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Principal for Preservation

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Presentation on theme: "Principal for Preservation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principal for Preservation
Green Strategies For Historic Buildings Jean Carroon FAIA LEED Principal for Preservation Goody Clancy

2 Green Strategies - Carroon
Four Master Lectures Green Buildings – Terms and Tools Sustainable Development- Tools Ecosystems – Water and Waste Energy & Buildings Changing Priorities Ahead Process Product (Case Studies) Resources June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

3 Energy, Buildings and Us
Problem Current Solutions – do they work? Existing Buildings – essential solutions Houses Main Street The Bigger Picture June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

4 Green Strategies - Carroon
June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

5 CO2 Emissions Comparison
Source: World Resources Institute (Climate Analysis Indicators Tool; online at June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

6 AIA Buildings are the major source of demand for energy and materials that produce by-product greenhouse gases (GHG). Slowing the growth rate of GHG emissions and then reversing it over the next ten years is the key to keeping global warming under one degree centigrade (°C) above today's level. It will require immediate action and a concerted global effort. "The road to energy independence, economic recovery and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions runs through the Building Sector." -Edward Mazria June 4, 2009 Slide by Stephen Tilly

7 AIA 2030 Challenge The 2030 Challenge asks the global architecture and building community to adopt the following targets: All new buildings, developments and major renovations shall be designed to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type. At a minimum, an equal amount of existing building area shall be renovated annually to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type. June 4, 2009 Slide by Stephen Tilly

8 AIA 2030 Challenge The fossil fuel reduction standard for all new buildings and major renovations shall be increased to: 60% in % in % in % in Carbon-neutral in 2030 (using no fossil fuel GHG emitting energy to operate). These targets may be accomplished by implementing innovative sustainable design strategies, generating on-site renewable power and/or purchasing (20% maximum) renewable energy and/or certified renewable energy credits. June 4, 2009 Slide by Stephen Tilly

9 Solution - New Buildings – LEED
Oregon Health & Science University Center for Health & Healing LEED Platinum – 16 stories 412,000 SF June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

10 Solution - Energy Codes
A small house built to only moderate energy-performance standards uses substantially less energy for heating and cooling than a large house built to very high energy-performance standards. Alex Wilson and Jessica Boehland, “Small is Beautiful US House Size, Resource Use and the Environment”, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2005 SF Energy Efficient Home June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

11 Solution – Rebuild America
By 2030 , we will have demolished and replaced 82 billion square feet of existing buildings. Brookings Institute The energy required for this could power the entire state of California, the 10th largest economy in the world with 36 million people, for 10 years. Rehabilitating even 10 % would save enough energy to power the state of New York for well over 1 year. Prince Hall (1904–2006) This, by most people’s standards, is a needless tragedy. Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri Photos by Rob Powers (www/builtstlouis.net) June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon Slide: Jean Carroon, Goody Clancy

12 A Better Solution - Reuse Buildings
Energy required to make a new energy efficient house is the equivalent of 25 years of end-use energy consumption. – 1997 New energy-efficient homes recover the carbon expended in construction only after years of energy efficient operations. New Tricks with Old Bricks To quote Carl Elefante, the greenest building is one that already exists. Existing buildings and building materials are a resource, it took energy and natural resources to create old homes, It takes energy and natural resources to create new – Historically, houses were frequently moved as existing resources too valuable to be demolished. Moving Houses in Seattle, WA 1906 during regrade June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

13 300 Billion Square Feet 300 Billion Square Feet of Existing Buildings in the USA outnumbering new construction 99:1 Source: US Dept of Energy Commercial Building Inventory, 2003 “Energy efficiency options for new and existing buildings could considerably reduce CO2 emisions with net economic benefit .”– IPCC Fourth Assessment Report June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

14 Clinton Climate Initiative
Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI) CCI is taking a macro-level approach to addressing climate change by working with some of the world’s largest cities – and biggest contributors of greenhouse gases – to reduce their carbon emissions through programs that will also encourage economic development. By bringing local governments together with financial and technical experts, CCI is helping to develop and implement large scale projects that result in improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions in urban areas around the world. June 4, 2009 Slide by Stephen Tilly

15 Buildings are responsible for more than half of harmful greenhouse gas emissions in most cities. CCI’s Energy Efficiency Building Retrofit Program brings together banks, energy services companies, cities, and building owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits that guarantee energy and cost-savings. June 4, 2009 Slide by Stephen Tilly

16 CCI CCI has partnered with Microsoft, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, The Center for Neighborhood Technology, and Ascentium to develop Project 2°, a website containing the Emissions Tracker software tool. Users input data on emissions producing activities such as fuel and electricity consumption, vehicle numbers, waste production, industrial processes and plane and ship fuel use. The software then converts the data into tons of CO2 equivalent, taking into consideration the source and type of energy and fuel used in each area. Once cities have a concrete understanding of the amount of greenhouse gas each sector emits, policymakers can then put into place realistic reduction strategies. June 4, 2009 Slide by Stephen Tilly

17 100 Million Households The average house is 33 years old. www.nahb.com
accessed 5/21/2009 The average house is 33 years old. 57 % of households live in single family detached homes and consume 73 % of all residential energy. “Towards a Climate-Friendly Built Environment” – June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon Slide: Jean Carroon, Goody Clancy

18 Current Residential Energy Use
The largest opportunities for improving energy efficiency lie in the residential sector. By 2020, the sector’s energy demand could be 30% lower than today’s levels. McKinsey Global Institute Wasted Energy: How the US Can Reach Its Energy Productivity Potential June 2007 June 4,2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

19 Start with an Energy Audit
The first step is to decide how to approach the audit. Have professional audit or work through the audit steps yourself. Often, a self audit can help identify initial beneficial steps or if professional evaluation is needed. The Home Energy Saver Web based audit tool was developed for US Depart of Energy, US EPA Energy Star Program, by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contacting your utility to see if they offer free or discounted energy audits to their customers. One web based option of locating a professional is the ENERGY STAR for Homes Partner Locator. energystar.gov Green Strategies - Carroon

20 Green Strategies - Carroon
Change a Light Bulb Green Strategies - Carroon

21 Rebates & Simple Installation
Install a Programmable Thermostat Rebates & Simple Installation June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

22 Unplug Electronics When Not in Use
Even though your TV, DVD player and computer are turned off, they’re still using electricity. In fact, the Department of Energy estimates that 40 percent of all electricity used to power home electronics is consumed while the products are turned off. City of Chilliwack, B.C. Green Strategies - Carroon

23 Thoughtful Actions Save Resources
Maintain your boilers and steam traps Use cold water when you wash Use a clothes rack (or a clothesline) for drying Keep refrigerator coils clean Use a lap top – it’s more energy efficient Wrap your water heater (better yet –go solar) Make sure the dishwasher is full Turn of lights when you leave a room Don’t heat unused rooms June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

24 Green Strategies - Carroon
Energy audit Plant trees Block air infiltration Restore porches Restore awnings Insulate attic, basement & crawl space Keep doors tight Use fans, cross ventilate Reuse materials June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

25

26 Recession-Proof Green Agenda
Cost-Effective Green Retrofits Retrocommissioning Lighting improvements Mechanical system controls Mechanical system equipment Sealing holes in the envelope Green cleaning Water savings June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

27 Saving Energy on Main Street
Donald Fournier SEDAC Program Manager Chair, Building Research Council School of Architecture University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

28 Green Strategies - Carroon
SEDAC Program Results Clients assisted (as of December 31, 2008): Level 1 – 1,318 Level 2 – 342 Level 3 – 157 Level 4 – 164 Completed studies of over 20 million square feet with over 43,000 employees. An additional 9 million sf underway. Recommended energy savings > $11,800,000. Energy impact of 719,755 million Btu (4,258,234 therms & 86,147 MWh) and a demand reduction of 19.8 MW. Green Strategies - Carroon

29 Energy Efficiency Examples
Office Buildings: $2.50 to $3.75 in incremental asset value for $1 invested. Hospitals: Each $1 saved in energy costs equivalent to generating new revenues of $20. Supermarkets: 10% reduction in energy use is equivalent to increasing net profit margins by 15%. Hotels: 10% reduction in energy costs is equivalent to increasing Average Daily Rate by 2.6% and increasing Occupancy Rate by 4.3%. June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

30 ASHRAE Vision 2020 Providing tools by 2020 to enable the building community to produce market-viable NZEBs by 2030. NZEB means the building produces as much energy as it uses when measured at the site.

31 ASHRAE Actions/Initiatives
Standard Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Bldgs – 5 to 7% below 2004. Standard Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Bldgs: Keeping abreast of technology and increased efficiency requirements (30 percent reduction from ). Performance or prescriptive based. Prescriptive paths per weather zone and building type. June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

32 Other ASHRAE Actions Advanced Energy Design Guides: Schedule:
30%, 50%, 75%, then Net Zero Energy Small Buildings (<20,000sf) Office, Retail, K-12 Schools, Warehouses, Highway Lodging, High-rise Residential, and Existing Buildings. Schedule: Complete all 30% guides by 2008. Complete all 50% guides by 2011. Complete “net-zero” guidance 2017 (70/30).

33 Download free: http://www.ashrae.org/aedg
ASHRAE AEDGs Download free:

34 Energy Efficiency The cost of saving energy is going down while the price of energy is going up. Efficiency is the cleanest, cheapest, safest, and most secure source energy we have. These savings from energy efficiency to date have not yet come close to tapping the full potential for savings. Incentives/financing: EPAct 2005/EISA 2008 tax deductions and credits. EEPS rebates will encourage efficiency. Cultivate Illinois – low interest loans.

35 Performance Assessment
Accounting of Energy Use and Costs Comparison with Similar Facilities Goals Tools: Energy Star Target Finder (>5ksf) Business Energy Analyzer June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

36 Investment Horizons ECRM Typical Payback Motion Sensors 0.5 yr Tune Up
Programmable T-Stat Lighting 1-5yrs Sealing 2 yrs Window Films 3 yrs Insulation 7 yrs HVAC replacement 12 yrs Renewable Energy 20 yrs Windows 25 yrs

37 Recommended ECRMs - Store
Upgrade Lighting Zone Lighting Change to more efficient sources (from incandescent and old fluorescent to Super T8, CFL, LED, CMH, HIR – display only) Add Lighting Controls (Occupancy, photo, dimmer, timers) Improve Operation and Control of HVAC Boiler/Furnace tune-up Programmable Thermostat Radiator valves Zoned HVAC Upgrade Envelope (sealing, insulate, window treatments) Upgrade HVAC and Appliances Separate areas of different HVAC needs retail/residential

38 Recommended ECRMs-Restaurant
Kitchen Energy Management Reduce Idle Refrigeration Plastic strip doors High efficiency fan motors Floating heat pressure Modulated Kitchen Ventilation -- Demand Control Low Flow Pre-Rinse Sprayer Separate areas of different HVAC needs retail/residential In that order unless you’re a restaurant- then start in the kitchen. June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

39 Green Strategies - Carroon
Lighting & Controls Occupancy Photo Dimming Timers June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

40 Improved Operation and Control -HVAC
Heater tune-up, Programmable T-stat, Radiator valves, Zoned HVAC Free cooling Tune Up –Clean ,adjust, lubricate, repair June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

41 Equipment Replacement
Heating, Ventilating, & Air-Conditioning: Sealed combustion high efficiency boilers and furnaces 92%+. High SEER/EER Air-Conditioning units, SEER15+, EER11.5+. Geothermal heat pumps. Ventilation heat recovery systems. Demand control ventilation, or scheduled ventilation. SEER 14, EER11.5+ June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

42 Green Strategies - Carroon
Upgrade Equipment Replace inefficient appliances can save a lot of energy with a favorable return on investment. Replacing refrigerators with ENERGY STAR® rated units can sometimes save over $100 per year. New washers can save both energy and water—how much depends on patterns of use and the characteristics of the old versus new unit. Energy star, top quarter of performance. June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

43 Green Strategies - Carroon
Setting Priorities Needs Technically Appropriate Biggest Energy Users Biggest Energy Costs Work from End Use Back to Central Plant Capital for Down Payment Rolling Quick Savings into Long Term Investments If you’re in a bldg without a heater, you need a heater, a skylight would be nice, but not the top priority What’s Technically appropriate – not just what worked for your brother in law - air source heat pumps don’t work well below 35F – not a good choice for champaign Biggest energy users = homes-htg, offices- lighting, restaurants- refrigeration and cooking, grocery refrigeration Changing a lightbulb in an attic that you go in a couple of times a year doesn’t return much savings The more you use in an area, the more you can save. June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

44 Green Strategies - Carroon
Upgrade Envelope Building Envelopes (beyond code): Increased insulation levels. Infiltration air sealing and duct sealing. Better windows (Double Pane, Low-E, U-values 0.4 or less). Better than R-13 for the walls, 20 flat roofs, R38 attics Sealing –caulk and weather stripping June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

45 Green Strategies - Carroon
Replacing Windows? Conventional wisdom may say yes. Generally, you can find a number of other energy efficiency measures that are more important and cost effective to deal with first. Sometimes windows need to be replaced: Repair current windows Add an interior pane Use appropriate storms Interior treatments for efficiency (blinds, shades, and curtains) June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

46 Green Strategies - Carroon
Window Treatments June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

47 Green Strategies - Carroon
Window Treatments New Technologies June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon

48 Daylight & Density Before After Barker Center For the Humanities
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon Slide: Jean Carroon, Goody Clancy

49 Data - Historic Federal Buildings - 1999
The utility costs for historic federal buildings were 27% less than non-historic. Overall, the operating costs per rentable square foot for historic buildings were 10 percent less than non-historic buildings. The cleaning costs were 9 percent less. The maintenance costs were 10 percent less. Overall, the operating costs per rentable square foot for historic buildings were 10 percent less than non-historic buildings. The cleaning costs were 9 percent less. The maintenance costs were 10 percent less. The utility costs were 27 percent less. Financing Historic Federal Buildings; An Analysis of Current Practice GSA Draft Report May 1999

50 Learning from the Past Minimum Energy Performance:
Building constructed with high ceilings operable windows & awnings Awnings deteriorate & are removed Additional lighting adds heat to the building -stressing A/C system Building heats up in warm months Poor lighting & ventilation due to lowered ceilings and lost transoms. Something to think about…. Take an average historic courthouse in say… ND….We removed the deteriorating awnings in the 50’s or early 60’s, realized the occupants were hot in the summer, installed central air, and lowered the ceiling. It seemed rather dark, so we added more artificial lights, which made it even warmer inside the building, so now we want to upsize the air conditioner… which we will maintain at 68º all summer long because God forbid we wear summer clothes to work in the summer…. This creates a poor energy performer for GSA, and the building falls down to a lower tier level. A/C Installed with lowered ceilings & new fixed windows POOR energy performer Slide by: Elaine Gallagher Adams, AIA, LEED Rocky Mountain Institute

51 Limited Use License from www. cartoonstock
Limited Use License from NOT FOR REPRODUCTION OR REUSE

52 Green Strategies - Carroon
Resources June 4, 2009 Green Strategies - Carroon


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