Presentation on theme: "Week of October 4th Alyssa, Casey, Kevin. Monday: Three perspectives on technology tech determinism drives social change. technology drives social change."— Presentation transcript:
Week of October 4th Alyssa, Casey, Kevin
Monday: Three perspectives on technology tech determinism drives social change. technology drives social change social construction social change drives the evolution of technology social shaping - mix of both of the above
Social Construction Technology is based on how we socially construct meaning. Also continuous. As culture grows, so does our technology.
Social Shaping UNCLEAR
Social Shaping Various factors affect technological growth: -Social -Economic -Cultural They shape direction as well as rate of innovation ability to change not only content but context. building is a combination of technology and design.
Who Shapes Technology? 1.Human engineers 2.Market Forces 3.Consumer needs and demands 4.All individuals and groups who are also social products (harry potter fans, twilight fans)
Social Shaping Questions Why do things catch on? Why are they popular? How is a thing built? (Transparency in technology) Tech Determinism Questions - Who what where when why? Social Construction Questions How did this start culturally? Which group did this originate with?
Four things to consider 1.Innovation – how does this set it apart from older technology? 2.Structure – What does it end up looking like? How does this affect our views of it/what it does? 3.Location – Where do new innovations take place? How does location describe the object? 4.Affordances – What does it allow us to do? Features.
Ecotones - Where two ecosystems come together
Ecotones Constant tension of ecosystems fighting for control. Innovation environments. Constraint and affordance How do we design for change?
Consequences of Design Anticipated vs Unanticipated Desired and Undesired Probably and Improbable
Revenge Effects Unintended consequences cause more harm than good No child left behind
Questions: What are products that can be said to have been created out of the three theories of technology? Television? Reality shows? Cars? Industrialism? Question: How do ecotones foster innovation environments? How do you plan ahead?
READINGS! Ball-Rokeach Conceptions about the Internet: -Renders physical place unimportant and overcomes the boundary of space -Some worry it prevents people from participating in their physical communities by overriding local social contacts and traditional mass media. Globalization: -People, individually and collectively, give sense to globalization -By doing this, they become both reactive and proactive participants
Theories about Globalization: Convergence Theory: Globalization transcends local economies, supersedes nation stages, and creates a homogeneous global culture dominated by media conglomerates.
Divergence Theory: Globalization creates a divide between those who can and cannot access digital information. It marginalizes third world economies and separates them from the global market. It causes conflicts among civilizations instead of world integration.
Mix Between the Two: New patterns of global stratification arise, which reinforces certain power hierarchies while eliminating and changing others.
QUESTION: Which theory do you most strongly identify with and why? CONVERGENCE OR DIVERGENCE
Average Internet Users perceptions of globalization: 64% of people surveyed had utopian views of globalization They thought it promoted freedom, equality, inclusion and the idea of one world 33% had dystopian views They said it increased corporate control, created a socioeconomic divide, and was overwhelming. The other 3% were neutral or thought it was just hype.
Other Aspects of Globalization Ethnicity – remains an important force in globalization rather than being broken down Internet: Not Necessarily a Globalizing Force: - Amount of Internet does not affect peoples views of globalization- people get these views from other sources.
Hafner Chapter Notes: Internet Communities: -Many websites want to find out a way to give users a community feel so that they can keep users around and make them more likely to see their ads. - Some sites actually do become communities; one of the best examples is the WELL (Whole Earth (e)Lectronic Link).
-People could start their own conferences about different topics and others would reply -Returned text based communications to a level of importance in society -At once a public a solitary environment -It fostered the idea of the multiple and fluid self. -They held monthly WELL office parties where members could meet face to face -Showed early on how people could use the Internet to act in ways they wouldnt normally. i.e. a couple in the WELL community had a break up, and the man began to electronically stalk the woman and post bad things about her in the conferences.
What Brought People to Several different reasons: They didnt have another chance at community- they were mobile urban people too buy to gossip with their neighbors. It allowed them to avoid real life encounters- some people were too shy to speak in person. Being there suspended reality: some compared it to reading a good book or watching a movie.
Conclusion about Online vs. Physical Communities: -Online communities are NOT interchangeable with physical ones. -People still want and need a sense of place and belonging in a physical way. -Physical communities spawn a type of nonverbal knowing, while virtual ones are all through text. -Democracy, in any form, begins and ends in communities small enough for their numbers to meet face to face. –Lewis Mumford, city planner and social critic.
QUESTION: -Do you think its important for people to meet face to face in order to keep democracy running? Do you think physical gatherings hold more value than virtual ones?
Larry Gross Chapter: Sexual Minorities and the Internet: -The ability to join groups and make friends over the Internet is extremely valuable to sexual minorities, who are scattered across geographical space and often feel trapped in their home surroundings. -Gays and lesbians are using the Internet at huge rates because it is the first medium they feel they could create an equal footing in. i.e. In the 90s and early 2000s, about 1/3 of member-created AOL chat rooms were dedicated to gay and lesbian topics.
Regulation of the Internet: -The campaign to keep sexuality invisible in mass media, including the Internet, has always been waged with the proclaimed intent of protecting the vulnerable- women and children. -The regulations are always imposed in the name of protection, rather than restricting expression.
Specific Regulation Acts: -Communications Decency Act (CDA): Passed by President Clinton in 1996 under the umbrella of the Telecommunications Reform Act. -Later struck down by the Supreme Court because they said the Internet deserves the highest protection from government intrusion. Next came Child Online Protection Act (COPA) passed in Attempted to restrict access by minors to any harmful Internet material. -Federal courts ruled that it was against the constitutional protection of free speech.
Contradictions: -People have a fear of exposing children to images that have the power to promote, condone, and encourage forbidden behavior. -Images of violence remain available all throughout the mass media although sexual images are censored or taken down.
QUESTION: Do you think this makes sense? Does censoring certain keywords really protect our women and children? Or does it only cause more harm by not allowing an outlet for those with problems to talk to others facing the same issues?
Where Everybody knows your (Screen) name Reading by Steinkuehler and Williams How do MMOs serve as an acceptable third place and allow people to cultivate social bonds?
Second place Third Place
Experiment Outcomes MMOs (massive multiplayer online) games BRIDGE rather than BOND 1.Lighthearted, playful atmosphere 2.MMOs are set up to have a social aspect to them 3.Guilds may foster deeper relationships after longer periods of time 4.Lacking physical contact due to time and place restrictions By allowing us to form bridging relationships, this is allows us to feel a sense of participation akin to that found in other third place areas, yet is not completely the same experience.
Question: How open are you to playing MMOs? If you have any previous experience, how do they compare to what one might find in a real world third place? Do you think MMOs could be a substitute?