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An Optimized Diffusion Depth Of Field Solver (DDOF) 28th February 20112AMDs Favorite Effects Holger Gruen – AMD

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Agenda Motivation Recap of a high-level explanation of DDOF Recap of earlier DDOF solvers A Vanilla Cyclic Reduction(CR) DDOF solver A DX11 optimized CR solver for DDOF Results 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects3

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Motivation Solver presented at GDC 2010 [RS2010] has some weaknesses Great implementation but memory reqs and runtime too high for many game developers Looking for faster and memory efficient solver 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects4

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Diffusion DOF recap 1 DDOF is an enhanced way of blurring a picture taking an arbitrary CoC at a pixel into account Interprets input image as a heat distribution Uses the CoC at a pixel to derive a per pixel heat conductivity CoC=Circle of Confusion 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects5

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Diffusion DOF recap 2 Blurring is done by time stepping a differential equation that models the diffusion of heat ADI method used to arrive at a separable solution for stepping Need to solve tri-diagonal linear system for each row and then each colum of the input 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects6

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DDOF Tri-diagonal system 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects7 row/col of input image derived from CoC at each pixel of an input row/col resulting blurred row/col

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Solver recap 1 The GDC2010 solver [RS2010] is a hybrid solver – Performs three PCR steps upfront – Performs serial Sweep algorithm to solve small resulting systems – Check [ZCO2010] for details on other hybrid solvers 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects8

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Solver recap 2 The GDC2010 solver [RS2010] has drawbacks – It uses a large UAV as a RW scratch-pad to store the modified coefficients of the sweep algorithm GPUs without RW cache will suffer – For high resolutions three PCR steps produce tri-diagonal system of substantial size This means a serial (sweep) algorithm is run on a big system 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects9

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Solver recap 3 Cyclic Reduction (CR) solver – Used by [Kass2006] in the original DDOF paper – Runs in two phases 1.reduction phase 2.backward substitution phase 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects10

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Solver recap 4 According to [ZCO2010]: – CR solver has lowest computational complexity of all solvers – It suffers from lack of parallelism though At the end of the reduction phase At the start of the backwards substitution phase 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects11

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Passes of a Vanilla CR Solver 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects12 Input image X Pass 1: construct from CoC abc reduce … … Stop at size 1 Solve for the first y Y substitute … Blurred image

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Vanilla Solver Results Higher performance than reported in [Bavoil2010] (~6 ms vs. ~8ms at 1600x1200) Memory footprint prohibitively high – >200 MB at 1600x1200 Need an answer to tackling the lack of parallelism problem – answer given in [ZCO2010] 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects13

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Vanilla CR Solver 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects14 Input image X Pass 1: construct from CoC abc reduce … … Stop at size 1 Solve for the first y Y substitute … Blurred image This is what kills parallelism

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Keeping the parallelism high 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects15 Input image X Pass 1: construct from CoC abc reduce … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution to have a big enough parallel workload (e.g using PCR see [ZCO2010]) Y substitute … Blurred image

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Memory Optimizations 1 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects16 Input image X Pass 1: construct from CoC abc reduce … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … Blurred image

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Memory Optimizations 1 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects17 rgab32f X abc rgab32f reduce … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba32f rgab32f substi- tute

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Memory Optimizations 1 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects18 rgab16f X rgab32f abc rgab16f rgab32f reduce … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba16f rgab16f substi- tute This saves some significant amount of memory - We found no artifacts for going from rgba32f to rgba16f

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Memory Optimizations 2 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects19 rgab16f X rgab32f abc rgab16f rgab32f reduce … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba16f rgab16f substi- tute This does again save a significant amount of memory as this is the biggest surface used by the solver

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Memory Optimizations 2 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects20 rgab16f X abc rgab16f rgab32f reduce … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba16f rgab16f substi- tute Skip abc construction pass and compute abc on-the-fly during 1. reduction pass

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Intermediate Results 1600x th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects21 SolverTime in msMemory in Megabytes HD5870GTX480 GDC2010 hybrid solver on GTX480 ~ [Bavoil 2010] ~117 (guesstimate) Standard Solver (already skips high res abc construction) ~132

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Memory Optimizations 3 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects22 rgab16f X abc rgab16f rgab32f reduce … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba16f rgab16f substi- tute Skip abc construction pass compute abc during 1. reduction pass Yet again this saves a significant amount of memory !

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Memory Optimizations 3 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects23 rgab16f X abc reduce4 … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba16f substitute4 Skip abc construction pass compute abc during 1. reduction pass Reduce 4-to-1 in a special first reduction pass Substitute 1-to-4 in a special substitution pass

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Intermediate Results 1600x th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects24 SolverTime in msMemory in Megabytes HD5870GTX480 GDC2010 hybrid solver on GTX480 ~ [Bavoil 2010] ~117 (guesstimate) Standard Solver (already skips high res abc construction) ~132 4–to-1 Reduction ~73

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DX11 Memory Optimizations 1 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects25 rgab16f X abc reduce4 … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba16f substitute4 Skip abc construction pass compute abc during 1. reduction pass Reduce 4-to-1 in a special first reduction pass Substitute 1-to-4 in a special substitution pass

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DX11 Memory Optimizations 1 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects26 rgab16f X abc reduce4 … … Stop at a reasonable size Solve for Y at that resolution Y substitute … rgba16f substitute4 Skip abc construction pass compute abc during 1. reduction pass Reduce 4-to-1 in a special first reduction pass Substitute 1-to-4 in a special substitution pass Pack abc and X into one rgba_uint surface

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Using SM5 for data packing 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects27 rgab16f X rgab32f abc uint pack x,y channel (f32tof16(X.x) + (f32tof16(X.y) << 16))

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Using SM5 for data packing 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects28 rgab16f X rgab32f abc uint lower 5 bits of z channel higher 27 bits of x channel pack (asuint(abc.x) &0xFFFFFFC0) | (f32tof16(X.z) & 0x3F)) Steal 6 lowest mantissa bits of abc.x to store some bits of X.z

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Using SM5 for data packing 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects29 rgab16f X rgab32f abc uint central 5 bits of z channel higher 27 bits of y channel pack (asuint(abc.y) &0xFFFFFFC0) | ((f32tof16(X.z) >>6 )& 0x3F)) Steal 6 lowest mantissa bits of abc.y to store some bits of X.z

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SM5 Memory Optimizations 1 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects30 rgab16f X rgab32f abc uint higher 5 bits of z channel higher 27 bits of z channel pack (asuint(abc.z) &0xFFFFFFC0) | ((f32tof16(X.z) >>12 )& 0x3F)) Steal 6 lowest mantissa bits of abc.z to store some bits of X.z

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Sample Screenshot 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects31

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Abs(Packed-Unpacked) x 255.0f 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects32

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DX11 Memory Optimizations 2 Solver does a horizonal and vertical pass Chain of lower res RTs needs to be there twice – Horizontal reduction/substitution chain – Vertical reduction/substitution chain How can DX11 help? 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects33

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DX11 Memory Optimizations 2 UAVs allow us to reuse data of the horizontal chain for the vertical chain A proof of concept implementation shows that this works nicely but impacts the runtime significantly – ~40% lower fps Stayed with RTs as memory was already quite low Use only if you are really concerned about memory 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects34

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Final Results 1600x th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects35 SolverTime in msMemory in Megabytes HD5870GTX480 GDC2010 hybrid solver on GTX480 ~ [Bavoil 2010] ~117 (guesstimate,) Standard Solver (already skips high res abc construction) ~132 4–to-1 Reduction ~73 4-to-1 Reduction + SM5 Packing ~58

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Future Work Look into CS acceleration of the solver – 4-to-1 reduction pass – 1-to-4 substitution pass Look into using heat diffusion for other effects – e.g. Motion blur 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects36

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Conclusion Optimized CR solver is fast and mem-efficient – Used in Dragon Age 2 – 4aGames considering its use for new projects – Detailed description in Game Engine Gems 2 Mail me if you want access to the 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects37

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References [Kass2006] Interactive depth of field using simulated diffusion on a GPU Michael Kass, Pixar Animation studios, Pixar technical memo #06-01 [ZCO2010] Fast Tridiagonal Solvers on the GPU Y. Zhang, J. Cohen, J. D. Owens, PPoPP 2010 [RS2010] DX11 Effects in Metro 2033: The Last Refuge A. Rege, O. Shishkovtsov, GDC 2010 [Bavoil2010] Modern Real-Time Rendering Techniques, L. Bavoil, FGO th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects38

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Backup 28th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects39

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Results 1920x th February 2011AMDs Favorite Effects40 SolverTime in msMemory in Megabytes HD5870GTX480 Standard Solver (already skips high res abc construction) ~158 4–to-1 Reduction ~88 4-to-1 Reduction + SM5 Packing ~70

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