Presentation on theme: "By: Prof. Hoang Hoe Eng. Le Huy Cuong Dr. Do Xuan Lan ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM Hanoi, 17-19 September, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
By: Prof. Hoang Hoe Eng. Le Huy Cuong Dr. Do Xuan Lan ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM Hanoi, 17-19 September, 2012
The overall objective To make recommendations for the coordination between sectors in the land use planning, hydropower planning and development, forest management to benefit the sustainable socio-economic development and the environment. Specific objectives of the study to: - Assess impact of hydropower projects to forest, land use in terms of changes in area and quality; - Define some effects of hydropower projects on environment and socio-economic life of the community.
Mapping forest status in the year 2000 and 2010 using Remote sensing data. Interpretation key and ground truthing. Overlay maps of 2 periods to assess changes in forest area between two date. Assess the quality of the forest types after the hydropower plants constructed. Setting up temporary plots to measure forest characteristics; analyzing survey data for assessment of forest quality indicators Investigate the environmental and socio-economic conditions and production activities in the area of hydropower plant construction regarding resettlement though interviewing affected households.
In the period from 2000 - 2010 in the Dong Nai river basin construct 18 hydropower plants of various scale
#Hydropower Plant Capacit y MW Elevation, AMSL StatusRemarks 1.Dong Nai 33405902010 2Dong Nai 41804762011 3Dong Nai 51502882014 4Dong Nai 6135224Under Approval 5Dak Klong7.5487.5Under Construction 6Dak Rtin1446182011 7Dak Nong2.0600Operation 8Dak Nong 11.8652Operation 9Dak Nong 22.0520Operation 10Dak Rung8.0781Operation 11Dak Rung 16.0695 Operation 12Dak Buk So 10.65745Under Construction 13Nhan Co1.5635Under Approval 14Dak Buk So 33.0650Under Approval 15Dak Muong2.2568Under Construction 16Dak Rkeh5.0549Under Approval 17Dak Kar7.2475Under Construction 18Dak Mia6.5611Under Construction
Figure 1: Location map of the Hdropower plants of the Dong Nai River Basin in Dak Nong Province
TTForest and land useTotal Natural area5.328,7 IForested Lands2.128,2 7Rich Broadleaved Evergreen Forest- 8Medium Broadleaved Evergreen Forest51,1 9Poor Broadleaved Evergreen Forest220,8 10Regenerated Broadleaved Evergreen Forest86,2 11Deciduous Forest- 17Semi-Evergreen Forest- 18Coniferous Forest- 24Mix coniferous broad-leaved forest- 25Bamboo803,9 26Mixed bamboo-wood forest902,1 29Plantation64,1 IINon-Forest Land3.200,5 34Bare Land565,3 43Water body467,9 42Residential202,7 40Other Land1.964,6 Land loss due to hydropower plants construction
Total natural area lost due to reservoir construction of 18 plants was 5,328.7 ha, natural forest loss was 2,128.2 ha. in which: poor forest: 220.8 ha; the newly regenerated forest: 86.2 ha; bamboo forest 803.9 ha; and mixed bamboo-wood forest: 902.1 ha. Forest loss mostly occurs in the basin of Dong Nai 3 hydropower reservoir being submerged now.
Non-forest area lose is 3,200.5 ha, in which: 565.3 ha of bare land, 1964.6 ha of agricultural land and industrial plantations. Thus the actual area of forest and non-forest land lost due to construction of hydropower reservoirs is only a small part of the total area of forest lost in the basin. The indirect impacts of hydropower projects are also caused by the other factors should be assessed in detail. Area loss under reservoirs (contd)
The map showing the state of forest resources in 2000
The map showing the state of forest resources in 2010
TTForest Land categoryTotal, ha Percentage Natural area 193.807,6 100 I Forested Lands 91.486,5 47.2 7 Rich Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 1.600,3 1.7 8 Medium Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 26.273,0 28.7 9 Poor Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 25.722,1 28.1 10 Regenerated Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 16.018,9 17.5 11 Deciduous Forest 5,8 - 24 Mix coniferous broad-leaved forest 75,7 - 25 Bamboo 8.875,0 9.7 26 Mixed bamboo-wood forest 9.032,7 10.0 29 Plantation 3.882,9 4.2 II Non-Forest Land 102.321,1 52.8 34 Bare Land 12.392,5 43 Water 1.106,3 42 Residential 5.600,8 40 Other Land 83.221,5 Forest and land use status in 2000
#Forest Land categoryTotal, ha Percenta ge Natural area 193,807.9 100 I Forested Lands 48,803.7 25.2 1 Rich Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 1,653.4 3.4 2 Medium Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 6,383.7 13.1 3 Poor Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 14,065.5 29.0 4 Regenerated Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 6,618.9 14.0 6Semi-Evergreen Forest37.1 - 7Coniferous Forest223.8 0.5 8 Mix coniferous broad-leaved forest 58.5 - 9 Bamboo 5,358.8 11.0 10 Mixed bamboo-wood forest 10,612.9 14.0 11 Plantation 3,791.2 8.0 II Non-Forest Land 145,004.2 74.8 12 Bare Land 13,619.7 13 Water 2,766.6 14 Residential 4,017.1 15 Other Land 124,600.8 Forest and land use status in 2010
By 2010, the total forest area in the basin remains very low, just 48,803.7 ha accounted for only 25.2% of the total land area. High percentage of poor forest while the medium and rich forests have very small ratio, showing that quality of the forest is increasingly declined. Non-forest land accounted for 74.8%, in which: agricultural and other land covers a large area with 124,600.8 ha showing that agricultural production activities are growing and the large area of forest were converted to meet the needs of population. Forest cover of only 25.2% this is a big concern
TT Forest Land category 2000 2010 Change Natural area 193,807.9 0.0 I Forested Lands 91,486.548,803.7-42,682.8 1 Rich Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 1,600.31,653.453.1 2 Medium Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 26,273.06,383.7-19,889.3 3 Poor Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 25,722.114,065.5-11,656.6 4 Regenerated Broadleaved Evergreen Forest 16,018.96,618.9-9,400.0 5 Deciduous Forest 5.8--5.8 6Semi-Evergreen Forest 37.1 7Coniferous Forest 223.8 8 Mix coniferous broad-leaved forest 75.758.5-17.3 9 Bamboo 8,875.05,358.8-3,516.2 10 Mixed bamboo-wood forest 9,032.710,612.91,580.2 11 Plantation 3,882.93,791.2-91.7 II Non-Forest Land 102,321.1145,004.242,682.8 12 Bare Land 12,392.513,619.71,227.2 13 Water body 1,106.32,766.61,660.2 14 Residential 5,600.84,017.1-1,583.7 15 Other Land 83,221.8124,600.841,379.1 Forest and land use change during 2000-2010
Forest area in 2010 has lost 42,682.8 ha compared to 2000 corresponding to 46%. 42,682.8 hectares of forest disappear after 10 years is worrying figures for the forests protection and management. The area of agricultural land and other land increased by 41,379.4 ha, forest loss has converted into industrial plantations and agricultural land. The reason of forest loss is to grow agricultural crops and industrial trees by Dak Nong province, after separation from the Dak Lak: Plateau flat terrain fertile basalt soil suitable to species cash crops such as coffee, pepper.
Lagest changes is medium and poor forests. The medium forest in 2000 was 26,273 ha; after 10 years only 6383.7 ha, Poor forest 25,722.1 ha in 2000 and in 2010 only 14,065.5 ha. Regeneration forest also decreased by 9,400 ha after 10 years in 2000: 16,018.9 hectares whereas in 2010: 6,618.9 ha. Other land area increased 41,379.4 ha, while 42,682.8 hectares of natural forest are lost after 10 years. This suggests that most of the deforestation area converted into other land.
Impact on population distribution Construction of hydropower plants occupy area along the rivers and streams where locate agricultural and residential land. Resettlement of large number of households. Resettlement work may take in place or relocation to a new place i.e. process of redistribution of the population in a small area or a region. Small and medium-sized hydropower plants: usually on- site resettlement. People use cash (compensation) to buy a piece of land and continue to live in the old place. Large hydropower projects: due to large scale land acquisition, people have to resettle to new place
#CategoryAreaBy Category (ha) Agr.WaterRes.Forest 1 Reservoir Construction 1,264.01,102.21.426.6133.8 2 Resettlement 1,195.9 3 Quarry 17.5 4 Main and auxiliary objects - SFE Quang Khe 102.39.885.66.9 - Ta Dung Nature Reserve 31.423.57.9 - Gia Nghĩa Company 88.02.585.5 5 Road to the main dam 11.6 6 By pass road 65.7 45.4 20.3 7 Supporting objects 204.0 8 Main dam and power stations 6.1 Total 2,986.51,138.0225.833.51,589.2 Total occupied land for Dong Nai 3 hydropower Plant
Huyn Đăk Glong No. of HHs/ Persons affected No. of HHs/ Persons Resettled Đak Plao Comm.532/2,377424/1,998 Qung Khê Comm10/601/6 Đak Som Comm113/701103/630 Total655/3,138528/2,634 Affected households in Dong Nai 3 hydropower plant
The hydropower largely built in the watershed areas of rivers and streams, where many ethnic minorities live. Nearly half of the households are poor, material and spiritual life more difficult and also offers many living traditions of their people. The resettlement process lead to lose of all traditional architecture. Households are arranged in a standard house built by investors with an area of 55m2. Houses are located along the route as a new urban center. Living in conditions of high concentration, cultural and ethnic identity eroded gradually, no longer wear traditional clothing, no festival, singing and cultural activities also decrease. Life of the ethnic minority people in the resettlement areas were also changed. The family does not use firewood that use gas, do not use mineral water wells but tap water, no longer countryside living community but urban environment.
In resettlement communes, the social welfare significantly improved Typically in resettlement new Dak Plao commune has built 5 kindergartens, 5 cultural community, one clinic, three schools and institutions of social work nicely. Transport systems, electricity and water supply relatively complete. In contrast to the resettlement communes, in the other communes where people resettled in place, investors just pay compensation (in cash) and do not focus on improving the welfare of the people. No improvement of roads, electricity, schools. Even some households agreed on resettlement compensation without electricity and water. Communication system severely degraded due vehicles for building hydropower. People are affected by dust, waste from the construction work.
The survey of 50 households affected by hydroelectric plant construction shows: in 2000 the average household had 2.44 ha (the highest upto 6.9 ha); by the end of 2010 the average households has only 1.33 ha (highest only 4 hectares). The average household lost one hectare of arable land due to hydropower plant construction. The loss of productive land has a huge impact on people's social and economic life. The survey results showed that: 31.1% of households were completely change production practices. 56.6% of households changed production practices. 13.3% of households no or little change in production practices.
From 2000 to 2010, in the Dong Nai River Basin of Dak Nong province and forests lost 48,804 ha, in the area of natural forest is 45.013ha. Average annual forest loss of 4268ha, the average annual loss of 4.65% of forest area from 2000. By 2010, forest cover in the Dong Nai River Basin is only 25.18% that is an alarming number for watershed area. The main reason for forest change is conversion to agriculture land. Hydropower projects contribute only a small part to the process of deforestation, but largely impact indirectly on change by resettlement, construction of supporting facilities. Very high density of Hydropower plants in the basin, while forest cover is down to alarming levels lead to: low protection capacity for the reservoir and dam, increase risk and danger for downstream, lack of water in the dry season and floods in rainy season Construction of hydropower plants affects on socio-economic life of the local people due to loss of arable land, change of lifestyle.
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