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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Immigration Section 2 Urbanization Section 3 The Gilded Age Section 4 The Rebirth of Reform Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

3 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Intro 1

4 Chapter Objectives Section 1: Immigration
Analyze the circumstances surrounding the great wave of immigration after the Civil War. Evaluate how nativism affected immigration policies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 2

5 Chapter Objectives Section 2: Urbanization
Explain the technological developments that made the growth of cities possible. Evaluate the role that political machines played in urban politics in the late 1800s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 3

6 Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Gilded Age
Evaluate the doctrine of Social Darwinism and the impact it had on American industry. Explain how industrialization promoted leisure time and encouraged new forms of entertainment. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 4

7 Chapter Objectives Section 4: The Rebirth of Reform
Explain the methods that social critics advocated to improve society. Evaluate efforts to help the urban poor. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 5

8 Why It Matters European and Asian immigrants arrived in the United States in great numbers during the late 1800s. Providing cheap labor, they made rapid industrial growth possible. They also helped populate the growing cities. The immigrants’ presence affected both urban politics and labor unions. Reactions to immigrants and to an urban society were reflected in new political organizations and in literature and philosophy. Intro 6

9 The Impact Today Industrialization and urbanization permanently influenced American life. The United States continues to be a magnet for immigrants seeking a better way of life. The cities of the United States continue to draw new residents in search of opportunity. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 7

10 continued on next slide
Intro 8

11 Intro 9

12 End of Intro

13 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
After the Civil War, millions of immigrants from Europe and Asia settled in the United States. Key Terms and Names steerage nativism Chinese Exclusion Act Ellis Island Jacob Riis Angel Island Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

14 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Categorizing Complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 336 of your textbook by filling in the reasons people left their homelands to immigrate to the United States. Reading Objectives Analyze the circumstances surrounding the great wave of immigration after the Civil War. Evaluate how nativism affected immigration policies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

15 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Geography and History Immigrants from all over the world enriched the cultural life of the United States. Section 1-3

16 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 1-4

17 Europeans Flood Into the United States
By 1900, eastern and southern Europeans made up more than half of all immigrants. Of the 14 million immigrants who arrived between 1860 and 1900, many were European Jews. (pages 336–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

18 Europeans Flood Into the United States (cont.)
America offered immigrants employment, few immigration restrictions, avoidance of military service, religious freedom, and the chance to move up the social ladder. Most immigrants took the difficult trip to America in steerage, the least expensive accommodations on a steamship. The 14-day trip usually ended at Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor. (pages 336–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

19 Europeans Flood Into the United States (cont.)
It served as a processing center for most immigrants arriving on the East coast after 1892. Most immigrants passed through Ellis Island in a day. However, some faced the possibility of being separated from family and possibly sent back to Europe due to health problems. (pages 336–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

20 Europeans Flood Into the United States (cont.)
Most immigrants settled in cities. They lived in neighborhoods that were separated into ethnic groups. Here they duplicated many of the comforts of their homelands, including language and religion. Immigrants who learned English, adapted to American culture, had marketable skills or money, or if they settled among members of their own ethnic group tended to adjust well to living in the United States. (pages 336–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Europeans Flood Into the United States (cont.) What helped immigrants adjust to living in the United States? Immigrants tended to adjust well to living in the United States if they quickly learned English and adapted to the American culture. Skilled immigrants, those who had money, or those who lived among their own ethnic group also tended to adjust more successfully. (pages 336–339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-9

22 Asian Immigration to America
Severe unemployment, poverty, and famine in China; the discovery of gold in California; the Taiping Rebellion in China; and the demand for railroad workers in the United States led to an increase in Chinese immigration to the United States in the mid-1800s. In Western cities, Chinese immigrants worked as laborers, servants, skilled tradesmen, and merchants. Some opened their own laundries. (page 339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

23 Asian Immigration to America
(cont.) Between 1900 and 1908, large numbers of Japanese migrated to the United States as Japan began to build an industrial economy and an empire. In 1910 a barracks was opened on Angel Island in California. Here, Asian immigrants, mostly young men and boys, waited sometimes for months for the results of immigration hearings. (page 339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Asian Immigration to America (cont.) What caused the increase in Japanese immigrants between 1900 and 1910? Japanese immigration to the United States increased because Japan started to build an industrial economy and an empire. The economy of Japan was disrupted and caused hardship for the Japanese people. (page 339) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-12

25 The Resurgence of Nativism
The increase in immigration led to nativism, an extreme dislike for foreigners by native-born people and the desire to limit immigration. Earlier, in the 1840s and 1850s, nativism was directed towards the Irish. In the early 1900s, it was the Asian, Jews, and eastern Europeans that were the focus of nativism. Nativism led to the forming of two anti-immigrant groups. (page 340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

26 The Resurgence of Nativism (cont.)
The American Protective Association was founded in 1887. The party’s founder, Henry Bowers, disliked Catholicism. He wanted to stop Catholic immigration. In the 1870s, Denis Kearny, an Irish immigrant, organized the Workingman’s Party of California. This group wanted to stop Chinese immigration. Racial violence resulted. (page 340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

27 The Resurgence of Nativism (cont.)
In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act that barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in America from becoming citizens. This act was renewed by Congress in 1892, made permanent in 1902, and not repealed until 1943. (page 340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Resurgence of Nativism (cont.) Why did nativists oppose eastern European immigrants? Nativists thought the large influx of Catholic immigrants from Ireland would give the Catholic Church too much power in the American government. Labor unions feared that immigrants would work for lower wages and take work as strikebreakers. (page 340) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-16

29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. cramped quarters on a ship’s lower decks for passengers paying the lowest fares __ 2. a preference for native–born people and a desire to limit immigration A A. steerage B. nativism B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 1-17

30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Describe where most immigrants to the United States settled in the late 1800s. Most immigrants settled in neighborhoods of large cities. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-18

31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain why nativist organizations sought to limit immigration. Nativist organizations disliked their religion, and immigrants were perceived to take jobs from Americans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-19

32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Geography and History What routes did European and Asian immigrants take to get to the United States? Europeans generally entered through Ellis Island, New York, Asians through Angel Island, San Francisco. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-20

33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Why did some Americans blame immigrants for the nation’s problems? They were blamed for economic recession and stigmatized for their religion and political beliefs. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-21

34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Political Cartoons Compare the cartoons on page 338 of your textbook. What conclusions can you draw about American views on immigration in the late 1880s? Why do you think various people viewed immigration differently? Some Americans embraced immigrants and others were threatened by new arrivals. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-22

35 Close Evaluate how nativism affected immigration policies.
Section 1-23

36 End of Section 1

37 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
During the three decades following the Civil War, the United States transformed rapidly from a rural nation to a more urban one. Key Terms and Names skyscraper George Plunkitt graft William M. “Boss” Tweed Louis Sullivan tenement political machine party boss Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

38 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about urbanization in the United States in the late 1800s, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 341 of your textbook by filling in the problems the nation’s urban areas faced. Reading Objectives Explain the technological developments that made the growth of cities possible. Evaluate the role that political machines played in urban politics in the late 1800s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

39 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Government and Democracy Political bosses grew powerful in urban areas by helping immigrants find work and necessities. Section 2-3

40 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 2-4

41 Americans Migrate to the Cities
The urban population of the United States grew from about 10 million in 1870 to over 30 million by 1900. Immigrants remained in the cities, where they worked long hours for little pay. Still, most immigrants felt their standard of living had improved in the United States. Farmers began moving to cities because of better paying jobs, electricity, running water, plumbing, and entertainment. (pages 341–342) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

42 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Americans Migrate to the Cities (cont.) What did the cities have to offer Americans that rural America did not? Cities had electricity, running water, and modern plumbing. People were able to go to museums, attend theater performances, and visit libraries as well. (pages 341–342) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-6

43 The New Urban Environment
Housing and transportation needs changed due to the increase in the amount of people living in cities. As the price of land increased, building owners began to build up. Skyscrapers, tall steel frame buildings, were constructed for this reason. Chicagoan Louis Sullivan contributed to the design of skyscrapers. (pages 342–343) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

44 The New Urban Environment (cont.)
In the late 1800s, various kinds of mass transit developed to move large numbers of people around cities quickly. Beginning with the horsecar, and later to the more sophisticated electric trolley cars and elevated railroads, engineers created ways to move the ever-expanding population around the city. (pages 342–343) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

45 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The New Urban Environment (cont.) What made it necessary to build skyscrapers? The increasing need for land drove the price of land up. Buildings were built upward instead of outward to use less land in an effort to keep costs down. (pages 342–343) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-9

46 Separation by Class Definite boundaries could be seen between where the wealthy, middle class, and working class people lived. Wealthy families lived in the heart of the city where they constructed elaborate homes. The middle class, which included doctors, lawyers, engineers, and teachers, tended to live away from the city. The majority of urban dwellers were part of the working class who lived in city tenements, or dark and crowded multi-family apartments. (page 343) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-10

47 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Separation by Class (cont.) What were some differences between the social classes? The social classes differed in their level of income and the area in which they lived. The wealthy lived in the heart of the city in elaborate homes. The middle class lived away from the central city and used commuter lines to get to work. The working class lived in cities in tenements. (page 343) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-11

48 Urban Problems The growth of cities resulted in an increase in crime, fire, disease, and pollution. From 1880 to 1900, there was a large increase in the murder rate. Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the increase in crime. Alcohol contributed to crime in the late 1800s. Contaminated drinking water from improper sewage disposal resulted in epidemics of typhoid fever and cholera. (page 344) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

49 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Urban Problems (cont.) Were native-born Americans correct in blaming immigrants for the increase in crime and violence? Why or why not? The crime rate for immigrants was not significantly higher than that of native-born Americans. (page 344) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-13

50 Urban Politics A new political system was needed to cope with the new urban problems. The political machine, an informal political group designed to gain and keep power, provided essentials to city dwellers in exchange for votes. Party bosses ran the political machines. George Plunket, an Irish immigrant, was one of New York City’s most powerful party bosses. The party bosses had tight control of the city’s money. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

51 Urban Politics (cont.) Many of the politicians became wealthy due to fraud or graft–getting money through dishonest or questionable means. The most famous New York Democratic political machine was Tammany Hall. During the 1860s and 1870s, Tammany Hall’s boss was William M. Tweed. Tweed’s corruption sent him to prison in 1874. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-15

52 Urban Politics (cont.) Thomas and James Pendergast were party bosses in Kansas City, Missouri. They led state and city politics from the 1890s to the 1930s. Opponents of political machines, such as Thomas Nast, blasted bosses for their corruption. Defenders, though, thought machines supplied necessary services and helped to assimilate the masses of new city dwellers. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

53 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Urban Politics (cont.) What were some of the problems caused by political machines? The bosses that ran the political machines grew rich by accepting bribes, selling permits to friends, and dealing in other corrupt ways to benefit themselves. (pages 344–345) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-17

54 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. the acquisition of money in dishonest ways, as in bribing a politician __ 2. an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government __ 3. the person in control of a political machine __ 4. a very tall building __ 5. multi-family apartments, usually dark, crowded, and barely meeting minimal living standards E A. skyscraper B. tenement C. political machine D. party boss E. graft C D A B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 2-18

55 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain what two technologies made the building of skyscrapers possible in the late 1800s. Steel frames and durable plate glass made the building of skyscrapers possible. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-19

56 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy How did political machines respond to the needs of the people? Political machines provided jobs, housing, food, heat, and police protection. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-20

57 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Comparing Compare the conditions under which the wealthy class, the middle class, and the working class lived in the United States in the late 1800s. The wealthy lived in grand homes in fashionable areas. The middle class lived in comfortable homes in streetcar suburbs, and the working class lived in tenements. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-21

58 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Examining Photographs Study the photographs of the Brooklyn Bridge and the Flatiron Building on page 342 of your textbook. Why was it advantageous to construct taller buildings rather than purchase more land? Land was limited and expensive, and taller buildings allowed more people to work in the cities. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-22

59 Close Evaluate the role that political machines played in urban politics in the late 1800s. Section 2-23

60 End of Section 2

61 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
Industrialism and urbanization changed American society’s ideas and culture in the late 1800s. Key Terms and Names Gilded Age realism vaudeville ragtime Scott Joplin Social Darwinism Gospel of Wealth philanthropy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

62 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Categorizing Complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 348 of your textbook by filling in the main idea of each of the theories and movements listed. Reading Objectives Evaluate the doctrine of Social Darwinism and the impact it had on American industry. Explain how industrialization promoted leisure time and encouraged new forms of entertainment. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

63 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Cultures and Traditions The Gilded Age was an era of great cultural change in the United States. Section 3-3

64 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 3-4

65 A Changing Culture In 1873 Mark Twain and Charles Warner co-wrote the novel, The Gilded Age. Historians use this term to refer to the time between 1870 and 1900. The term “gilded” refers to something being gold on the outside while the inside is made of cheaper material. The authors tried to point out that although this was a time of growth, beneath the surface were corruption, poverty, and a huge difference between rich and poor. (pages 348–349) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

66 A Changing Culture (cont.)
Industrialization and urbanization caused Americans to look at society in a different way. This gave way to new values, art, and forms of entertainment. A strong belief during the Gilded Age was the idea of individualism. This is the belief that regardless of your background, you could still rise in society. (pages 348–349) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

67 A Changing Culture (cont.)
Horatio Alger, a minister from Massachusetts, left the clergy and moved to New York where he wrote over 100 novels about rags-to-riches stories. (pages 348–349) Section 3-7

68 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
A Changing Culture (cont.) Why did Mark Twain and Charles Warner call the era from about 1870 to around 1900 the Gilded Age? They were trying to warn people about the society during this time. “Gilded” refers to something covered in gold on the outside while the inside is cheaper. They believed that although on the surface, society appeared to shine, the inside actually held corruption, poverty, and crime. (pages 348–349) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-8

69 Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer, an English philosopher, first proposed the idea of Social Darwinism. Spencer took Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection and applied it to human society. Like Darwin’s theory–that a species that cannot adapt to the environment will eventually die out–Spencer felt that human society evolved through competition. (pages 349–350) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

70 Social Darwinism (cont.)
He concluded that society progressed and became better because only the fittest people survived. Industrial leaders agreed with Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism paralleled laissez-faire, an economic doctrine that was opposed to government interference with business. (pages 349–350) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

71 Social Darwinism (cont.)
Many devout Christians and some leading scientists opposed the idea of Darwin’s conclusions about the origin of new species. They rejected the theory of evolution because it went against the Bible’s account of creation. (pages 349–350) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

72 Social Darwinism (cont.)
Andrew Carnegie, a wealthy business leader, believed in Social Darwinism and laissez-faire. However, he also felt those who profited from society should give something back, so he softened Social Darwinism with his Gospel of Wealth. This philosophy stated that wealthy Americans were responsible and should engage in philanthropy, using great fortunes to further social progress. (pages 349–350) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

73 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Social Darwinism (cont.) Why were devout Christians and some science leaders against Social Darwinism? They rejected the theory of evolution because it went against the Bible’s account of creation. (pages 349–350) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-13

74 Realism A new movement in art and literature, called realism, portrayed people in realistic situations instead of idealizing them as the romantic artists had done. Thomas Eakins, a painter from Philadelphia, observed and painted day-to-day living in a realistic fashion. He used realistic detail and precise lighting. (pages 350–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-14

75 Realism (cont.) Writer and literary critic William Dean Howells wrote realistically about American life. He also recognized talent in several writers of this time, including Mark Twain, who wrote Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884. Twain is thought to have written the first true American novel. Henry James, an English writer, portrayed the lives of the upper class in his 1881 novel, Portrait of a Lady. (pages 350–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

76 Realism (cont.) Edith Wharton won a Pulitzer Prize for the novel The Age of Innocence, which portrayed the complicated lives of the upper-class in New York in the 1870s. (pages 350–351) Section 3-16

77 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Realism (cont.) How did the realism movement in art and literature differ from that of the romantic artists? The realism movement portrayed people realistically. It did not attempt to idealize people as the romantics did. (pages 350–351) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-17

78 Popular Culture Popular culture changed in the late 1800s.
People had more money to spend on entertainment and recreation. Work became separate from home. People looked to have fun by “going out” to public entertainment. During the 1800s, the saloon acted like a community and political center for male workers. It offered free toilets, water for horses, free newspapers, and free lunches. (pages 351–352) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-18

79 Popular Culture (cont.)
Coney Island in New York was an amusement park that attracted working class families and single adults. It offered amusements such as water slides and railroad rides. Watching sports became very popular in the late 1800s. Baseball began to appear in the United States in the early 1800s. (pages 351–352) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-19

80 Popular Culture (cont.)
In 1869 the first salaried team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, was formed. Football and basketball also became popular during this time. In the early 1880s, vaudeville became popular. It was adapted from the French theater and combined animal acts, acrobats, gymnasts, and dancers in its performance. (pages 351–352) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-20

81 Popular Culture (cont.)
During this time, people began enjoying ragtime music. The most famous African American ragtime composer was Scott Joplin, who became known as the King of Ragtime. (pages 351–352) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-21

82 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Popular Culture (cont.) What were some of the changes in popular culture during this time? People had more money to spend during this time. As a result, they spent money on entertainment and recreation. They were also willing to leave their homes to go out in public to have fun. (pages 351–352) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-22

83 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a type of music with a strong rhythm and a lively melody with accented notes __ 2. an approach to literature, art, and theater that attempts to accurately portray things as they really are and holds that society will function best if left to itself __ 3. providing money to support humanitarian or social goals __ 4. stage entertainment made up of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows D A. philanthropy B. realism C. vaudeville D. ragtime B A C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 3-23

84 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Describe how changes in art and literature reflected the issues and characteristics of the late nineteenth century. Art and literature became more realistic as artists and writers depicted the world as they believed it to be, not as they thought it should be. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-24

85 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Cultures and Traditions What were the defining characteristics of the Gilded Age? Defining characteristics included individualism, urbanization, new values, art, and forms of entertainment. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-25

86 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Synthesizing Do you think the idea of the Gospel of Wealth is still alive today? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-26

87 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Examining Photographs Analyze the photograph at the top page 352 in your textbook. How does the clothing the musicians are wearing compare with the clothing worn by musicians today? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-27

88 Close Evaluate the doctrine of Social Darwinism and its impact on industry. Section 3-28

89 End of Section 3

90 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
The pressing problems of the urban poor in the late 1800s and the early 1900s eventually stimulated attempts to reform industrial society. Key Terms and Names Henry George Jane Addams settlement house Americanization Lester Frank Ward Edward Bellamy naturalism Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-1

91 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about reform movements in the United States in the late 1800s, complete an outline like the one on page 353 of your textbook by listing the people whose ideas influenced the movements. Reading Objectives Explain the methods that social critics advocated to improve society. Evaluate efforts to help the urban poor. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-2

92 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Individual Action Many middle- and upper-class individuals worked to soften social and economic inequality. Section 4-3

93 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 4-4

94 Social Criticism Changes in industrialization and urbanization led to debates among Americans over the issue of how to handle society’s problems. In 1879 journalist Henry George wrote a best-selling book called Progress and Poverty. It raised questions about American society and challenged the ideas of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economics. (pages 353–355) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-5

95 Social Criticism (cont.)
In 1883 Lester Frank Ward’s Dynamic Sociology argued that humans were unlike animals because they could think and plan ahead. He concluded that it was cooperation and not competition that caused people to succeed. He wanted government to become more involved in solving societal problems. These ideas became known as Reform Darwinism. (pages 353–355) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-6

96 Social Criticism (cont.)
In 1888 Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward 2000–1887 became a bestseller and helped shape the thinking of American reformers in the late 1800s. The book tells the story of a perfect society in the year 2000. (pages 353–355) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-7

97 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Social Criticism (cont.) What was the real importance of Henry George and his writings? George raised questions about American society and challenged the ideas of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economics. (pages 353–355) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-8

98 Naturalism in Literature
Realists argued that people could control their lives and make choices to improve their situation. In a style of writing known as naturalism, writers criticized industrial society. They suggested that some people failed in life due to circumstances they could not control. (page 355) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-9

99 Naturalism in Literature (cont.)
Prominent naturalist writers included Stephan Crane, Frank Norris, Jack London, and Theodore Dreiser. All wrote stories of characters caught up in situations they could not control. (page 355) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-10

100 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Naturalism in Literature (cont.) What did Jack London’s tales of Alaskan wilderness illustrate? They demonstrated the extreme power that the natural environment can have over civilization. (page 355) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-11

101 Helping the Urban Poor Reformers began to organize to help the poor.
Organizations such as the Social Gospel movement, Salvation Army, YMCA, women’s clubs, settlement houses, and temperance movements formed to help the needy. Minister Washington Gladden was an early supporter of the Social Gospel movement. He wanted to apply “Christian Law” to social problems. (pages 355–357) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-12

102 Helping the Urban Poor (cont.)
From 1870 to 1920, members of the Social Gospel group worked to better conditions in cities through charity and justice. Baptist minister Walter Rauschenbusch later led the movement. He believed that competition was the cause of many social problems. This led to many churches taking on community functions to improve society by offering gyms, social programs, and daycare. (pages 355–357) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-13

103 Helping the Urban Poor (cont.)
In 1878 the Salvation Army offered aid and religious counseling to urban poor. The YMCA attempted to help industrial workers and urban poor through Bible studies, prayer meetings, citizenship training, and group activities. They had facilities that offered libraries, gyms, pools, and low-cost hotel rooms. (pages 355–357) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-14

104 Helping the Urban Poor (cont.)
Dwight L. Moody was an evangelical Christian and president of the Chicago YMCA. He founded his own church, today known as Moody Memorial Church. By 1867 Moody was so popular that he brought his revival meetings to other cities. He was against Social Gospel and Social Darwinism. (pages 355–357) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-15

105 Helping the Urban Poor (cont.)
He felt the way to help the poor was by redeeming their souls and not by providing them with services. The settlement house movement was promoted by reformers who felt it was their Christian duty to improve the living conditions of the poor. Jane Addams set up settlement houses in poor neighborhoods. (pages 355–357) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-16

106 Helping the Urban Poor (cont.)
Addams opened Hull House in and inspired many others, including Lillian Wald’s Henry Street settlement house in New York City. Medical care, recreation programs, and English classes were provided at settlement houses. (pages 355–357) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-17

107 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Helping the Urban Poor (cont.) How did Jane Addams and Lillian Wald help the poor? They set up settlement houses that provided poor residents a place to go for medical care, recreation, English classes, and hot lunches. (pages 355–357) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-18

108 Public Education In the late 1880s, the increase of industry resulted in a need for better-trained workers. As a result, there was a need for more school and colleges. Americanization, or becoming knowledgeable about American culture, was key to the success of immigrant children. (pages 357–358) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-19

109 Public Education (cont.)
Due to the lack of educational opportunities for African Americans, Booker T. Washington led the crusade to form the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881. The grammar school system in the city divided students into eight separate grades to help teach successful habits in the workplace. (pages 357–358) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-20

110 Public Education (cont.)
The number of colleges greatly increased in the late 1800s. This was partly a result of the Morrill Land Grant Act, which gave federal land grants to states for the purposes of establishing agricultural and mechanical colleges. College attendance increased. The number of women’s colleges also increased. (pages 357–358) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-21

111 Public Education (cont.)
Free libraries provided education to city dwellers. Andrew Carnegie donated millions toward the construction of libraries. (pages 357–358) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-22

112 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Public Education (cont.) In what way did public schools pose a problem for immigrants? Parents were afraid their children would become too Americanized and forget their culture and traditions. (pages 357–358) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-23

113 Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. causing someone to acquire American traits and characteristics __ 2. a philosophy and approach to art and literature based on the belief that nature can be understood through scientific observation and that society functions best with some governmental regulation __ 3. institution located in a poor neighborhood that provided numerous community services such as medical care, child care, libraries, and classes in English C A. naturalism B. settlement house C. Americanization A B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 4-24

114 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Describe the way naturalist writers portrayed the fictional characters in their novels. Naturalist writers portrayed their characters as people who failed in life because they were caught up in circumstances beyond their control. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-25

115 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Individual Action How did the efforts of Jane Addams and Mary Brewster help poor people in urban areas in the late 1800s? Their efforts helped to provide medical care, recreation, English classes, and meals. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-26

116 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing What role do you think the government should play in the economy? Give reasons to support your opinion. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-27

117 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Graphs Examine the graphs on page 354 of your textbook, and then develop a quiz with questions based on specific information found in the graphs. Include at least one broad question about a pattern you see. Give the quiz to some of your classmates. Quizzes will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-28

118 Close Pose and answer questions about the methods that social critics advocated to improve society. Section 4-29

119 End of Section 4

120 Chapter Summary 1

121 End of Chapter Summary

122 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. providing money to support humanitarian or social goals __ 2. a preference for native–born people and a desire to limit immigration __ 3. causing someone to acquire American traits and characteristics __ 4. an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government __ 5. multi-family apartments, usually dark, crowded, and barely meeting living standards G A. steerage B. nativism C. tenement D. graft E. political machine F. party boss G. philanthropy H. vaudeville I. ragtime J. Americanization B J E C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 1

123 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6. a type of music with a strong rhythm and a lively melody with accented notes __ 7. stage entertainment made up of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows __ 8. cramped quarters on a ship’s lower decks for passengers paying the lowest fares __ 9. the acquisition of money in dishonest ways, as in bribing a politician __ 10. the person in control of a political machine I A. steerage B. nativism C. tenement D. graft E. political machine F. party boss G. philanthropy H. vaudeville I. ragtime J. Americanization H A D F Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 2

124 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts How did the Chinese in the United States react to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882? The Chinese in the United States organized letter-writing campaigns, petitioned the president, and filed suit in federal court. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 3

125 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What attempts did nativist groups make to decrease immigration to the United States in the late 1800s? Nativist groups set up the American Protective Association, the Working Man’s Party of California, and worked to get the Chinese Exclusion Act passed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 4

126 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What problems did cities in the United States face in the late 1800s? Cities faced congestion, crime, violence, fire, disease, and pollution. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 5

127 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What did realist authors such as Mark Twain and Henry James write about? They wrote about the world as they saw it. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 6

128 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What movements in the late 1800s addressed urban problems? The Social Gospel, revivalism, and settlement house movements addressed urban problems. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 7

129 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Geography and History What factors led so many people to immigrate to the United States in the late 1800s? Military conscription in their homeland, religious persecution, and better job opportunities in the United States led many people to immigrate to the United States. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 8

130 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking (cont.) Analyzing What methods did political machines use to build support in the late 1800s? They provided housing, jobs, food, heat, and police protection to new immigrants unfamiliar with the United States and its culture. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 9

131 Geography and History The graph below shows how much immigration contributed to population growth in the United States between 1860 and Study the graph and answer the questions on the following slides. Chapter Assessment 10

132 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Interpreting Graphs By about how much did the population of the United States increase between 1861 and 1900? The population increased by about 2.5 million. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 11

133 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect What is the relationship between immigration and population increase? Immigration played a significant role, especially in the period from 1881 to 1885. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 12

134 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Which of the following concepts is associated with both Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth? A Philanthropy B Natural selection C Government regulation D Laissez-faire Test-Taking Tip Read the question carefully. Although more than one answer may apply to either Social Darwinism or the Gospel of Wealth, only one answer applies to both. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 13

135 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
What was the only ethnic group to be officially excluded by federal law from immigrating to the United States between 1870 and 1900? The Chinese were the only ethnic groups to be officially excluded. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 14

136 End of Chapter Assessment

137 Economics In the 1870s people thought that typing was physically too strenuous and intellectually too complicated for women. As a result, most secretaries were men. The Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) conducted a survey and found that stenography was a lucrative career. In order to help working-class girls who came to urban areas for jobs, the YWCA offered shorthand and typing classes for women. CC 2-1

138 The Seventh-Inning Stretch This baseball tradition, where fans often stand up to stretch in the middle of the seventh inning, does not have a completely reliable history. One claim is that in 1869, all the Cincinnati Red Stockings players stood during the seventh inning to seek relief from the hard wooden benches on which they were sitting. Another popular story asserts that in 1910, President William Howard Taft stood to stretch himself; thinking that the president was leaving, fans at the Washington Senators game also stood out of respect. Although organized baseball was played as early as the 1850s, the game really took off after the Civil War. Returning veterans helped to form teams, and by 1866 there were 202 teams in 17 states. F/F/F 3-Folklore

139 During the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, John Roebling, who designed the bridge, was killed on the job. His son continued directing the work until being injured. The work was then taken over by John’s wife, who completed the project with her son’s direction. FYI 2-1

140 Football became a popular spectator sport during the Gilded Age, with college games proving to be the biggest draw. Rutgers and Princeton played in the first collegiate contest in Throughout the late 1800s, three Eastern universities–Harvard, Yale, and Princeton–dominated the sport. FYI 3-1

141 Ungraded schools were common in rural areas
Ungraded schools were common in rural areas. Children from 3 to 18 were often taught in the same classroom. FYI 4-1

142 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Moment in History 2

143 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Hypothesizing When you are reading new material, you may often encounter ideas and events that you do not immediately understand. One way to overcome this difficulty is to make educated guesses about what happened. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. CT Skill Builder 1

144 Hypothesizing Learning the Skill
When you read things that you do not understand, you probably make guesses about what the material means. You may or may not have been able to prove these guesses, but you have taken a step toward deciphering the information. This step is called hypothesizing. When you hypothesize, you form one or more hypotheses, which are guesses that offer possible answers to a problem or provide possible explanations for an observation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. CT Skill Builder 2

145 Hypothesizing Learning the Skill (cont.)
When hypothesizing, follow these steps. Read the material carefully. Ask yourself what the material is actually saying. To do this, try to put the material in your own words. Determine what you might logically assume from your guesses. Then form one or more hypotheses. Test each hypothesis to determine whether or not it is correct. You can usually do this by asking yourself questions that relate to your hypothesis and then researching the answers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. CT Skill Builder 3

146 Hypothesizing Learning the Skill (cont.)
Based on your research, determine which hypothesis, if any, provides an explanation for the information that you originally read. Hypotheses are only preliminary explanations. They must be accepted, rejected, or modified as the problem is investigated. Each hypothesis must be tested against the information gathered. Hypotheses that are supported by evidence can be accepted as explanations of the problem. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. CT Skill Builder 4

147 Hypothesizing Practicing the Skill
Using the steps you have discussed and what you have read in the chapter, test the hypotheses on the following slides and determine if they can be supported. CT Skill Builder 5

148 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Hypothesizing Practicing the Skill (cont.) 1. Most immigrants who came to the United States came in search of work. 2. Improved transportation led people to move to urban areas from rural areas. The hypothesis cannot be supported because there are no solid statistics in the text. The hypothesis could be revised to indicate that some immigrants came in search of work. Transportation is not a reason listed in the text. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. CT Skill Builder 6

149 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Hypothesizing Practicing the Skill (cont.) 3. The general laissez-faire approach taken by the government toward growing cities was beneficial to businesses and citizens. The laissez-faire approach was not beneficial to all citizens. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. CT Skill Builder 7

150 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
“Old” and “New Immigrants, Immigration, Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. M/C 1-1

151 M/C 1-1a

152 M/C 1-2

153 M/C 4-1

154 Why It Matters Transparency

155 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1

156 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2

157 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3

158 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4
Reform Darwinism Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4

159 GO 1

160 GO 2

161 GO 3

162 GO 4

163 To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:
Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Maps and Chart button in the top right corner of many slides to link to relevant In-Motion and static maps and charts. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, History Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature. HELP

164 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove
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165 End of Slide Show


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