Presentation on theme: "Megaliths in the Czech Republic. What are megalithic constructions Types: menhirs – free-standing stones dolmens - stone tables or corridors cromlechs."— Presentation transcript:
What are megalithic constructions Types: menhirs – free-standing stones dolmens - stone tables or corridors cromlechs – arched stone structures alignments – stone rows, alleys and stone circles.
These monuments are supposedly remainders of ancient migration of nations. The oldest monuments in Europe are dated in the 6th millennium BC. The nations migrated from unknown regions, probably from east to west, mostly over the sea. There were not found any weapons with the megaliths; this leads to an assumption that the people were not warlike and were persecuted. However, these people had rich knowledge in astronomy, mathematics and geometry, and mastered technology of quarrying, transport and erection of big stone blocks. - presence of megalithic construction monuments is the basic feature of this civilisation. Megalithic civilisation
Megaliths in the Czech Republic Many of them were destroyed, only local names and legends remained after them Others were relocated Regions with higher numbers of preserved megaliths - northwest from Praha (districts Louny, Rakovník, etc.) - South Bohemia (district Strakonice)
Megaliths in the Czech Republic - northwest from Praha (districts Louny, Rakovník, etc.)
Megalitic object in Holíč, Slovakia (48 o 50´/17 o 10´)
Materials of the megaliths is mostly different from materials of the bottom layers The materials mostly include quartz, pudding stone, gneiss This does not include sandstone, granite Materials of megalithic monuments
Stones with panes According to our archaeologists, these stones show natural origin Such stones could be used for fortune-telling; water form them were considered healing or used for other rituals Illustration: Černé Voděrady, Žihle, and others.
Natural stones Various rock formation, glacier boulders, etc. These stones are named in the legends as socalled Devils stones, etc.
Natural stones Conventional natural quarrying of granite creates an impression of artificial constructions (Žihle, PS)
Locations of monuments Some hypotheses say that the megalithic constructions are located on energetic lines of the Earth. The localities, distant even tens of kilometres, show certain connections, given by geometrical or astronomical relations.
Astronomical azimuths for Beltine (green lines) and Lugnasad (red lines).
Astronomical azimuths for Samain holy days (blue lines) and Imbolc (black lines)
Astronomical construction (prehistoric calendars), corridor graves, overdimensioned dolmens as shelters against flood or ion radiation. Mythology connects all megalithic constructions with supernatural creatures (gods or giants). Megaliths – orientation points for extraterrestrial visitors (frequent occurrence of UFO). Enter into other states of mind (visions, apparitions), drawing of mental energy (shamans, Druids or priests in the past). Hypotheses on megalith monuments
Influence human behaviour of e.g. artists and craftsmen. Certain places have certain effects to men; megaliths are marks of these place. The legends say that the stones whisper, heal. Scientific researches shows that ultrasound waves, acoustic vibrations and changes of magnetic field appear in the megaliths before sunrise in solstice days. Hypotheses on megalith monuments
Destroying of megaliths It began with coming of Christianity Symbols of a cross protected some stones (Zbuzany, Smečno, etc.)
Other destroying continued, if the stones hindered from agricultural or forestry works (foto: Kluček lines) Traces of some stones are preserved only in legends and local names Destroying of megaliths
These are erected by different groups of enthusiasts, however without any system Constructions on private lands of individuals (Jilem, Sedletín, Mořinka, Špičák, etc.) New megaliths (pseudo- megaliths)
New set of stones in Northern Bohemia (Jiřetín p. J., district Děčín)
Projects of protection Protection of stone rows at Kounov against forestry works – cleaning of the rows from big trees, promotion Cooperation with local authorities, archeologists Cooperation with other NNO (educational paths, etc.)
Project Kounov – goals cutting down of the ground cover and maintenance consolidation of slopes bordering by hedges, construction of lookout terraces
Approach of the official archaeology No artefacts are found with megaliths; however, necessary funds are not available for any detailed exploration This means that conventional dating is not possible This leads to lack of interest in these localities Disputes were conducted on authenticity or natural origin from the beginning of exploration This resulted in lack of interest of people in their fate and opened a scope to their destroying
Exchange of experience among the researchers International cooperation
Support of tourism Looking for purposes and causes of the constructions International cooperation
Books Helšus, J. – Hluštík, A.: Kamenné otazníky aneb Megality v Čechách. Svojtka a Vašut, Praha, 1991 Sklenář, K.: Slepé uličky archeologie. Záhady, omyly, podvody, objevy. Mht, Praha, 1995 Sklenář, K.: Hromové klíny a hrnce trpaslíků. Z pokladnice české folklórní archeologie. Set out, Praha, 1999 Sklenář, K. a kol.: Archeologické památky. Čechy, Morava, Slezsko. Průvodce. Optys, Opava, 1993
Books Sklenář, K.: Tanec obrů. Academia, Praha, 1996 Stejskal, M.: Labyrintem tajemna. Paseka, Praha, 1990 Svoboda, K.: Tajemné megality. Svědkové doby kamenné. Horizont, Praha, 1990 Šarič, R. – Štěpánek, P.: České megality. Průvodce. Materna, Praha, 1999 Špůrek, M.: Jehla v kupce sena. Albatros, Praha, 1990 Kroupa, P.: Kameny krve a víry. Karpana, Praha 2010
Psychotronics and UFO Club Created an Album of megalithic monuments http://www.kpufo.cz/oblasti/meg/album/album.htm http://www.kpufo.cz/oblasti/meg/album/album.htm The album does not represent any finished work; it includes numerous white spots and certainly false beliefs as well. We will be pleased if you warn us of these mistakes and contribute with your pieces of knowledge and experience. We welcome any information on any possible findings, investigations and results of your visits of these localities. Send your knowledge, comments and findings to our address: Klub psychotroniky a UFO,o.s. Borská 19, Plzeň, CZ 320 22, firstname.lastname@example.org@kpufo.cz