3It depicts four lions standing back to back. National EmblemThe National Emblem of India is a replica of the Sarnath Lion capital of Ashoka, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.It depicts four lions standing back to back.The emblem symbolizes power, courage and confidence.
4National Animal (The National Animal of India is the Tiger . It is respected in India for its strength and grace, as well as its incredible power. The Indian tiger is also called the Royal Bengal Tiger.
5National Bird (The National Bird of India is the Peacock . Peacocks symbolize grace, pride, and beauty. Peacocks are often used in Indian mythology and folk stories.
6National FlowerThe National Flower of India is the Lotus . The lotus represents long life, honour, and good fortune. It is also a symbol of triumph, since the lotus is rooted in the mud and can survive to regerminate for thousands of years. Even though the lotus grows in mud, it remains pure and produces beautiful flowers. Thus, it symbolizes purity of heart and mind.
7National Tree (Picture) The National Tree of India is the Banyan Tree (Fig Tree).
8National Fruit (Picture) The National Fruit of India is the Mango . There are over 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range of colours, sizes, and shapes.
19Northern India:The Himalayas are the largest mountain range in the world, extending2,500 kilometers. This mountain range and the rivers near it impact other areas of the land as well.The force of the rivers eroding the mountains feeds the green plains. Eventually,the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers join to form the world's largest delta near theBay of Bengal. The Himalayas slowly flatten to create the forests of Srinagar and Jammu.Soon, this too gives way to the plains of Punjab and the foothills of the mountainsin Uttar Pradesh.
20Rajasthan:Just below the Himalayas is Rajasthan, known for its Thar Desert. The desertreceives less than 10 inches of rain per year and supports only sparcevegetation. Yet, it yields salt and gypsum. This area was originally a secure fortress for the Rajput princes. Today,it has 23species of lizards and about as many snakes. Birds are seen everywhere.There are also gazelle, sand grouse, and other animals.
21Western India:.In this section of India, there are plains and highlands thatproduce millet, wheat, and pulses. There is also a thriving fishing industry. The Western Ghats are a steep mountain barrier along the western coast.In the southwest, the Deccan plateau begins, with a hotter forest climate.The Deccan plateau covers about 43% of India's total land surface.The four major rivers support the wetlands, creating a fertile soil with many species of animal and plant life such as bear, chital, buffaloes, and elephant.
22The East:The Northeast has rich biological resources, as it is mainly tropical land withevergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests. There are also swamps andgrasslands.The coastal region in the East is largely made up of mangroves and submergedcoral reefs. Also in the East are the Gangetic Plains, extending from eastern Rajasthanthrough Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. This is a forest area and is one ofthe most fertile regions of the nation.
24ClothingIndian clothing is very colorful. Each state has its own special costumes, but there are several styles common throughout the country. Women traditionally wear the sari with a stitched blouse, a long skirt called a ghaghra, or loose pants and a tunic known as a salwar khameez. But women today, especially in cities, may also wear western styles such as skirts or dresses, blouses, and pants. Men have their traditional costumes as well, but most now wear a light shirt and pants just as in western countries.
26The sari is one of the most common and oldest forms of dress for women in India. Many regional costumes are variations on this basic style. The fabric is either silk or cotton. Saris can be a solid color or patterned; some are embroidered or hand dyed. Others are covered in tiny mirrors or metalic decoration.
27A sari is made of 6 metres of cloth that is wrapped to form a skirt and then draped over the shoulder. It is worn with a stitched, fitted blouse called a choli. To wear a sari, a woman begins to tuck one end of the fabric into a matching petticoat and wraps it all the way around her waist. She then pleats the fabric and tucks them all together into the front of the petticoat. The remaining fabric is draped over her blouse and shoulder, falling behind her.
28Ghaghra cholis are another type of dress for women Ghaghra cholis are another type of dress for women. A long pleated skirt (the ghaghra) is worn with a long or short stitched and fitted blouse (the choli). They are most often worn in western states, but can be seen all over the country. Both the ghaghra and the chli are beaded or covered with tiny mirrors. Sometimes they are dyed in detailed patterns.
29Many young women today wear modern variations of the traditional ghaghra choli for special occasions. They may now have as many as four pieces: the skirt, the choli, a long scarf draped over the shoulders or head, and a long sleeveless "jacket" framing the outfit. Sometimes the choli is decoratively laced in the front or back.
30Indian women are often seen wearing salwar khameez Indian women are often seen wearing salwar khameez. This outfit is made of a long tunic called a khameez and loose pants called salwar. Salwar khameez originated in northern India, but soon spread across the country. Like other forms of clothing in India, the salwar khameez can be richly decorated or simple for everyday use. They are made of silk or cotton, and usually worn with a scarf called an odhni.
31The salwar khameez has gone through many variations depending on the changing fashions. Sometimes the pyjamas are loose and baggy, only gathered at the ankles. Other styles are closely fitted and almost like leggings. The tunic can also vary: long and flared or short and straight. Women today often wear some version of the salwar khameeze when relaxing at home, since the costume is very comfortable and practical for daily use.
32Men today usually wear a cotton tailored shirt and western style pants Men today usually wear a cotton tailored shirt and western style pants. Depending on their job, they may wear suits to work as well. But men's traditional clothing is as interesting and detailed as women. It is still regularly worn in smaller towns and rural areas. The dhoti is a piece of cloth wrapped around the legs and tucked into the waist to form pants. It is usually white and worn during religious ceremonies.
33Another choice is the kurta and chudidaar Another choice is the kurta and chudidaar. Similar to the women's salwar khameez, it is made of stitched pants in silk or cotton that are gathered at the ankle (chudidaar or payjama) and a long, straight tunic (jhabha or kurta).
35Foods of IndiaIndian food is as varied as anything else in that country; there is no easy definition of an "Indian meal". Indian food is often thought of as very spicy, but there are some simple breads, sweet deserts, and milder 'one-pot dishes' that defy the norm. Many Indians are vegetarian, but then, some are not. There are regional specialities, different ways to serve the meal, and staple ingredients in each state. This combines to create a diverse cuisine that never becomes boring.
36Eating Styles:Indian food is often eaten with the hands, however, this custom is guided by some basic rules. For instance, it is considered impolite to allow the food to pass the first joint of the fingers. The fingers should never touch the mouth directly. In addition, only the right hand may be used in eating. Since most Indian meals include a kind of flatbread, that is traditionally used to scoop or roll vegetables or rice. A spoon is provided for soup, but the bread may even be used to eat that! Meat, if served, may be eaten with a knife and fork, but it will more often be served pre-cut, so it may be easily managed by the fingers. ..
37Indians usually eat their largest meal at midday, preferring to end with a light evening meal. People either bring their midday meal to work or use a lunchpacking service called "tiffin" that delivers traditional hot meals to their workplace. If possible, many Indians like t to come home for the midday meal.o come home for the midday meal
38Snacks and Drinks:Snack Food: Indian snacks may be salty, spicy, or sweet. Street vendors sell many different kinds, including warm dishes. The "pav bhaji" is a patty made of mixed vegetables that have been mashed and shallow fried and then served on a slice of bread. Another popular snack throughout the country is "bhel", a mixture of puffed rice, crunchy chickpea flour chips, onions, tomato, green peppers, and tamarind chutney. "Pani puri" are small, hollow breads stuffed with a bit of potato, onion, or chickpea and topped with a "pani" of seasoned water. Nuts are another common choice, but they are roasted with a hot spice blend of turmeric, paparika, and cumin powder. Often a little lemon juice is squeezed on top.
39Drinks: The most common drink in India is tea Drinks: The most common drink in India is tea. This is prepared with milk, sugar, and a blend of ginger,nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, and cardamom. Most people will drink this tea, called "chai" with breakfast and in the late afternoon. In fact, it may be served at any time and is a popular refreshment for guests. .
40An example of a common cold Indian drink is "lassi", which is a yoghurt or buttermilk drink that is sweetened and flavored with rose, mango, or served plain
42India festivalsDawila is a well known festival. It is called the festival of lights. The story goes:Prince Rama and his wife Sita are banished from their home in Ayodhya by their father the king. Rama’s brother, Lakshmana, goes to live with them in the forest. They are banished for 14 years. After many happy years Sita is kidnapped by the ten-headed demon Ravana. With the help of a monkey warrior, Hanuman, Rama rescues his wife. The people of Ayodhya light divas (oil lanterns) to help guide the way back home. On their return Rama is crowned King..
43During the festival of lights, people light hundreds of small oil lamps (diyas). They put them on their house roof tops and outer walls. The more lamps they light the more likely that Lakshmi will be tempted to visit them.Hindus believe that the goddess brings wealth with her when she visits.During the festival gifts are exchanged – often candles and candy. Homes are decorated and candles are lit. Fireworks are a big part of the celebration
44During the festival gifts are exchanged – often candles and candy During the festival gifts are exchanged – often candles and candy. Homes are decorated and candles are lit. Fireworks are a big part of the celebration.On Dawila we get up at 6:30 am. And put on our best clothes. I put on my sari, my daughters wear shalwar kameez (traditional dress) and my husband wears traditional clothes.The first thing we do is say our prayers and make offerings of fruit and traditional Indian sweets. Then we go to our parents house to bow down to them and receive their blessing.Then we go to the temple. After the temple we visitwith family and friends and wish them a “Happy Diwali”We decorate our house in bright red, greens and yellows, and we light as many candles as possible. Dawila is all about filling your house with light and letting go of the gloom and darkness.
45GANDHI JAYANTIThe birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation, is celebrated with reverence all over the country. He is the man who played a significant role in achieving independence for India from the British Empire with his simplicity and strong will power.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as 'Bapu' or 'Father of the nation', was born on the 2nd of October in 1869, in Porbunder, Gujrat.He studied law in U.K and practiced law in South Africa. But he left his profession and returned to India to join the Indian freedom struggle.
46He believed in living a simple life and in 'Swadeshi' He believed in living a simple life and in 'Swadeshi'. He proved to the world that freedom can be achieved through the path of non-violence. Gandhi is a symbol of peace and truth. On this day, the President and Prime Minister, along with other eminent political leaders, pay homage at Raj Ghat - the samadhi of Mahatma Gandhi. All the offices and schools, throughout the country, remain closed on this day.October 2nd
48CHILDREN'S DAY CELEBRATIONS Children's Day is to celebrate "childhood". On Children’s Day tribute is paid to all children in the world. Children are loved by one and all. They win over our hearts with their angelic eyes and innocent smiles. It makes one realize that maybe that’s the way God wanted us to be.Children's Day is a day for children to engage in fun and frolic. Schools celebrate this day by organizing cultural programs. Teachers of the school perform songs and dances for their students. Various competitions like quizzes, fancy dress competitions, elocutions are organized on this day. Children are also treated to a movie and lunch. Television networks have in the recent years started to air special programs all day long for kids on November 14, making this day a special treat.
49Republic Day is India's great national festival. REPUBLIC DAY OF INDIAIt is celebrated every year on January 26.Republic Day" is celebrated so that the people would unceasingly strive for the establishment of a Sovereign Democratic Republic of India.The most spectacular celebrations include the march past of the three armed Forces, massive parades, folk dances by tribal folk from the different states in picturesque costumes marking the cultural unity of India. Further, the streak of jet planes of Indian Air Force, leaving a trial of coloured smoke, marks the end of the festival. The trees on both sides of the routes and the lawns become alive with spectators.
56Taj MahalThe Taj Mahal is considered one of the wonders of the world.The most famous part of the monument is the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal with its white marble dome.The Taj Mahal is in Agra in north India.Who built the Taj Mahal?Taj Mahal was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his queen Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India.When was the Taj Mahal built?The building of the Taj Mahal began around 1632 and it was completed about 21 years later in About 22,000 workmen built the Taj Mahal.What is the Taj Mahal made from?The Taj Mahal is made from whte marble stone with precious gems and stones pressed into its walls.
66Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), born Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu was an Albanian Catholic nun with Indian citizenship. She founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta, India in For over 45 years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries.