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NIOSH Methods for Field Portable Analysis of Airborne Metals: From Development to Technology Transfer Moderator/Arranger Nicholas J. Lawryk, MPH, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "NIOSH Methods for Field Portable Analysis of Airborne Metals: From Development to Technology Transfer Moderator/Arranger Nicholas J. Lawryk, MPH, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 NIOSH Methods for Field Portable Analysis of Airborne Metals: From Development to Technology Transfer Moderator/Arranger Nicholas J. Lawryk, MPH, Ph.D. Director – Airborne Metals Monitoring Program CDC / NIOSH, Morgantown, WV Moderator/Arranger Nicholas J. Lawryk, MPH, Ph.D. Director – Airborne Metals Monitoring Program CDC / NIOSH, Morgantown, WV

2 Metalworking - Basic Facts Millions of full-time workers in construction, mining, and welding in U.S. Exposures and health impact depend on Nature of work Time spent at the task

3 Methods for Analyzing Airborne Metals Collect samples on filters Portable technologies Can be brought on-location Same day analysis speed Wet chemistry Non-portable Lengthy wait for results

4 Program Goal Field portable technologies and methods can be developed to provide simple, inexpensive, and fast concentration measurements of multiple airborne metals in mining, construction, and other industries; and awareness and use of them by potential end users can be increased.

5 Specific Aims Evaluate existing NIOSH methods Emerging technologies Identify best candidates Characterize and evaluate Method development and testing Communication interventions to raise method awareness/use

6 Presentation Order 1. Nicholas Lawryk Portable Instruments for Analysis of Airborne Metals: Future NIOSH Analytical Methods? 2. Kevin Ashley Screening Methods for Airborne Metals in Construction 3. Pamela Drake Measuring Airborne Metals at Mining Sites Using Portable Instruments: Advantages and Potential Problems 4. Steve Booth-Butterfield A Message-Based Campaign for Adoption of New NIOSH Methods for Field-Portable Instruments 5. OPEN MICROPHONE - AUDIENCE

7 Portable Instruments for Analysis of Airborne Metals: Future NIOSH Analytical Methods? Nicholas J. Lawryk, MPH, Ph.D. Director – Airborne Metals Monitoring Program CDC / NIOSH, Morgantown, WV Nicholas J. Lawryk, MPH, Ph.D. Director – Airborne Metals Monitoring Program CDC / NIOSH, Morgantown, WV

8 Concept Some existing and developing field- portable technologies for measuring multiple airborne metals show potential to be developed as NIOSH standard methods.

9 Specific Aims If the technology is ripe… Laboratory evaluation Characterization studies Field sample analyses Durability, reliability, and ease of use

10 Methods Using Portable Instruments in NMAM Method 7700 - Lead by Chemical Spot Test Method 7701 - Lead by Portable Ultrasound / ASV Method 7702 – Lead by Portable XRF Method 7703* – Hexavalent Chromium by Portable Visible Spectrophotometry * In next revision of NMAM

11 What Are We Looking for In A Technology? LOD 0.1 OEL Durability Portability No larger than a carry-on suitcase Weight under 25 pounds Relatively inexpensive (< $25k) Easy to use and maintain Economical to operate Safe to use and transport Short analysis time

12 Elements of Interest Nickel Chromium Manganese Zinc Cadmium Copper Lead Iron

13 Some Health Effects from Airborne Metal Exposures NiMnCdPbCrZnCuFe Metal fume fever Liver damage Cancer Asthma Sinus problems Parkinsons Disease CNS disorders Pneumoconiosis Kidney damage

14 Technologies in Contention Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Spark Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (SIBS) X-ray fluorescence with battery powered X-ray source Microwave Induced Plasma Spectrometry (MIP)

15 Pulsed Laser Sample Plasma Emission Plasma Plume LIBS Basic Theory

16 Gas Flow Optical Fibers Plasma Spark Power Supply Spectrometer Spark Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (SIBS) Theory

17 Gas Inlet Detector Beam Focusing Lens Plasma Collimating Lens MIP Basic Theory Microwave Power Generator (magnetron) Spectrometer

18 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Cu Ba Ag Cd Mg Mn Zn Mg Cr Cu/Ag 200220240260280300320340360380400420440460480 Wavelength (nm) Signal intensity (count) Hg MIP Spectrum of a Multi-Element Air Sample

19 Sample Primary Radiation Filter X-ray Source Solid State X-ray Detector Spectrometer Electronics Computer XRF Basic Theory

20 Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) Portable version built on demand Generally transportable Can be battery powered Broad range of elements including low Z Offers real time measurement Tricky for filter analysis

21 Spark Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (SIBS) Similar to LIBS in most benefits and disadvantages Battery power possible Less expensive to build than LIBS Thoroughly evaluated for lead and chromium

22 Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) Prototype technology Transportable Real time measurement of metals in air Characterized for 10 elements (more are possible) Not intended for filter analysis

23 X-Ray Fluorescence with Battery Powered Excitation Source Technology ready for mass production True field portability Battery powered No radioactive sealed sources Filter analysis Can analyze >20 elements

24 30 cm Two XRF Spectrometers With Sealed Sources TN Spectrace 9000 Controller Probe NITON 701 (Probe and controller in one unit) Probe Window

25 7.2 SIBS*MIPXRFLIBS+ Technology Comparisons: Detection Limits (µg/m 3 ) Chromium 5.4 10 Cadmium Lead2.2 ~140 0.18 + Neuhauser et al., 1999 Estimate based on and 8-hour sample on 25 mm filter 0.12 1.20 10 0.37 0.21 0.47 Duan et al., 2000 * Estimated (Hunter et al., 2000)

26 Technology Characteristics Battery Powered Filter Analysis Field Ruggedness True Portability Off-The-Shelf Price (estimated US$) LIBSSIBSMIP Breathing Zone Samples XRF Direct Read of Air $ 55k$ 25k$10k$ 50k + + + + +++ + + + (+) +

27 Future Research Directions Compare laboratory-based portable XRF measurements against ICP (NMAM 7300) Experimentally generated samples Samples collected in the workplace Analyze workplace samples on-location Design suggestions to manufacturer and technology transfer NMAM for successfully measured elements

28 Conclusion Among currently available technologies, XRF spectrometry with a battery powered X-ray tube has the strongest potential to be a viable field portable screening technology for measuring multiple airborne metals.

29 Credits THERMO Noran Corp. (TN Spectrace) Thomas Eagar and Neil Jenkins (MIT) NITON Corp. Amy Hunter (PSI Corp.) Mark Fraser (Mission Research Corp.) Yixiang Duan (LANL) David Cremers (LANL) Don Sackett (Innov-X Systems) Bean (Teh-hsun) Chen (NIOSH) Sidney Soderholm (NIOSH)


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