Requirements Productivity aspects of LEED Project I-Phone App for Logistics Management

43 Productivity loss due to lack of expertise, lack of motivation, mis-alignments Identification of workers and supervisors capacity and direct them for necessary capacity building Overall and Activity based productivity plans Loss of productivity due to no prior planning to prevent losses PI Tasks and Tools for CPIO PM Planning Productivity plan Crew (Craft & Supervision Worker Readiness Grid(WRG) Dynamic planning model for site temporary facilities Losses due to wrong locations of stores, sanitation, offices and work yard Facility Layout planning Work area optimization tool Productivity losses due to material unavailability, handling, storage, procurement and delivery Plan and integrate material procurement and vendor mgt Material /tools Manageme nt Material mgt model

44 Loss of productivity due to no monitoring and controlling Continuous activity monitoring model implemented in 10 week cycles for productivity improvement Overall and Activity based productivity plans Loss of productivity due to information and communication issues, unavailability, inaccuracy, inadequacy A decision support model to asses the potential productivity impact of each lead credit and to suggest the optimum conduct Loss of productivity related to LEED certification requirements 10 weeks testing model I Booth Monitoring Productivity aspects of LEED Information & Communication LEED Certification PI Tasks and Tools for CPIO

45 Concerns on CPIO implementation Selection of a qualified person Acceptance from the site staff Constraints in Contracting strategy for the scope of CPIO Concerns in controlling over trades Resistance from the staff for the new responsibilities Defining clear span of control over the site staff Higher management backing up Getting commitment of other trades for additional meetings and discussions

46 Daily Productivity Automated Real Time System

47 The Web Portal Automated Real Time System

48 Site Activity Review Automated Real Time System

49 Conclusions There is an enormous potential in the construction industry for improvement Impact of productivity has created the productivity improvement process be attended objectively and seriously Project wide overall productivity control process over selective productivity control process is in need Productivity improvement approach should focus on both short term and long term techniques, and activity based and overall methods Productivity improvement process is well facilitated by the dedicated new person proposed as CPIO

50 Conclusions Preliminary research studies highlighted most of the productivity losses are controllable

51 Final Remarks Our Motto is to develop Academically Recognized and Practically Feasible Best Practices and Tools The ultimate goal of the research project is to develop additional tools to be included in the Productivity ToolBox to benefit the construction industry. A new, practical and easy-to-implement set of practices and tools that can be used by academics for new developments and by practitioners to improve their construction business. Enhanced national and international recognition of the Centre for Project Management Excellence of the University of Calgary as the leader of the Innovative Construction Productivity Improvement research 51

52 4D CAD model of the University EEEL building project 52

53 Actual image of the University EEEL building project 53

54 Super-impose the actual image on the 4D CAD model (Concept for Demo) 54

55 Check the Progress of the Project (Concept for Demo) RED colour – behind the schedule GREEN colour – on the schedule 55

56 Canada Research Chair in Project Management Systems A Modeling Library and Tools for Building and Industrial Projects Technological Framework to Improve Design and Construction Operations Integrated Risk Management and Simulation Improving Sustainability of Development Projects Prof. Janaka Ruwanpura , , ?

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