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© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd P2 Power Solutions Diesel Generator Primer
Diesel Generator – Working Principle © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR LOAD chemical mechanical electrical
Diesel Generator – Fuel Consumption Pattern © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd maximum >70% loading efficiency increases with DG size
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Ensure steady load conditions Minimize load fluctuations Ensure balanced loading Minimize load harmonic distortions Ensure optimum loading (>70%) Ensure air at generator intake is cold and dust free Ensure fuel oil storage, handling and preparation as per manufacturers' guidelines Calibrate fuel injection pumps frequently Diesel Generator – Operating Guidelines
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Diesel Generator – Load Characteristics Increased current demand Increased winding losses Underutilization of capacity: increased capital expenditure, lower efficiency. Unbalanced output voltages Heating in alternator windings Underutilization of capacity Overstressing of generators Distorted voltage profile Heating in alternator windings Underutilization of capacity
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Case Study I ContentsOperating Condt.-1Operating Condt.-2 Power Factor Rated Current in Amps Avg. Load in kW kVA Current in Amps Fuel Consumption3kWh/Lit. Full Load Copper Loss in kW12 Copper Loss in kW 12*(535^2)/(695.6^2)=7.1 12*(374^2)/(695.6^2)=3.5 Saving in Copper Losses kW = 3.6 kW For 6000 hour Operation3.6 x 6000 kWh = 21,600 kWh Potential Saving in Fuel21600/3 lit./yr= 7,200 lit./yr Potential Savings in 40/lit. = Rs. 2,88,000 per year Power Factor Improvement on DG DG Specifications: 3 phase, 415V, 50Hz, 500kVA. Operation: 6000 hours/yr
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Case Study II ContentsOperating Condition-1Operating Condition-2 Loading Factor 60% 80% DG in Operation(Parallel) 1*1000kVA & 2*500kVA 1*1000kVA & 1*500kVA Dg Operationin Hrs 5000 Total Energy Generated(kWh/yr) 4,80,000 Fuel Consumption 3kWh/Litre 3.6kWh/Litre Power Factor 0.7 Total Fuel Consumption 1,60,000 Lit. 13, Lit. Cost Saving in Fuel Consumption 1,60, , = litres Annual Saving in Rs = Total savings per year (5000 hrs. operation) = Rs. 10,66,666.8 Lakhs Parallel Operation of DG sets
Optimum capacity utilization Reduction in Peak current demand Reduced losses Reduced heating Efficient loading © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd PF Correction – Benefits KW loading should be within limits at all times
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd PF Correction – Capability Curve Red: Critical Zone
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd PF Correction – Traditional Solutions Risk of over compensation Voltage transients Slow response Stepped correction Large footprint Potentially damage D.G
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Iactive Ireactive Iharmonic ILoad Ireactive Iharmonic IAPC Active Power Conditioner – Technology
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Active Power Conditioner – Technology ID.G IAPC ILoad APC Load D.G active reactive + harmonic
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Active Power Conditioner – Technology
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd COMPARISON SHEET Active Power ConditionerHybrid PF CompensatorSubstitute Technology P2 Power Active FilterP2 Power Hybrid CompensatorAPFC, RTPFC PERFORMANCE Speed< 0.2 milli seconds Response time in seconds TechnologyStepless current compensation Stepped kVAR compensation EffectivenessEffective with highly fluctuating loads Ineffective with fluctuating loads Power Factor (PF) CorrectionTrue PF compensationDisplacement PF compensation Leading/Lagging PFBoth Leading/Lagging PF compensation Lagging PF compensation only Load BalancingNegative sequence current injection No load balancing Harmonic CompensationHarmonic compensationNo Harmonic Compensation Neutral Correction Possible with 4 wire systemNot possibleNot Possible FOOTPRINT Size Advantages Smallest FootprintSmallLargest Footprint COST Installation (per Ampere) ` 3400 ~` 4200 ` 2300~ ` 2800 `1000~`1800 Resource IntensiveSmallest space requirementLow on space requirementsIncreases cost of space Capital CostReduced failures Can increase failures due to resonance Operating CostLow operating cost Recurring cost of capacitor replacement Returns on Investment High High with non fluctuating loads Improved PF Ineffective with fluctuating loads Better voltage profile Introduces voltage transients Reduced failures Can increase failure due to resonance MAINTENANCE Maintenance requirements Modular design Easy Maintenance Spare parts requirements Virtually maintenance free Recurring cost of capacitors/contactors
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd Thanks!
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd P2 Power Solutions Active Filter on DG – Newspaper Printing.
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd P2 Power Solutions Neutral Compensation - Hospitality.
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