# 8.1 Air Conditioners. Clicker question: Who first realized that the Earths temperature will rise due to increased Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere from.

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8.1 Air Conditioners

Clicker question: Who first realized that the Earths temperature will rise due to increased Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels? A.Svante Arrhenius (1900s) B. Joe Shlabotnik (1950s) C. Jim Hansen (1970s) D. Al Gore (1990s)

Phys 150 Physics of Societal Issues Spring 2012, T Th 2:00 – 3:20 PM Satisfies Physics Sciences requirement and Quantitative Reasoning II requirement Energy, Heat, Outer Space, Radiation, Nuclear Energy and Weapons, Waves, Light, Invisible Light, Climate Change, Sustainability

Big question: Why is part of an air conditioner outside?

New ideas for today Thermodynamics Entropy and the 2 nd law Practical operation of a refrigerator / air conditioner

Heat Machines Air conditioners (this lecture) –use work to transfer heat from cold to hot –heat pumps Automobiles (next lecture) –use flow of heat from hot to cold to do work –heat engines

Thermodynamics Rules governing movement of thermal energy Relationships between –thermal energy and mechanical work –disordered energy and ordered energy Codified in the laws of thermodynamics

0 th Law Law about Thermal Equilibrium If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with a third object, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. A B C If T A =T B and T B =T C then T A =T C … …and no heat flows.

1 st Law Law about Conservation of Energy Internal energy Internal energy = thermal + stored energies Heat in Heat in = heat transferred into the object Work out Work out = outside work done by the object Change in internal energy equals heat in minus work out

You can add energy into the air in a piston… By compressing itOr by heating it directly Bicycle pump

2 nd Law Law about Disorder (Entropy) Entropy of a thermally isolated system never decreases What??

Order versus Disorder It is easy to convert ordered energy into thermal (disordered) energy It is hard to convert thermal energy into ordered energy Statistically, order disorder is one-way

Entropy Entropy is a measure of an objects disorder –Includes thermal disorder and structural disorder (think solid vs. liquid) Disorder of isolated system never decreases Entropy can move or be transferred Deck of cards

2 nd Law According to the 2 nd Law: –Entropy of thermally isolated system cant decrease –But entropy can be redistributed within system –Part can become hotter while part becomes colder!

Stephen Hawking is a rapper! Did you know…

Entropy from Fear of a Black Hole also available on his greatest hits album, A Brief History of Rhyme

Marbles in the pan Theres just one perfectly ordered arrangement While theres 81 arrangements swapping only one marble Marbles in a pan Dye in water Dye in glycerin Rubber band

The Heat Pump Unnatural heat flow

Natural heat flow Heat naturally flows from hot to cold –Remove heat from hot object: entropy decreases –Add heat to cold object: entropy increases Entropy of combined system increases A joule of thermal energy is more disordering to a cold object than to a hot object heat

Victorian tea party Kids birthday party Which one becomes more disordered by adding a toddler?

Unnatural heat flow Heat does NOT naturally flow cold to hot –Removing heat from cold object decreases entropy –Adding heat to hot object increases entropy More entropy is removed than added –The same amount of heat causes a greater change on cooler objects entropy. Therefore, some ordered energy must become disordered

Air conditioner Evaporator: located in room air –transfers heat from room air to fluid Condenser: located in outside air –transfers heat from fluid to outside air Compressor: located in outside air –does work on fluid and creates entropy Uses a working fluid

Clicker question: If you open the door of a refrigerator and let it operate for a while, the average temperature in the room will A.become colder B.become hotter C.stay the same

Air conditioner, fridge

Evaporator 1 Fluid approaches evaporator as a high pressure liquid near room temperature Heat exchanger made from a long metal pipe A constriction reduces the fluids pressure Fluid enters evaporator as a low pressure liquid near room temperature Fire extinguisher

Evaporator 2 Fluid leaves evaporator as a low pressure gas near room temperature Heat has left the room! –Breaking bonds takes thermal energy –Fluid becomes a colder gas –Heat flows from room air into colder fluid Working fluid evaporates in the evaporator

Compressor –Pushes gas so gas temperature rises (first law and ideal gas law) –Ordered energy becomes disordered Working fluid enters compressor as low pressure gas near room temperature Compressor does work on fluid: Fluid leaves compressor as hot, high pressure gas. Hand compressor

Condenser 1 Heat exchanger made from long metal pipe Fluid enters condenser as a hot, high pressure gas Heat flows from fluid to outside air

Condenser 2 Working Fluid condenses in the condenser –Forming bonds releases energy: Thermal energy Fluid leaves condenser as high pressure liquid near room temperature Heat has reached the outside air! –Fluid becomes hotter liquid –More heat flows from fluid to outside air

A heat pump does work to transfer heat from cold to hot Evaporator: located in room air –transfers heat from room air to fluid Condenser: located in outside air –transfers heat from fluid to outside air Compressor: located in outside air –does work on fluid and creates entropy Summary: Air conditioner

See you next class! For next class: Read Section 8.2

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