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Past Dam Failures with Modes of Failure

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Presentation on theme: "Past Dam Failures with Modes of Failure"— Presentation transcript:

1 Past Dam Failures with Modes of Failure
Keith Mills, P.E., G.E. Acting State Engineer Oregon Water Resources Dept. 2014 NWHA Annual Meeting

2 Objective – Discuss major dam incidents relevant to the PNW
Four Dams were selected because Severe or potential severe consequences Modes of failure applicable to Pacific Northwest Reasonable knowledge of incident cause

3 Relevant Dam Incidents
Vaiont Northern Italy Teton Eastern Idaho Taum Sauk Missouri Kaloko Kauai, Hawaii

4 Lessons Learned Comprehending geology - conditions
Design - state of the practice? Construction practices Non-engineered alterations Operations, monitoring and Inspections

5 Two Historical Failures
Johnstown (South Fork) 1889 Saint Francis 1928

6 South Fork Dam Lives Lost: 2,209 Type: Embankment (earth and puddle)
10 miles SE Johnstown, PA Constructed: Height 72 feet Storage 15,000 acre-ft Date of Failure: May 31, 1889 Lives Lost: 2,209

7 South Fork Dam

8 Saint Francis Dam Lives Lost: 450+ Type: Concrete Gravity
Location: 70 miles North Los Angeles Constructed: 1924 to 1926 Height 205 feet Storage 38,000 acre feet Date of Failure: March 12, 1928 Lives Lost: 450+

9 Saint Francis Dam Remnants after near instantaneous dam failure

10 Vaiont Dam Lives Lost: 2,500 Type: Concrete thin arch Height 869 feet
Location: 60 miles North of Venice Constructed: Hydroelectric Height 869 feet Storage 122,000 acre ft Date of Failure: October 9, 1963 Lives Lost: 2,500

11 Vaiont Dam Before After – landslide dwarfs dam

12 Vaiont Dam mode of flooding
DAM DID NOT FAIL DESPITE OVERTOPPING BY FT Gigantic landslide displaced reservoir Contributing Factors Missed existing inactive landslide(s) Control by changing reservoir levels Extreme landslide size and speed (very rare) Note reservoir level and rate of movement

13 Vaiont Dam –Lessons Learned
Comprehend the dam site geology Unwise to rely on reservoir level to control landslide movement Arch dams can be very stable (dam survived) No timely independent investigation Italian state - “the price of modernization”

14 Teton Dam Type: Zoned Embankment 40 miles NE Idaho Falls
Constructed: Height 305 feet Storage 288, 250 acre feet Date of Failure: June 5, 1976 Lives Lost: 11 (middle of reported range) Property damage: $400,000,000 -$1,000,000,000

15 Teton Dam Picture taken at near maximum breach just past noon, first observation of problems were that morning

16 Teton Dam Mode of Failure
Primary: Development of rapid piping in right abutment with no defense or filter Contributing Factors Large open joints and fissures in next to key trench Zone 1 (core) material highly prone to erosion and piping Non standard key trench in abutment No soil filter in abutment key trenches Grout curtain inconsistent

17 Teton Dam Lessons Learned
Designers must understand the significance of open fractures and voids Key trenches in the abutment can make the situation worse A defensive design for all parts of the dam was essential Abutment Key Trench

18 Teton Dam Lessons Learned
Incomplete grouting can be very unsafe No compacted fill is ever homogenous Internal erosion can be masked if rock fractured and open Piping through erodible fill can develop to a dam breach very quickly Cooperating agencies can complete an outstanding forensic investigation

19 Taum Sauk Dam Lives Lost: 0 (5 serious injuries)
Type: Concrete faced rock-fill with a parapet wall, liner added 90 miles Southwest of Saint Louis, MO Constructed: Failure: December 14, 2005 87 feet tall acre feet Lives Lost: 0 (5 serious injuries)

20 Taum Sauk Pumped storage reservoir Inundation in yellow
Flood wave stored in lower reservoir Camp located in inundation area Little use in winter Casualties could have been much higher

21 Taum Sauk Mode of Failure
Overflow eroding rockfill Crest uneven from settlement Improperly placed sensors Unsafely programmed sensors No direct observation Differential settlement (fines) Irregular foundation material Improper liner placement No spillway

22 Taum Sauk Lessons Learned
All dams need a spillway Dams, even rock-fill, settle over time Concrete faced dams prone to severe damage if there is settlement Organizations need to care about safety Largest FERC fine, at least to that point Dam failures impact all dam owners

23 Kaloko Dam Lives Lost: 7 Property damage: Still in litigation
Type: Embankment/hydraulic fill Location: 10 mi NW Kapaa Built 1890, Raised 1911 Height 40 feet Storage 1200 acre feet Failure: March 14, 2006 Lives Lost: 7 Property damage: Still in litigation Complex ownership pattern

24 Kaloko Dam Inundation Area after dam breach

25 Kaloko Dam Mode of Failure
Primary: Spillway filled by new dam owner, then extended overtopping (filled by irrigation ditch) Contributing Factors: Crest uneven (2 feet) Lack of maintenance; Trees hid erosion Incorrect inspectors The breach

26 Kaloko Dam Lessons Learned
DO NOT FILL IN THE SPILLWAY!!!!!!! Incorrect hazard ratings can have serious consequences (Low when it should have been HIGH) A red flag when dam owners and ditch operators do not talk Inspect dams that need to be inspected The dam regulator must inspect & investigate Where was dam safety?

27 Key Lessons from the 6 incidents
Spillways need to handle design inflows Understand big picture geology (rock and soil) Old design flaws are common As-built is different than as designed Small dams failures have consequences on owners of large dams

28 Acknowledgements Robert B. Jansen, USBOR Retired, author of Dams and Public Safety J. David Rogers, Professor of Geological Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology Dave Pelty, Durham University Robert Godbey, Hawaii Special Deputy A.G.

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