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Section 1Articles of Confederation State Constitutions –Cont. Congress asked all states to organize const. –Experience with British rule made them cautions.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1Articles of Confederation State Constitutions –Cont. Congress asked all states to organize const. –Experience with British rule made them cautions."— Presentation transcript:


2 Section 1Articles of Confederation State Constitutions –Cont. Congress asked all states to organize const. –Experience with British rule made them cautions about abuse of power –Limited power of government

3 Limiting Power Bicameral legislatures State legislatures more power than governor keep power in the hands of the people not states Restricted power of governor

4 Planning a new government Articles of Confederation- first constitution. Limited power of govt. Congress could not impose taxes, regulate trade or force citizens to join army March 1, 1781 Articles official govt. of US

5 Problems Articles didnt provide a strong gov t.- states were hesitant to give up power Congress had limited authority-no president, no judicial branch, weak executive Pass law..9 out of 13 Amend 13 out of 13 *** Gained independence under articles and provided a new way to expand west***

6 New Land Policies Ordinance of 1785- est. a way to survey and sell the western lands- townships Northwest Ordinance 1787- created NW territory and carved 5 smaller territories out of it –60,000 pop apply for statehood –Outlawed slavery –Come in on equal footing

7 Trouble on 2 fronts Financial problems- we are in debt. Inflation, depreciated money We could not pay our debts b/c the govt. could not TAX

8 Problems with Britain and Spain England would not withdrawal troops from the Ohio River Valley Spain closed lower Mississippi River to American shipping 1784 Articles proved that they were unable to handle problems in the country effectively Something had to be done~ New Government

9 Review What was our first constitution as a nation? What were its weaknesses? What were its 2 strengths? What was our economy like?

10 Section 2 Convention and Compromise After Rev. war, US went thru depression –Economy bad, money worthless, no one would trade with us as a result Shays Rebellion- farmers upset about debt, and seizure of farms to pay it Shays Rebellion showed the US that the Articles didnt work-could not control violence

11 Slavery Plantation system in South based on Slave labor South feared it would ruin their economy North abolished slavery –Quakers led the charge against slavery Slavery divided the North and South Leaders had decided articles needed to be strengthened

12 Call for change Some thought weak govt. was good Others thought strong govt. Madison, Hamilton active in movement for change proposed a convention Needed to reform the Articles

13 Constitutional Convention May 1787, Philadelphia Hottest summer on record 55 delegates-leaders of Revolution present George Washington chosen president Met in secret Met to reform Articles of Confederation

14 Virginia Plan Edmund Randolf proposed, Madison author 2 house legislature Chief executive, chosen by legislature Court system Lower house elected by people, based on population Upper house chosen by lower Favored large states

15 New Jersey Plan One house legislature One vote for each state no matter what the pop. Congress could set taxes Congress elect weak executive branch

16 The great Compromise Delegates had to decide if they were revising Articles or writing new document Roger Sherman Great Compromise –2 house legislature –House of Reps- based on population –Senate each state has 2 members

17 Three Fifths Compromise Count slaves 3/5 of a free person for taxation and representation purposes Every 5 slaves would equal 3 free

18 Slave trade North had banned slave trade, wanted the south to do the same South considered it essential to economy North agreed that congress cant interfere with slave trade until 1808

19 Bill of Rights George Mason proposed the Const. have a Bill of Rights, but others said the Constitution provided adequate protection Proposal defeated

20 Constitution Sept. 17, 1787 delegates sign Constitution 9 out of 13 states had to ratify

21 Sec 3 New Plan of Government Many ideas for the constitution came from European political writers Magna Carta 1215 limit power of govt. English Bill of Rights John Locke, Montesquieu- enlightenment thinkers Locke everyone has natural rights

22 Montesquieu Spirit of Laws declared that powers of government should be separated and balanced Keep one person from gaining too much power

23 Federal System or federalism Sharing of powers between federal and state governments-- or federalism Federal govt. could –Tax –Regulate trade –Declare war

24 Federalism cont. State governments –Regulate trade in borders –Est. local govt. and schools –Power to build roads and tax POWERS THEY SHARE –TAXING –BUILDING ROADS

25 Organization of Govt. Divided into 3 branches Legislative- makes laws Executive- carry out law Judicial- interprets laws

26 Legislative branch Lawmaking branch Congress- House of Representatives and Senate Powers: collect tax, coin money, declare war, raise and support armies

27 Executive Branch Carry out laws Headed by President Electoral College- cast votes for president and V.P>

28 Judicial Branch Court system Supreme court Lower courts

29 Checks and balances Checks and balancesChecks and balances- 3 branches have roles that check or limit others One branch will not dominate vetooverride-President can veto, congress can override- example

30 Constitutional Debate 9 out of 13 needed to ratify FederalistFederalist- supported ratification Washington, Franklin, Madison, Hamilton Federalist papers explaining and defending const. Antifederalist Antifederalist- wanted a Bill of Rights

31 Protecting rights Criticism of Constitution no bill of rights Federalists feared disorder w/o strong central govt. Antifederalists feared oppression more than disorder

32 Adopting the Constitution Patrick Henry said it didnt limit the power of government By 1790 all 13 states ratified- approved Bill of Rights promised as amendment-or to add

33 Constitution and Article Family You will be comparing and contrasting the Articles vs. the Constitution using the bodies given to you The baby bodies will be used to write all of the powers granted under each document in our government. 3 branches, powers of each and checks and balances. You will need to write branches and checks and balances and federalism and then further distribute power from there on the Constitution babies-I will explain. You will give me 2 checks on each branches power and 2 examples of federalism. 3 for state, 3 for federal and 3 shared powers Article and Constitution babies- color state powers blue and federal powers pink. Shared powers can be both colors. Cut out the babies and the big bodies and glue to construction paper and you have your family! Big bodies will be the Articles and the Constitution –Inside you will put the date in which these documents ruled us

34 Constitution Tree Constitution tree will contain the following *3 branches-duties of each branch *Checks and balances – must have 2 checks on each branches power *Federalism- 3 examples of federal, state and shared powers within

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