Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Congress “All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10: Congress“All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.”
2 Legislative BranchWhat is the major function of the Legislative Branch?
3 Bicameral Legislature “In a republican government, the legislative authority necessarily predominates. The remedy for this inconvenience is to divide the legislature into different branches.”The Federalist No. 51Why bicameral?
4 Special Session of Congress When might a special session of Congress meet?Who calls it?
5 Discussion Questions: Section 1 1. Why do you think some people think that the Senate is undemocratic? Do you agree? Disagree? Why?2. See map p.263. What are the pros and cons of the current bicameral system including a Senate and House of Representatives?3. Does it matter that the States are not equally represented in the Senate?Read p. 264
7 Health Care Reform Read Health Care Reform on p. 266 Be prepared to discuss.
8 Approval RatingsThe conventional wisdom in Washington is that while voters don’t think much of Congress as a whole, they still like their own representatives. Public opinion polls often give Congress low approval ratings; since 1974, when Gallup polls first asked the question, the highest approval ratings for Congress has been 56%. Nevertheless, since 1948, incumbents in the House have been reelected at a rate of over 90%, leading many analysts to conclude that contributions from PACs and other sources have made incumbents nearly impossible to beat.
9 Lazy Congress?“There are two periods when Congress does no business; one is before the holidays, and the other after.”George D. PrenticeWhat does Prentice mean by this joke?
10 Congressional Apportionment What is apportionment?Look at the map on p. 268What general trend in population growth around the country does this map show?
11 House of Representatives How determined?Term length?How many terms?How many?Minimum possible?
12 Congressional Elections When do Congressional Elections occur?First Tuesday after the First Monday in November of Even Numbered Years (every 2 years)
13 Off Year Elections Look at the Timeline In which two election years, did the President’s party lose the most seats in the House?
14 Reapportionment Look at the map on p. 270. Why does the redrawing of district lines regularly produce sharp political conflicts in a state?
15 Primary Source Read Redistricting and Race on p. 274 Answer the three questions on separate sheet of paper.
17 Wesberry v. Sanders“While it may not be possible to draw Congressional districts with mathematical precision, that is no excuse for ignoring our Constitution’s plain objective of making equal representation for equal numbers of people the fundamental goal of the House or Representatives. That is the high standard of justice and common sense which the Founders set for us.”- Justice Black, Opinion of the CourtWhat is the significance of the case? How do you think this case changed the makeup of Congress?
18 Who is my Representative? District 1: Wm. Lacy Clay (D-MO) – if you live in the north side of cityDistrict 2: Todd Akin (R-MO) if you live in West St. Louis County
19 Qualifications for House of Representatives 25 years of ageCitizen for 7 yearsResident of State & District
20 House Leadership Speaker of the House House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)House Majority LeaderSteny Hoyer (D-MD)House Majority WhipJames Clyburn (D-SC)House Minority LeaderJohn Boehner (R-OH)House Minority WhipEric Cantor (R- VA)
22 SenateWhich of these two colleges is more prestigious: a large college that is fairly easy to get into or small college with high entrance standards?How does this question relate to the Senate?
23 Senate How many members? How is membership determined? What was the framers vision of the Senate?How were they originally elected?What is the 17th Amendment?Terms? How many?Why do think they set the terms longer than the Representatives?
42 Chapter 11: Powers of Congress The Constitution grants to Congress a number of powers but also places strict limits on what it can and cannot do (Remember that we are in a limited government).
43 Types of Congressional Powers 1. Expressed Powers – explicit in specific wording in the Constitution2. Implied Powers – reasonably deducted from the expressed powers3. Inherent Powers – powers of a national gov’t because it is sovereign
44 What message is the artist trying to convey about government?
45 Construction of the Constitution StrictLiberalDefinitionNarrow, literal interpretation of the ConstitutionBroad interpretation of the ConstitutionMajor proponentJeffersonHamiltonAttitude toward implied powersUse only when necessaryUse oftenAttitude toward national powerShould be restrained and limitedShould be allowed to growAttitude toward State powerShould remain strongShould be restrained
46 What has caused the growth of the national government?
47 Declare War How does this picture imply one of the Expressed powers of Congress?
48 Expressed Powers Declare war Raise and support army (president may send troops for 60 days with 30 day extensionPower to tax, borrow money, deal w/ bankruptcyCreate courtsRegulate interstate and foreign trade
49 Expressed Powers (con’t) Coin money and regulate the value of itRegulate foreign affairsNaturalizationPostal serviceSet copyright and patent lawsFix standard weights of measure(The ability of Congress to regulate commerce and to tax have been key to the growth of the nation)
51 Implied Powers (according to the Necessary and Proper Clause Establish Federal ReservePunish tax evasionSet educational grantsHave a draftSet a minimum wageMcCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – the Constitution does not have to specify state powers
52 Non-Legislative Powers Propose amendmentsIn certain unusual circumstances the House may be called upon to select a President and the Senate to choose a VPImpeachment ProcessHouse has the power to impeach federal officers (could be Pres. And V.P.)Senate holds the trial
54 Types of Taxes? Direct Taxes Indirect Taxes Cost of good + Profit + Tax =Your Cost
55 What are the four limitations of taxing powers? 1. Congress may only tax for public purposes2. Congress may not tax exports3. direct taxes must be apportioned among the states4. all indirect taxes levied by the Fed. Gov’t must be levied at the same rate in in every part of the country
56 What is the implied problem with taxes From this cartoon? Do you Agree or Disagree?Why?
57 How do you think this illustration applies to Deficit Spending?
58 What is deficit spending? How does governmentmake up the difference?
59 Non-Legislative Powers (con’t) Senate has power to confirm or reject major appointments or treaties made by the President (treaties mustInvestigate – can investigate matters of concern to Congress (ex. Steroids Investigation)
60 Commerce ClauseImportance: regulated commerce w/ foreign nations, states, and Indian tribesGibbons V. OgdenGave the federal gov’t broad commerce powers- expanding the powers of the fed. Gov’tResponsible for building a strong U.S. out of a weak confederationLimits of Congregational Commerce PowersCan’t tax exportsCan’t favor ports of one state over anotherCan’t require vessels bound to or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties to another
61 Congress - War Expressed power- Only congress can declare WAR Has power to raise and support an army, maintain a navy and make rules pertaining to the governing of such forcesWar Powers Resolution of Congress claimed the power to restrict the use of Am. Forces in combat where a state of war does not existHas power to call forth the militia, organizing an army and disciplining it
62 What is impeachment? House brings the charges Senate tries the case -2/3 needed for conviction of guilt or innocence. (Senate serves as the jury and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presides
64 Congress Organizes When does Congress convene? Jan. 3rd of every odd numbered year; following the general election in November.
65 Congress Organizes How does the House reorganize? Each new termElect their leadersSwear in all membersAdopt their work rulesAppoint members to permanent committeesHow does the Senate reorganize?Does not reorganize because 2/3 if members stay the same from term to term
66 Leadership in Congress What role does the Speaker of the House play?-presides over the House-leader of the majority Party-controls the agenda of the House-may debate or vote on any matterWhat role does the V.P. play in the Senate?-oversees the sessions-cannot debate-votes only to break a tie
68 Leadership in Congress What is the role of the President Pro Tempore:-presides over the senate in the Vice President’s absence
69 Who are the Congressional Party Officers and what are their roles? Floor Leaders:do not hold official positions in either chamberlegislative strategistssteer floor actions to their parties’ benefitchief spokesperson for his/her partyWhips:majority and minority whips are assistant floor leadersserve as liaisons between the party leadership & the rank-and-file memberschecks with party members to determine # of votes that can be counted regarding an issue
70 Party Strength in Congress over recent years Party Strength in Congress over recent years. Which party controlled the House of Representatives for most of the 1980s? Which party controlled the House for the second half of the 1900’s?
71 What are the roles of the committee chairmen What are the roles of the committee chairmen? -chosen according to seniority rule -head the standing committees that do most of Congresses’ work
72 Committees in Congress What is a joint committee? -composed of members from both houses from select or standing committeesWhat is a standing committee and why are they called subject matter committees? –permanent panels; deal only w/ bills that concern a particular subject matterWhat is a select committee? -investigates specific current matters for a limited amount of time; new laws and determines the adequacy of old lawsWhat is a conference committee? -composed of members from both houses; temporary committees that deal only w/ resolving differences between House and Senate versions of a bill
75 Committee Chairs have great power over bills referred to their committee. What does the datain this table tell you about the post each of these members hold?
76 Critics complain that the seniority system discourages younger members of Congress. How does this table demonstrate the importance of seniority in the United States Senate?
77 What is the difference between a bill and a resolution? Is a proposed law that applies to the nation as a whole or to certain people or placesResolution:Is a measure that one house passes but does not have the force of a law; does not require the president’s signature
78 Two types of Bills:1. Public Bills- apply to the nation as a whole (i.e. taxes, copy right laws)2. Private Bills- apply to certain persons or places
79 Why do members of Congress attach riders to bills that are almost certain to pass? Will attach a rider if they know the rider would not pass on its ownIt will “ride through the Legislative Process”.
80 Committee Actions on a Bill Report the bill with a “do pass” recommendation and steer it through debate on the floorRefuse to report the bill, pigeon hole itReport it in an amended form (changed in committee)Report the bill w/ unfavorable recommendation (does not happen often)Report a committee bill (new bill the committee subs for another)
81 How a Bill becomes a Law Complete the flow chart exercise (use text pg.345)
86 Cloture- used to stop a filibuster Limits debateRequires 3/5 of the Senate to vote for clotureSenators are reluctant to use it because filibusters are traditional and useful
87 Options once a bill reaches the President’s desk Sign the billBecome law w/o Pres.signature w/in 10 daysVeto the bill (Congress may override the Pres. veto by 2/3 vote of the full membershipPocket Veto
88 Can a bill pass without a president’s signature? The President may allow the bill to become law without signing it by not acting on it within 10 day, not counting Sundays, of receiving it.
89 Pocket VetoIf Congress adjourns before the end of the 10 days and the President has not signed the bill it dies.