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© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

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1 © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Diesel Generator Primer © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

2 Diesel Generator – Working Principle
DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR LOAD chemical mechanical electrical © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

3 Diesel Generator – Fuel Consumption Pattern
efficiency increases with DG size maximum >70% loading © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

4 Diesel Generator – Operating Guidelines
Ensure steady load conditions Minimize load fluctuations Ensure balanced loading Minimize load harmonic distortions Ensure optimum loading (>70%) Ensure air at generator intake is cold and dust free Ensure fuel oil storage, handling and preparation as per manufacturers' guidelines Calibrate fuel injection pumps frequently © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

5 Diesel Generator – Load Characteristics
Power Factor Increased current demand Increased winding losses Underutilization of capacity: increased capital expenditure, lower efficiency. Load unbalance Unbalanced output voltages Heating in alternator windings Underutilization of capacity Non Linear loads Overstressing of generators Distorted voltage profile Heating in alternator windings Underutilization of capacity © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

6 © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Case Study I Power Factor Improvement on DG DG Specifications: 3 phase, 415V, 50Hz, 500kVA. Operation: 6000 hours/yr Contents Operating Condt.-1 Operating Condt.-2 Power Factor 0.65 0.93 Rated Current in Amps 695.60 Avg. Load in kW 250.00 kVA 384.6 268.8 Current in Amps 535 374 Fuel Consumption 3kWh/Lit. Full Load Copper Loss in kW 12 Copper Loss in kW 12*(535^2)/(695.6^2)=7.1 12*(374^2)/(695.6^2)=3.5 Saving in Copper Losses kW = 3.6 kW For 6000 hour Operation 3.6 x 6000 kWh = 21,600 kWh Potential Saving in Fuel 21600/3 lit./yr= 7,200 lit./yr Potential Savings in 40/lit. = Rs. 2,88,000 per year © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

7 © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Case Study II Parallel Operation of DG sets Contents Operating Condition-1 Operating Condition-2 Loading Factor 60% 80% DG in Operation(Parallel) 1*1000kVA & 2*500kVA 1*1000kVA & 1*500kVA Dg Operationin Hrs 5000 Total Energy Generated(kWh/yr) 4,80,000 Fuel Consumption 3kWh/Litre 3.6kWh/Litre Power Factor 0.7 Total Fuel Consumption 1,60,000 Lit. 13, Lit. Cost Saving in Fuel Consumption 1,60, , = litres Annual Saving in Rs. = Total savings per year (5000 hrs. operation) = Rs. 10,66,666.8 Lakhs © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

8 PF Correction – Benefits
Optimum capacity utilization Reduction in Peak current demand Reduced losses Reduced heating Efficient loading KW loading should be within limits at all times © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

9 PF Correction – Capability Curve
Red: Critical Zone © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

10 PF Correction – Traditional Solutions
Risk of over compensation Voltage transients Slow response Stepped correction Large footprint Potentially damage D.G © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

11 Active Power Conditioner – Technology
Iactive Ireactive Iharmonic ILoad Ireactive Iharmonic IAPC © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

12 Active Power Conditioner – Technology
ID.G IAPC ILoad APC Load D.G active reactive + harmonic © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

13 Active Power Conditioner – Technology
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

14 COMPARISON SHEET Active Power Conditioner Hybrid PF Compensator
Active Power Conditioner Hybrid PF Compensator Substitute Technology P2 Power Active Filter P2 Power Hybrid Compensator APFC, RTPFC PERFORMANCE Speed < 0.2 milli seconds Response time in seconds Technology Stepless current compensation Stepped kVAR compensation Effectiveness Effective with highly fluctuating loads Ineffective with fluctuating loads Power Factor (PF) Correction True PF compensation Displacement PF compensation Leading/Lagging PF Both Leading/Lagging PF compensation Lagging PF compensation only Load Balancing Negative sequence current injection No load balancing Harmonic Compensation Harmonic compensation No Harmonic Compensation Neutral Correction Possible with 4 wire system Not possible Not Possible FOOTPRINT Size Advantages Smallest Footprint Small Largest Footprint COST Installation (per Ampere) `3400~`4200 `2300~`2800 `1000~`1800 Resource Intensive Smallest space requirement Low on space requirements Increases cost of space Capital Cost Reduced failures Can increase failures due to resonance Operating Cost Low operating cost Recurring cost of capacitor replacement Returns on Investment High High with non fluctuating loads Improved PF Better voltage profile Introduces voltage transients Can increase failure due to resonance MAINTENANCE Maintenance requirements Modular design Easy Maintenance Spare parts requirements Virtually maintenance free Recurring cost of capacitors/contactors © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

15 © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Thanks! © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

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