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GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD - THERESE BAPTISTE-CORNELIS GUEST LECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF KENT, BRUSSELS 28 TH NOVEMBER 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD - THERESE BAPTISTE-CORNELIS GUEST LECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF KENT, BRUSSELS 28 TH NOVEMBER 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD - THERESE BAPTISTE-CORNELIS GUEST LECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF KENT, BRUSSELS 28 TH NOVEMBER 2012

2 LAYOUT Concept of Global Governance Key Domains of Activity & Interaction Five Gaps in Global Governance What Needs To Be Done? 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 2

3 C ONCEPT OF G LOBAL G OVERNANCE (GG) Economic globalisation global issues civil society international mutual dependence Global governance complex of events, processes, and institutional developments world order / multilateralism / international organization 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 3

4 EARLY 1990s James Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiels Governance without Government Our Global Neighbourhood Global Governance journal Robert W. Cox calls it nebuleuse 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 4 C ONCEPT OF G LOBAL G OVERNANCE (GG) (CONTD)

5 The C oncept and R ealities of global governance are an outcome of an ever-present tension between the need to internationalize rules And the desire to assert and retain national control - John Ruggie (2011) 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 5 C ONCEPT OF G LOBAL G OVERNANCE (GG) (CONTD)

6 Many scholars use the term GG to refer in some measure to the process of organizing internationally. In this regard, GG is chiefly concerned with the ways multiple actors help constitute, promote, and sustain systems of international order in ways that tackle problems of global scope and concern. On this level, GG simply repackages M ultilateralism, I nternational R egimes, and I nternational O rganization 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 6 C ONCEPT OF G LOBAL G OVERNANCE (GG) (CONTD)

7 Global governance is generally defined as an instance of governance in the absence of government. There is no government at the global level: the UN General Assembly is not a global parliament, and Ban Ki-moon is not the president of the world. But there is GOVERNANCE. 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 7 C ONCEPT OF G LOBAL G OVERNANCE (GG) (CONTD)

8 In short, global governance today is a highly complex and dynamic field of play. 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 8 C ONCEPT OF G LOBAL G OVERNANCE (GG) (CONTD)

9 Highlights not the role of UN member states (theFirst UN) and the world bodys professional secretariats (the Second UN) but also of what UNIHP has identified as the Third UN who routinely engage with the First and the Second UNs and thereby influence the world bodys thinking, policies, priorities, and actions 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 9 C ONCEPT OF G LOBAL G OVERNANCE (GG) (CONTD) (2010)

10 ECONOMIC - Dispute Settlement & Standards Setting ENVIRONMENTAL – Climate Change & Carbon Footprint POLITICAL - Power-Sharing and Transitional Justice, Enforcement 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 10 K EY D OMAINS OF A CTIVITY & I NTERACTION

11 When considering the issue from an empirical perspective, it is clear that the international practice of peace negotiations and conflict mediation over the past fifteen years has given rise to the emergence of two paradigms. 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 11

12 On the one hand, it has become standard practice that peace accords, in one way or the other, include provisions on how to address the legacy of human rights atrocities that were committed in the (recent or more distant) past. These transitional justice arrangements generally refer to the need to tell the truth, to establish accountability for past crimes, to provide reparation to victims, and to promote reconciliation. 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 12

13 On the other hand, armed conflicts (most of which are internal) rarely end through military victory. In most cases, international mediators assist in designing a negotiated settlement, and a popular instrument in the toolbox of negotiators is power-sharing between incumbent governments and their armed opponents 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 13

14 Recomm. (03/10) for the inclusion of the following approaches into transitional justice activities of the UN: 1.Adopt an approach to transitional justice that strives to take account of the root causes of conflict or repressive rule, and address the related violations of all rights, including economic, social, and cultural rights in a comprehensive and integrated manner 2.Take human rights and transitional justice considerations into account during peace processes 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 14

15 Recomm. (03/10) for the inclusion of the following approaches into transitional justice activities of the UN: 3.Coordinate disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) initiatives with transitional justice processes and mechanisms, where appropriate, in a positively reinforcing manner 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 15

16 We have heard about peace processes in sub- Saharan Africa, in particular in Burundi, Sierra Leone, and Sudan Recently Libya (why was USA amb killed?) DCR (Rwanda supporting M23?) Palestine vs Israel (Hamas?) Syria ( Rebels vs Regime) Mali 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 16

17 March 22, 2012, Rebel troops appeared on Malian state TV to announce they had seized control of the country, hours after attacking the presidential palace. April Tuareg rebels seized control of northern Mali, declaring independence. The military eventually handed over to a civilian interim government before the junta reasserted control. June 2012, Islamist group Ansar Dine and its al-Qaida ally began destroying Muslim shrines that offended their views in cities like Timbuktu 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 17 Pro-military Malian youth gather in support of the Army coup d'etat in the capital Bamako on March 26, (Malin Palm / Reuters)

18 July 5th United Nations passes resolution threatening sanctions against Islamists in July 6th UN warns Islamist fighters in northern Mali that is considering the deployment of troops to the restive July 18th ICC launches preliminary inquiry into alleged atrocities committed in northern Mali 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 18 People load on onto a truck carrying residents fleeing south from an Islamic insurgency in northern Mali at the trading town of Mopti, June 19, Credit: Reuters/Adama Diarra

19 Sep 13, More than half a million in northern Mali need aid to cope with rising prices, more, Red Cross says Sep 25, Mali asks UN for 'immediate' action on force to recapture north Oct 11 th Radical Islamists in Mali are targeting women with Shariah law punishments, UN human rights official reports - 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 19

20 12 th Oct The U.N. Security Council passes a resolution urging African regional groups and the United Nations to present a specific plan within 45 days for military intervention in Mali to help government troops reclaim the north.United Nations Diplomats say the challenges of putting together an African force make it unlikely an operation could be mounted before March at the earliest. 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 20 8 August 2012: Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon addresses the Security Council at its meeting on Mali. Credit: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe

21 19 th Oct A high-level meeting in the Malian capital Bamako brings regional and international players to the negotiating table. French and Algerian sources report that Algeria had "tacitly" agreed to intervention. 22 nd Oct France announces it is sending drones to western Africa as it discusses Mali strike with US. – RAS 24 th Oct African Union says it has approved a political roadmap for Mali that calls for elections by April 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 21 An African Union-backed international group of experts gathered in Bamako... dw.de

22 Oct 29th US Secretary of State Clinton presses Algeria on Mali intervention plan Nov 6 th Military experts from Africa, the UN and Europe prepare to recapture northern Mali, African officials say Nov 11 th West African bloc – ECOWAS to commit 3,300 troops in Mali battle plan, group's chairman says 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 22 mali-intervention-plan/

23 ???? 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 23 Month Presidency End of Membership Term January South Africa31 December 2012South Africa February Togo 31 December 2013Togo March United Kingdom Permanent MemberUnited Kingdom April United StatesPermanent MemberUnited States May Azerbaijan31 December 2013Azerbaijan June China Permanent MemberChina July Colombia31 December 2012Colombia August France Permanent MemberFrance September Germany31 December 2012Germany October Guatemala31 December 2013Guatemala November India 31 December 2012India December Morocco 31 December 2013Morocco MMissing Russian Federation, and Pakistan (2013)/ Portugal (2012) /Russian FederationPakistanPortugal Non-Council Member States - Over 70 United Nations Member States have never been Members of the Security Council. UN SECURITY COUNCIL

24 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 24

25 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 25

26 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE 1.Knowledge 2.Normative 3.Policy 4.Institutional 5.Compliance 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 26

27 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 1.Knowledge gaps the nature of the problem the extent and intensity of a global challenge, 2.Normative 3.Policy 4.Institutional 5.Compliance 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 27

28 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 1.Knowledge gaps e.g.Global warming 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 28

29 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 1.Knowledge gaps (that is, about the nature of the problem or the extent and intensity of a global challenge), 2.Normative gaps the rules guiding appropriate responses are contested 3.Policy 4.Institutional 5.Compliance 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 29

30 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 2.Normative gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 30

31 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 1.Knowledge gaps (that is, about the nature of the problem or the extent and intensity of a global challenge), 2.Normative gaps (the rules guiding appropriate responses are contested), 3.Policy gaps in terms of who should respond and how 4.Institutional 5.Compliance 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 31

32 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 3.Policy gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 32

33 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 1.Knowledge gaps (that is, about the nature of the problem or the extent and intensity of a global challenge), 2.Normative gaps (the rules guiding appropriate responses are contested), 3.Policy gaps (in terms of who should respond and how), 4.Institutional gaps insufficient clarity about lead actors a mismatch between policy and the capacity to act 5.Compliance 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 33

34 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 4.Institutional gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 34

35 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 1.Knowledge gaps (that is, about the nature of the problem or the extent and intensity of a global challenge), 2.Normative gaps (the rules guiding appropriate responses are contested), 3.Policy gaps (in terms of who should respond and how), 4.Institutional gaps (insufficient clarity about lead actors or a mismatch between policy and the capacity to act), and 5.Compliance gaps particularly relating to reactions to noncompliance 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 35

36 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 36 Nearly seven decades of UN history tell the story of the never-ending search for better compliance mechanisms within the constraints of no overriding central authority. With the exception of the Security Council, UN bodies can only make recommendations. Hence, monitoring and then publicizing information about non-compliance mixed with the use of the bully pulpit has been a central dynamic in efforts to secure compliance.

37 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 37 The Compliance gap often appears as a complete void because no ways exist to enforce decisions, certainly not to compel them. Depending on a countrys relative power, this generalization may vary because influential organizations (especially the WTO, IMF, and World Bank) can make offers to developing countries that they dare not refuse.

38 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 38 International peace and security. Even though the UN Charter calls for them Absence of standing UN military forces The UN has to reportedly beg and borrow troops, which are always on loan Absence of functioning Military Staff Committee.

39 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 39 Human Rights. Absence of enforcement capability. Ad hoc tribunals and the International Criminal Court are institutional steps that have led to some indictments and convictions Security Council involvement sometimes

40 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 40 International Trade and Finance. International trade disputes are still largely regulated bilaterally. Monitoring by the Second and the Third UNs has led to changes in policy and implementation by some governments and corporationsthat is, voluntary compliance by good citizens

41 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 41 Environment and Sustainability Kyoto Protocol??? Back-tracking, however, began almost before the ink was dry on the signatures 2000s

42 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 42 Environment and Sustainability.

43 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 43 The creation of the United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards (UNFSS) is a response to the rapidly expanding environmental / sustainability markets that include a large number of private sector players which are establishing new and diverse standards.

44 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 44 The UNFSS - VSS is a strategic policy issue, linked to the internalization of environmental and social costs, as well as the promotion of developing countries competitiveness in and access to growing sustainability markets.

45 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 45 First Forum which systematically conducts analytical, empirical and capacity-building activities in this field and deals with generic and strategic problems of VSS in a consistent way, without endorsing or legitimizing any specific VSS.

46 FIVE GAPS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE (CONTD) 5.Compliance gaps 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 46 Addressing the sustainable development value of VSS by pooling resources; synchronizing efforts; and assuring policy coherence, coordination and collaboration among UN agencies, implementing the UN concept of Acting as One.

47 GG literature tends to emphasize the involvement and contributions of multiple actors in constructing and sustaining systems of order. Few realize that GG is also significantly about integrating and reconciling the diverse interests and needs of multiple agents with regard to perceptions of problems of global scope GG may thus be defined as the construction of systems of order with regard to claims of justice vis-à- vis problems of global scope and concern 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 47 W HAT N EEDS T O B E D ONE?

48 This view goes beyond the idea that order and justice are necessarily opposing forces in world politics, and posits that Global Governance is significantly the ongoing process of their reconciliation. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE The process of organizing, constructing, and refining a normative structure that guides the conduct of world politics. 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 48 W HAT N EEDS T O B E D ONE? (CONTD)

49 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 49 Source:

50 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 50 Source:

51 W HAT N EEDS T O B E D ONE? More research needs to be done into How do we close the INSTITUTIONAL GAP? Are we investing limited resources the correct areas? Are we getting value for our investments? How do we close that COMPLIANCE GAP? What level of interaction can be achieved by the Third UN. Does the UN Charter need revising? Can the level of governance be enhanced to allow the true GLOBAL GOVERNANCE that is preached? 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 51

52 W HAT N EEDS T O B E D ONE? (CONTD) Democratic Governance Practice Network (DGP- Net) run by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) serves to strengthen the global governance community and enhance local, regional and global knowledge sharing strategies, through functions such as knowledge management, advocacy, partnership building, and professional development. 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 52

53 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 53

54 SOURCES Cox, Structural issues of Global Governance: issue for Europe, in Cox with Timothy Sinclair, Approaches to world order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996) Davis, Kingsbury & Merry, Indicators as a Technology of Global Governance available at Dingwerth & Pattberg, Global Governance as a Perspective on World Politics, Global Governance, 12 (Apr-June 2006); Howse & Teitel, Beyond Compliance: Rethinking Why International Law Really Matters, Global Policy, 1 (May 2010). Jentleson, Global Governance in a Copernican World, Global Governance, 18 (Apr-June 2012); Kaufman, Aid Effectiveness and Governance: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, available at Qu, The UN Charter, the Responsibility to Protect, and the Syria Issue, available at Weiss & Thakur, Global Governance and the UN: An Unfinished Journey, Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2010), 448 pp., Weishaar, et al, Global Health Governance and the Commercial Sector: A Documentary Analysis of Tobacco Company Strategies to Influence the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Plos Medicine, 9 (June 2012), available at 28/11/2012 ©TBC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE- POORLY DONE AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD 54


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