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Extending the Scope of the Current Discussion on Metadata Towards Situated Models Heidrun Allert, Christoph Richter, Wolfgang Nejdl Klikk.

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Presentation on theme: "Extending the Scope of the Current Discussion on Metadata Towards Situated Models Heidrun Allert, Christoph Richter, Wolfgang Nejdl Klikk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Extending the Scope of the Current Discussion on Metadata Towards Situated Models Heidrun Allert, Christoph Richter, Wolfgang Nejdl Klikk

2 What this talk is about Not: Proposing a set of metadata But: A modelling approach for metadata dealing with valuable diversity in learning. Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

3 Standards and Specifications: Current Focus Search, Exchange and Re-Use of Learning Objects (mainly learning material) Seperating Learning Management System from Content Ensure Interoperability Search, Exchange and Re-Use of Units of Studies, Scenarios, Methods Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

4 Assumptions - Axioms – (almost) not questioned Learning Objects are decontextualized (questioned by e.g. Polsani) Learning Objects are neutral with regard to learning theory Learning Management Systems are neutral with regard to learning theory (questioned by Schulmeister, Albrecht) Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

5 ... Platform + Content = Learning Solution When they say Course they mean course content content activity Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

6 The pedagogical perspective? Requirements for standards result from organizational economic technical perspectives. Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

7 Approaches on the Continuum of Contextualization learning as decontextualized learning as situated/contextualized Instructional Design (Receptive Learning) Presentation and delivery of knowledge pieces Textual references to context Situated Approaches Co-construction of knowledge and development of competences Dealing with real world problems (ill-structured problems) Humanistic Approaches Focusses on Self-reflection Learner is part of the context Development of personality Situated Approaches Co-construction of knowledge and development of competences Dealing with real world problems (ill-structured problems) Humanistic Approaches Focusses on Self-reflection Learner is part of the context Development of personality Distinguishing Instructional Design from Situated Approaches (Jonassen) Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

8 Use for Metadata for Situated Approaches Agents within the semantic web (cp. scenario of Berners-Lee et al) Internal representation of agents about educational settings (not only knowledge domains) Peer-to-peer systems supporting learning communities Group formation A community of practice annotates an knowledge asset as best practice A learner searches for a specific community of practice (informal learning) Mature lifelong learners reflecting on what and how they want to learn Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

9 Valuable Diversity: Learning Theories and Models Different assumptions on learning, mind and knowledge Epistemological Foundation Information Processing Theory Situated Cognition Metaphor of learning and knowledge Acquisition metaphor (Sfard) Knowledge-creation metaphor, knowledge advancement metaphor (Sfard, Paavola) Moving from peripheral to full membership (Lave, Wenger) Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

10 Metadata Schemas, Standards: Modelling What is their modelling approach? The representational purpose of mind? What do they aim at? How do they deal with diversity? With epistemplogical differences? Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

11 LOM: Standard for Learning Object Metadata The modelling approach Absolute, definite description of an object The object itself comprises any information Learning Object Attributes (Categories, Sub-categories) General LifeCycle Meta-Metadata Technical Educational Interactivity Level Semantic Density Difficulty Level Typical Learning Time Learning Resource Type … Rights Relation Annotation Classification A Learning Object is any entity, digital or not... (LOM) Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

12 LOM: Standard for Learning Object Metadata LOM aims at Describing learning material (mainly used in LMS) Vision of automated instruction Building consitent learning sequences How does it deal with diversity? Aims at being unspecific/neutral with regard to learning theories Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

13 This is a cartoon!

14 LOM: Designing for Change? LOM is not neutral/unspecific with regard to learning theories: implicitely it reflects an acquisition and transmission metaphor of learning and the learning situation learner – material. From the philosophy of science we concluded: One cannot be neutral when specifying categories (Lakoff, Luhmann, Kant: apriori) One cannot be neutral with regard to epistemological foundation when specifying educational categories One cannot be neutral choosing a modelling approach. Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

15 IMS Learning Design IMS-LD aims at Exchanging Units of Studies Describing learning processes, including social interaction How is a resource used? How does it deal with diversity? Building a Pedagogical Metamodel: What is in common with any learning theory Modelling approach Information model: modelling aspects, which are relevant within an educational setting Prescriptively describe learning process (well-structured processes) Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

16 IMS Learning Design: Information Model Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

17 IMS Learning Design: Designing for Change? Situated learning processes are ill-structured process We can not predict what will happen step by step Situated learning processes are poorly structured processes Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

18 Modelling Social Systems: Learning Roles LR aims at: Modelling coherent social systems Explicitely modelling differences/context Organizational context Learning theory, epistemoloical foundation (appreciating epistemological differences) Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

19 Theory of Social Systems (Luhmann, Willke) Activities are related Roles are related Shared expectations Reducing Complexity In an educational context: Changing an entire Setting, not only introducing new technology Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

20 Theory of Social Systems (Luhmann, Willke) A Person does not belong to a system, but to its environment (Luhmann). person system 1system 2 the accused father fills role son judge environment the attestor picture indication souvenir son the attestor judge Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

21 Concept Role in Formal Languages Natural Type/ClassRole Static An instance of a class once and forever belongs to that class. It cannot change it without loosing its identity Well-known concept in object oriented modelling Dynamic (Dynamic classifying) Founded (has context and relations) Not semantically rigid – does not lose its identity when leaving the role [Guarino 1992] Relevant in context modelling Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

22 Modelling Social Systems: Learning Roles Explicitely modelling learning theories and social systems Each Learning Role is based on an epistemological foundation Has specific roles (e.g. person roles) Shares a specific metaphor of learning and knowledge Is agreed on by a community What are relevant constituents? Agree on relevant types Agree on which role a type can fill What quality a type needs to have to be able to fill a role? Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

23 Defining Relevant Aspects, Constituting Elements (Agreed on by the Community) Example 1: Characteristics of Communities of Practice (CoP) PersonStrategic IntentKnowledge Asset Community Coordinator (Local, Global) Community Leader/Expert Core Member Active Member Peripheral Participant Helping Community Best-practice Community Knowledge-stewarding Community Best Practice Innovative Knowledge Lesson Learned Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

24 Distinguishing Types from Roles Relevant Types Person vCard Knowledge Asset DC Reduced LOM TechnologyArrangementActivityService LOM without the categories Educational and Rights (The technical category remains e.g.) CSCL ontologies Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

25 Example 1: Model Communities of Practice M0M0 M1M1 M2M2 Person vCard Knowledge Assets DC Reduced LOM used by Best- practice Community Space Meeting CoP Meta-Role attributes Peripheral Participant -identifies important issues -plannes meetings -... Community Coordinator Core Member attributes Technology attributes Learning Arrangement attributes Walter: Person Fills role Community Coordinator in CoP Arctic Biologists -Fills role Core Member in CoP xy - vCard - plannes meetings -identifies important issues - attributes of Core-Member Mary: Person Fills role Peripheral Participant in CoP xy - vCard - attributes of Peripheral Participant CoP Community Theory of CoP, Epistemological Foundation describesreflects Innovative Knowledge Community: Arctic Biologists -Community Coordinator: Peter -Core Members: Eric,... -Peripheral Participants: Mary,... -Meetings: Date, Time, C-Space Activity attributes Peer Tutoring Co- constructing innovative knowledge Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

26 Example 2: Model PBL ill-structured PBL Ill-structured Theory of Ill-struct. PBL Community Person vCard Technology attributes Learning Arrangement attributes Knowledge Asset DC, reduced LOM Problem Solver attributes Project Coordinator attributes Know- ledge Base Project Report Case describesreflects used in Structured Chat: Technology Fills role Support Facility for discussing arguments Fills role Support Facility for identifying possible strategies... Tim: Person Fills role Problem Solver vCard Attributes of Problem Solver Interview with patient: Knowledge Asset Fills role Case DC Attributes of Case M2M2 M1M1 M0M0 Support Facility Reflecting Process of Cooperation Group discussion: Activity CSCL Ontology... Problem Situation Activity CSCL Ontology Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

27 Relations between Roles person activityenvironment property document outcome performs > creates > -properties -goals Modelled by a common activity model Conform with IMS-LD Engaging with environment (situated approaches) uses > engaging with > Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

28 Procedure Community oriented approach: Shared conceptualization (as ontologies are) Which Learning Roles will exist? Acquisition metaphor + Knowledge-creation metaphor? CoP, Expository Learning, PBL ill-structured, PBLwell-structured? Depends on the communities! Defining relevant aspects, components, constituting elements (agreed on by the community) Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

29 Too Complex? It is complex to annotate a problem situation (of an ill- structured problem) with Difficulty Level. It is complex to annotate a Community of Practice with Semantic Density. Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

30 Practical Implications Static and dynamic role-based attributes. One entity within different settings. Prescriptive? The one/the group who plans or initiates an educational setting specifies roles (selected from one or more Learning Roles). Therefore the intended models are explicit, open to reflection, discussion, change, and extension. Metadata of Use: How an entity has been used is intended to be used Instructional units within problem solving Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

31 Thank you for your attention. Questions? This work was fundet by the Wallenberg Global Learning Network WGLN Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

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33 Static and Role-Based Attributes Person vCard Community Coordinator Learner Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

34 Example 3: Model CSCL CSCLEpistemological Foundation o CSCL CSCL Community Shared space describesreflects M2M2 Knowledge Construction Awareness Coordination Knowledge Externalization Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway

35 Further Work Extending the work towards CSCL-user profiles Building an underlying activity model Coordinating the communities setting up Learning Roles Heidrun Allert | June 17th, 2003 | Norway


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