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NCHRP 10-78 Nighttime Construction Impacts on Safety, Quality, and Productivity Jennifer S. Shane, Ph.D. Iowa State University.

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Presentation on theme: "NCHRP 10-78 Nighttime Construction Impacts on Safety, Quality, and Productivity Jennifer S. Shane, Ph.D. Iowa State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 NCHRP 10-78 Nighttime Construction Impacts on Safety, Quality, and Productivity Jennifer S. Shane, Ph.D. Iowa State University

2 Research Objective Develop guidelines for the conduct of nighttime highway construction and maintenance operations. Two products: Final report that documents conduct of the research. Guidebook for planning and conducting nighttime construction projects.

3 Guidebook Topics Risk Illumination Nuisances Productivity Quality Cost Safety Communication

4 Phase I Literature Review Survey of state transportation agencies The Guide document relies heavily on comments received from the state DOTs and contractors.

5 Literature Review Solution Author Arditi et al. Sayer and Mefford Ullman et al. Arditi et al. Ullman et al. Masayuki Abraham et al. 200020032004 2005 20062007 Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) NNNNNN Different site conditions – lighting, weather, traffic volumes NN GC Safety plans N Management N Crash rates NN TC planning NN Speed Control N Accident factors NNNN

6 Survey

7 Perceived Disadvantages

8 Phase II State Type of Data Collection Case Study/InterviewField Measurement Californiax Connecticutx Floridaxx Iowax Illinoisxx Indianaxx Michiganx North Carolinax New Jerseyx x Texasx Washingtonx

9 Phase II State Comm. Cost Illumination Nuisances Productivity Quality Risk Safety CAxxxxxxxx CTx xx FLx xxxxx IAxxxxxxxx ILx xxxx x INxxxxxxxx MIxxxxxxxx NCxxxxxxxx NJxxxxxxxx TXx x x WAx xx xx

10 Guidebook SymbolSection NameContent Key Take-Away An indicator of key, not-to-forget informationfor quick reference Tips Possible tips for using information Other Resources Sources of useful information o Internet o Literature o Agency or group o Reports

11 Development Phase Typical Activities PlanningDetermine purpose and need ScopingConduct environmental analysis, conduct schematic development, hold public hearings, determine right-of-way impact, DesignAcquire right-of-way; develop plans, specifications, and estimates Advertise and Bid Prepare contract documents, advertise for bid, hold a pre-bid conference, and receive and analyze bids. ConstructionDetermine the lowest responsive bidder

12 Key Take-Away Top five effective ways to manage site safety are: 1.Pre-project planning for safety 2.Safety orientation and training 3.Written safety incentive programs 4.Accident/Incident investigations 5.Alcohol and substance abuse program Safety

13 Key Take- Away Contract specifications provide varying levels of detail concerning required work zone lighting levels. The more quantitative the specifications the better, because they provide a measurable outcome that STAs can easily check. Drive-through inspections are of great importance but are not sufficient for ensuring proper work zone lighting levels. Key Take-Away Lighting

14 Tip TIP 3-1 Drive-through inspections: Many DOT inspectors focus on minimizing veiling luminance by decreasing the amount of light incident on the eyes of the traveling public. This is done by changing the aiming of light towers. Another method for decreasing glare is by increasing pavement luminance (i.e., increasing the lighting in the background). This can be achieved by increasing lighting in the distance ahead of the work zone. Lighting

15 Key Take- Away Recommended illumination levels vary by task. Tasks requiring higher levels of precision need higher levels of lighting. A minimum illuminance of 54 lux needs to be maintained in general working areas for the safety of workers and the driving public. Key Take-Away

16 Resource The FHWA construction noise website contains three important documents: (1) a Construction Noise Handbook prepared by the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; (2) the Roadway Construction Noise Model computer program; and (3) the Highway Construction Noise Measurement, Prediction, and Mitigation Manual Nuisances

17 Tip TIP 5-7 Work shift productivity was found not to be directly correlated to shift wages in overtime shifts. It was found to correlate more to the amount of downtime on a particular shift. Therefore, higher nighttime wages may not cause an increase in productivity. Management policy should focus on work continuity at night rather than monetary incentives. Cost $ $

18 Key Take- Away For most projects, the cost of work items is not dependent on whether the work is performed during the day or at night. Project-specific conditions are the drivers that cause price differentials between daytime and nighttime work. Key Take-Away Cost

19 Key Take- Away The key to economical nighttime construction is competition. Structure the bid package to entice contractors to bid. Through conversations with subcontractors and suppliers, contractors have a good feel for the bidding environment and, if theres competition, they will not put extra markup on a nighttime project. Key Take-Away

20 Tip TIP 8-2 Change vehicle and equipment paint to attention-grabbing colors. Add retroreflective tape to construction vehicles and equipment. Safety

21 Key Points AreaKeys to Success Illumination Provide proper illumination through planning and design; required for productivity, quality, and safety. Nuisances Write nuisance control measure into the project specifications. Productivity Detailed planning and scheduling, with extra labor training, will improve productivity. QualitySpecify the desired quality; some activities will benefit from cooler temperatures and less traffic congestion.

22 Key Points AreaKey to Success Cost Decrease lighting costs by designing and phasing the project so that permanent lighting is installed early. Consider the additional costs of lighting, nuisance mitigation, and traffic control in the estimate, but also consider productivity impacts of less congestion and longer work periods. Safety Priority one on every jobsite is safety, for the workers and the public. Night work requires detailed traffic control planning. CommunicationProvide honest, timely information to the public regarding the project. On-site personnel must have authority to make decisions.

23 Relationships The factors were explored individually. However, there is interaction between factors and they are not mutually exclusive. For example, nighttime projects require lighting. Lighting will add cost, which could be considered an issue. However, good lighting improves productivity, quality, and safety of the nighttime jobsite.

24 Jennifer S. Shane, Ph.D. Iowa State University Civil, Const., & Environmental Engr. 515-294-1703

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