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© P2Power Solutions Pvt. LtdDiesel Generator Primer © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Diesel Generator – Working PrincipleDIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR LOAD chemical mechanical electrical © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Diesel Generator – Fuel Consumption Patternefficiency increases with DG size maximum >70% loading © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Diesel Generator – Operating GuidelinesEnsure steady load conditions Minimize load fluctuations Ensure balanced loading Minimize load harmonic distortions Ensure optimum loading (>70%) Ensure air at generator intake is cold and dust free Ensure fuel oil storage, handling and preparation as per manufacturers' guidelines Calibrate fuel injection pumps frequently © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Diesel Generator – Load CharacteristicsPower Factor Increased current demand Increased winding losses Underutilization of capacity: increased capital expenditure, lower efficiency. Load unbalance Unbalanced output voltages Heating in alternator windings Underutilization of capacity Non Linear loads Overstressing of generators Distorted voltage profile Heating in alternator windings Underutilization of capacity © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. LtdCase Study I Power Factor Improvement on DG DG Specifications: 3 phase, 415V, 50Hz, 500kVA. Operation: 6000 hours/yr Contents Operating Condt.-1 Operating Condt.-2 Power Factor 0.65 0.93 Rated Current in Amps 695.60 Avg. Load in kW 250.00 kVA 384.6 268.8 Current in Amps 535 374 Fuel Consumption 3kWh/Lit. Full Load Copper Loss in kW 12 Copper Loss in kW 12*(535^2)/(695.6^2)=7.1 12*(374^2)/(695.6^2)=3.5 Saving in Copper Losses kW = 3.6 kW For 6000 hour Operation 3.6 x 6000 kWh = 21,600 kWh Potential Saving in Fuel 21600/3 lit./yr= 7,200 lit./yr Potential Savings in 40/lit. = Rs. 2,88,000 per year © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. LtdCase Study II Parallel Operation of DG sets Contents Operating Condition-1 Operating Condition-2 Loading Factor 60% 80% DG in Operation(Parallel) 1*1000kVA & 2*500kVA 1*1000kVA & 1*500kVA Dg Operationin Hrs 5000 Total Energy Generated(kWh/yr) 4,80,000 Fuel Consumption 3kWh/Litre 3.6kWh/Litre Power Factor 0.7 Total Fuel Consumption 1,60,000 Lit. 13, Lit. Cost Saving in Fuel Consumption 1,60, , = litres Annual Saving in Rs. = Total savings per year (5000 hrs. operation) = Rs. 10,66,666.8 Lakhs © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
PF Correction – BenefitsOptimum capacity utilization Reduction in Peak current demand Reduced losses Reduced heating Efficient loading KW loading should be within limits at all times © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
PF Correction – Capability CurveRed: Critical Zone © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
PF Correction – Traditional SolutionsRisk of over compensation Voltage transients Slow response Stepped correction Large footprint Potentially damage D.G © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Active Power Conditioner – TechnologyIactive Ireactive Iharmonic ILoad Ireactive Iharmonic IAPC © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Active Power Conditioner – TechnologyID.G IAPC ILoad APC Load D.G active reactive + harmonic © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Active Power Conditioner – Technology© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
COMPARISON SHEET Active Power Conditioner Hybrid PF CompensatorActive Power Conditioner Hybrid PF Compensator Substitute Technology P2 Power Active Filter P2 Power Hybrid Compensator APFC, RTPFC PERFORMANCE Speed < 0.2 milli seconds Response time in seconds Technology Stepless current compensation Stepped kVAR compensation Effectiveness Effective with highly fluctuating loads Ineffective with fluctuating loads Power Factor (PF) Correction True PF compensation Displacement PF compensation Leading/Lagging PF Both Leading/Lagging PF compensation Lagging PF compensation only Load Balancing Negative sequence current injection No load balancing Harmonic Compensation Harmonic compensation No Harmonic Compensation Neutral Correction Possible with 4 wire system Not possible Not Possible FOOTPRINT Size Advantages Smallest Footprint Small Largest Footprint COST Installation (per Ampere) `3400~`4200 `2300~`2800 `1000~`1800 Resource Intensive Smallest space requirement Low on space requirements Increases cost of space Capital Cost Reduced failures Can increase failures due to resonance Operating Cost Low operating cost Recurring cost of capacitor replacement Returns on Investment High High with non fluctuating loads Improved PF Better voltage profile Introduces voltage transients Can increase failure due to resonance MAINTENANCE Maintenance requirements Modular design Easy Maintenance Spare parts requirements Virtually maintenance free Recurring cost of capacitors/contactors © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. LtdThanks! © P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd P2 Power Solutions Active Filter on DG – Newspaper Printing.
© P2Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd P2 Power Solutions Neutral Compensation - Hospitality.
Management and Organisation of Electricity Use Electrical System Optimisation Belgrade November 2003.
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