Presentation on theme: "The right to the city, programming urbanisation and the role of planning João Cabral (CIAUD/FAUTL) Measuring urbanity: Densities, networks and urban fabrics."— Presentation transcript:
The right to the city, programming urbanisation and the role of planning João Cabral (CIAUD/FAUTL) Measuring urbanity: Densities, networks and urban fabrics Panel III – Governance & Regulation 11 th May 2012 Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon
The relation between expanding urbanisation processes and the role of planning in a scenario of administrative reforms with a focus on place policies and place-based approaches. Suburbanisation is linked with urban planning practices not because they were more efficient and desirable but because it was the best available method of extracting capital from land and its improvements. Emphasizing the role of capital in the making of suburban life allows it to be acknowledged how a range of practices, including industrial relocation and financialization, have defined the suburbanization process and suburbanism itself (Ekers,M., Hamel,P. and Keil,R., 2012: 418)
In the debate over urban structure, what seems to be lost is the question of kind of community and network relations to belong to, before deciding its form. The distinction between positivist and interpretive traditions in spatial planning as a conceptual framework for identifying the different functions and stages of the planning process in the production of the built environment. The two traditions are associated with different ways of gathering and using evidence, influencing collaborative and participatory processes. This distinction is useful for evaluating the role of planning under reforms promoting localism in parallel with concerns for territorial cohesion and a more efficient use of public funds emphasizing the need for place policies and place-based approaches.
the question of what kind of city we want cannot be divorced from the question of what kind of people we want to be, what kinds of social relations we seek, what relations to nature we cherish, what style of daily life we desire, what kinds of technologies we deem appropriate, what aesthetic values we hold. The right to the city is, therefore, far more than a right of individual access to the resources that the city embodies: it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city more after our hearts desire. It is, moreover, a collective rather than an individual right since changing the city inevitably depends upon the exercise of a collective power over the processes of urbanization. David Harvey The Right to the City New Left Review 53, Sept-Oct 2008
Portugal - number of dwellings 1991-2010 (INE) In the last twenty years population in Portugal grew by 7 percent and housing stock by 40 percent, an equivalent to 80 thousand dwellings per year. Value of housing mortgages grew from 5 thousand million Euros in 1990 to 104 thousand million in 2008. Total bank credit given to Construction + Real Estate + Housing accounted in 2008 for 168.701 million Euros, while total bank credit in Agriculture + Fisheries + Manufacturing accounted for 16.455 million Euros. Portuguese GDP in 2008 was around 180.000 million Euros. Source: Pedro Bingre Análise das relações da política de solos com o sistema económico (Estudo de enquadramento para a preparação da Nova Lei do Solo) DGOTDU 2011
Measuring Urbanity Planning ProcessKey aspectTiming of evidence as part of a cyclical process Positivist tradition (land use planning) Interpretive tradition (spatial planning) Assess dynamics Mapping of constraints Understanding of critical spatial trends & drivers StakeholdersDetermining what change is wanted Identify scenarios & alternatives Bargaining & negotiation Analysis of options StrategyMechanisms to bring about the change ProgrammingChecking of proposals Generation of alternatives GovernanceMonitoring of change DCLG (Dec. 2006) The Role and Scope of Spatial Planning Davoudi, Simin The Legacy of Positivism and the Emergence of Interpretive Tradition in Spatial Planning Regional Studies Vol.46.4 2012 DCLG (Dec. 2007) Using evidence in spatial planning
The Localism Bill was introduced to Parliament on 13 December 2010, and was given Royal Assent on 15 November 2011, becoming an Act.Localism Bill This Bill will shift power from central government back into the hands of individuals, communities and councils. We are committed to this because over time central government has become too big, too interfering, too controlling and too bureaucratic. This has undermined local democracy and individual responsibility, and stifled innovation and enterprise within public services. We want to see a radical shift in the balance of power and to decentralise power as far as possible. Localism isn't simply about giving power back to local government. This Government trusts people to take charge of their lives and we will push power downwards and outwards to the lowest possible level, including individuals, neighbourhoods, professionals and communities as well as local councils and other local institutions. The Localism Bill includes five key measures that underpin the Government's approach to decentralisation. Community rights Neighbourhood planning Housing General power of competence Empowering cities and other local areas The Localism Act
Cameron's 'big society' undermined by cuts and distrust, says study Prime minister's flagship project losing initial goodwill as community groups suffer funding 'body blow', finds report The Guardian, Monday 7 May 2012
The Governance of Suburbanization State forms Capital accumulation Private authoritarianism Non-governmental organisations, public-private partnerships, development corporations and various stakeholder-based associations are often autocratic and are producing questionable forms of political citizenship. Arguably authoritarian forms of governance are proliferating most quickly in suburban spaces. Ekers,M., Hamel,P. and Keil,R. (2012) Governing Suburbia: Modalities and Mechanisms of Suburban Governance. Regional Studies, 46:3, 405-422
CITIES OR URBANIZATION? Harvey, David in City 1-2, Oxford, London, 1995 Myth Community solidarity can provide the stability and power to control and manage urban problems and that community can substitute for public politics. Opposed – community is an unstable configuration relative to the conflictual processes that generate, sustain and eventually undermine them – as so far as it does acquire permanence it is frequently an exclusionary and oppressive social form.
THE EUROPEAN AGENDA A place-based development policy can be defined as: a long-term development strategy whose objective is to reduce persistent inefficiency and inequality in specific places, through the production of bundles of integrated, place- tailored public goods and services, and promoted from outside the place by a system of multilevel governance. AN AGENDA FOR A REFORMED COHESION POLICY A place-based approach to meeting European Union challenges and expectations - Independent Report prepared at the request of Danuta Hübner, Commissioner for Regional Policy by Fabrizio Barca April 2009
From place based planning to planning as place making ZONNING VS PLACE-BASED APPROACH The responsiveness of the planning system implies a more supportive planning framework based on the benefits of a plan-led system – a place-shaping approach enabling community engagement, co-ordinated decisions on the development of infrastructure and upfront discussions on location decisions Barker, Kate (2006) Barker Review of Land Use Planning, HMSO
In order to deliver these ambitious and far reaching reforms, there is an expectation that there will be a renaissance in planning in terms of redefining its scope, performance and widespread acceptance that it delivers. These aspirations for the planning system can only be realized if all those involved in the planning process change the way they think and work. There is therefore a need for a cultural shift in attitudes and working practices, perhaps also including organizational reform. (Shaw, D. 2006, pp3)
The role of spatial planning in a scenario of economic uncertainty and neoliberal policies emerges from how evidence and place based interpretive approaches are present all along the planning process, and how different planning cultures mediate and produce governance practices for effectively programming urbanisation processes, reclaiming the right to the city. Measuring Urbanity Planning ProcessKey aspectTiming of evidence as part of a cyclical process Assess dynamics Understanding of critical spatial trends & drivers StakeholdersDetermining what change is wanted Identify scenarios & alternatives Analysis of optionsStrategyMechanisms to bring about the change ProgrammingGeneration of alternatives GovernanceMonitoring of change