2Ancient EgyptThe culture of ancient Egypt developed along the banks of the Nile RiverAncient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt until approximately 3100 BCE (They were united by a powerful Pharaoh name Menes).
3The Nile was the principle means of travel for the people of ancient Egypt. They developed various types of boats, including cargo, passenger, funerary, and naval vessels, to journey on the river.The Nile river also served as a source of food for the people of ancient Egypt and was crucial to agriculture in the region.
4Social PyramidThe Pharaoh or Egyptian rulers, were worshipped as gods and held in complete authority over the kingdom.
5Egyptian ClothingStyle did not change much between Old Kingdom and New Kingdom.Women of the lower class wore sheath-like dresses. Men of those classes wore short cloth kilts or, in the case of sailors, loincloths of leather.The well-to-do classes was the same as the poor; however, they could afford more expensive clothing.Black wigs had always been a standard item for Egyptians.
6Anubis, Lord of the underworld Gods and GoddessesThe Egyptians also worshipped hundreds of different gods and goddesses.Many of the gods are represented by animals.Anubis, Lord of the underworld
7AfterlifeEgyptians believed in life after death and as a result they preserved the bodies of the pharaohs in preparation for the afterlife.A person’s favorite possessions would be placed with them in the tomb to let the mummy be prepared for the afterlife.Although coffins and sarcophagi (coffin made of stone or gold) did a pretty good job of protecting the mummy, the greatest safeguard against bodily damage was the tomb itself.
8MummificationThe entire process of mummification took 70 days to complete.The stomach, intestines, liver, and lungs were removed and preserved by drying them in a special salt called natron.Once thoroughly dried, the organs would be put into separate containers called canopic jars.Egyptian Canopic Jars
9Egyptian TombsEgyptian artists decorated temples and tombs according to very strict rules set forth by the priests.The rules required that each part of the body be shown from the most visible angle.The heads, eyes, arms, legs, and feet are shown in profile.The shoulders, however, are shown from a frontal view.
10Hieroglyphics English is based on 26 characters—letters. Ancient Egyptian writing uses more than 2,000 hieroglyphic characters.Each hieroglyphic represents a common object in ancient Egypt.Hieroglyphics could represent the sound of an object or an idea associated with the object.
11A modern type of hieroglyphic writing would be a rebus. A rebus is a picture puzzle that can be “sounded out” by reading the sound symbolized by the pictures.Answer: I love you
12Egypt Egyptian art can be divided into three main categories: Old Kingdom ( BC)Middle Kingdom (2100 – 1700 BC)New Kingdom ( BC)Each kingdom is further divided into dynasties. (A dynasty was a period during which a single family provided a succession of rulers).
13Old Kingdom (A period of anarchy and divided rule) This pyramid was built by Imhotep for King Zoser.It was a solid stone structure of six huge steps rising over twenty stories in the desert air.It was the first huge stone structure built on earth.Step Pyramids of Djoser, Saqqara, (2680 BC)
14The Great Pyramids, Giza (2530-2470 BC) The Great Pyramids were built by three kings (Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure).Hundreds of thousands of men constructed these pyramids (and many died during its construction).The stones for these pyramids were floated on rafts across the Nile valley (some of the stones weighed over 40 tons).The Great Pyramids, Giza ( BC)Khufu’s pyramid was the tallest structure in the world, until modern skyscrapers (covers about 13 acres and is over 55 stories high).
16the relative positions of stars and pyramids match each other perfectly.
17It had the body of a lion and head of Chefren (name of a pharoah) The Great Sphinx, a figure 240 feet in length, carved from the rocky ledge, guarded the Great Pyramids.It had the body of a lion and head of Chefren (name of a pharoah)The Great Sphinx, Giza, (2550 BC)
18Sculpted using low relief (figures are close to the background). King Narmer commissioned this work. It shows King Narmer conquering all of Egypt (Narmer is much larger than the other figures).The artist has used pictographs (symbols) as a way of writing.Palette of Narmer, (3150 BC)* This palette was made of slate and it was used for grinding pigments for eye shadows.
20Mycerinus and His Queen, (2470 BC) This sculpture is cut from a single block of slate.It is 56”(142 cm high).Arms are rigid, faces look straight ahead, and each foot is slightly forward (frontal pose).The sculpture is not an accurate depiction of the king and queen (idealized bodies).Mycerinus and His Queen, (2470 BC)
21This sculpture was carved from limestone and painted. It is 18 ½” (47 cm) high.This sculpture was painted for added realism.The poses are frontal and the figures are stylized.Katep and His Wife,(2300 BC)
22Middle Kingdom (Time of law, order and prosperity) Architecture:During this period architecture shifted away from pyramids to the construction of funerary temples.These were designed to hold the mummies of the rulers.Part of the building would be cut into the cliff.Art:Art continued to flourish and craftspeople still held an honored position in society.They carved wood into figures, boats, weapons, etc.These carvings were then painted to create an illusion of reality.
23New Kingdom (Kind of a “Golden” Age) Part of the building was cut into the cliff and part was built outside (following Middle Kingdom style).The queen spent most of her reign constructing this temple (she strapped a false beard to her chin and wore men’s clothing when she visited the site).Funerary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, (1480 BC)
24The Hypostyle Hall, (1530 BC) It consisted of 134 columns, which create a forest-like feeling.There are 26 rows of columns just across the front alone.The central columns were about 69 feet high.The Hypostyle Hall, (1530 BC)
25Temple of Rameses II, (1257 BC) Rameses II ruled for sixty-seven years.He had a multitude of statues of himself placed throughout the land.His temple at Abu Simbel is the most famousFour figures of Rameses are carved directly out of the standing cliff.Temple of Rameses II, (1257 BC)
27Nefertiti was Akhenaten’s wife. Her name roughly translates to “the beautiful (or perfect) woman has come”.This portrait is delicate and sensitive, showing the sculptors awareness and knowledge of the structure of the human head.This sculpture was left abandoned in the artist’s studio after the death of the king.Nefertiti, (1360 BC)
28Akhenaten and his Family, (1350 BC) This is a funerary sculpture.Image of Akhenaten is not so idealized, since he has a visible belly.Akhenaten ruled for 17 years and during his reign he declared a single new supreme god in Aten (THE SUN).Akhenaten then declared himself Atens’s representative on earth and a god himself.Akhenaten and his Family, (1350 BC)
29Mask of King Tutankhamen, (1352 BC) Akhenaten’s successor was his nine-year-old relative Tutankhaten who later changed his name to Tutankamen.Even though he only ruled for nine years, he is Egypt’s most famous king because of the wealth of objects found in his tomb.Mask of King Tutankhamen, (1352 BC)