2The Art Of Testing (WWHWW) Faculty of Science in ZulfiDepartment of Computer ScienceThe Art Of Testing (WWHWW)On-The-Run-Talking Version(40 Slides)Prepared By:Dr. Eng. Ahmed ShehataDr. Eng. Moustafa Reda Abd-ALLAH
3Multiple Choice Questions Outlines:Part ITestingPrinciples in Test ConstructionSteps in Preparing Test QuestionsPart IIMultiple Choice Questions
5”يوم الإمتحان يكرم المرء و لا يهان“ Basic Principle inTest Construction”يوم الإمتحان يكرم المرء و لا يهان“
6“No Dark Sarcasm in Classrooms” “Teacher Leave Them Kids Alone” “No Thought Control”“No Dark Sarcasm in Classrooms”سخرية“Teacher Leave Them Kids Alone”Pink Floyd
7What are Exams? A form of torture تعذيب Developed by the staff? No – They are designed to test her/hisknowledge, and not the memory!Or…Where you show the links betweenthe lessonsOr… That piece of coursework and ALL thosebooks you were supposed to read!
8Purpose of Testing (1. Individuals) فيما يخص الطلاب To provide a record for assigning grades.To provide a learning experience for students.To motivate students to learn.To Pick up the distinguished students.To serve as a guide for further study.Identifying scholarship recipients/receivers
9Purpose of Testing (2. Institution) To assess how well students are achieving the stated goals of the programs.To provide the instructor with an opportunity to reinforce the stated objectives and highlight what is important for students to remember.Purposes of Testing(3. State/Nation)To license individuals for practice in an occupation or profession
10Characteristics/Quality of Good Tests Practicality: test should be economical in terms of: Time, Money and Resources (human, equipment, etc.)Usability – the test can be administered/managed / controlled with ease, clarity and uniformityScorability تحصيل النتائج– easy to score with clarity and uniformityInterpretability تفسير النتائج– test results can be properly interpreted (Normal, Left-Exp, Right-Exp) and is a major basis in making sound educational decisionsValidityشرعية النتائج – the extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure (what is set out to test is actually tested) لكل إمتحان على حدىReliability موثوقية النتائج– the results should be consistent over time). على مدار الفصل الدراسي
11General Steps in Test Construction Process OutlinesDraftOrderProduce ATable OfSpecificationsT.O.S.Solve theTestAnalyzeSubmission
12OUTLINE The unit learning objectives, or The unit content or major concepts to be covered by the testBack to Main Menu
13Table of Specifications (TOS) (1) A two way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course contentIt enables the examiner to prepare a test containing a representative sample of student behavior in each of the areas tested.
15Draft the questions covering the content in the outline Back to Main Menu
16ORDER The Selected Questions Logically. Place simpler items at the beginning to ease students into the exam.Group item types together under common instructions.If desirable, order the questions logically from a content standpoint (e.g. chronologically or by conceptual groups, etc.)Back to Main Menu
17Test SolutionPUT the questions away for one or two days before rereading them or have someone else review them for clarity.TEST the questions by actually taking the test.Back to Main Menu
18AnalyzeThe items to give you an idea whether the questions were well written or poorly written as well as if there were problems in understanding instruction.SubmissionTo The ControlBack to Main Menu
19Backwash = the effect of testing on teaching and learning. Backwash harmful if the test content and test techniques are at varianceتفاوت/تناقض/إختلاف with the objectives of the course.Backwash beneficial when the test can improve education process, and integrate all parts of course competence كفاءة-جدارة.
20To be able to prepare a good test, one has to have: Mastery براعةof the subject matter,Severe knowledge of the abilities of the students to be tested,High skills in verbal expressions and the use of the different test format”
21In the exam-documents in your hands. Dear ParticipantsPlease:Look carefully,Investigate the questionsCompare objectively the methodology,In the exam-documents in your hands.
22General Rules in Writing Test Questions Number test questions continuously.Put the mark beside each question.Keep your test question in each test group uniform.Make your layout presentable.Do not put too many test questions in one test group.T or F: 10 – 15 questionsMultiple Choice: max. of 30 questionsMatching type: max. of 10 questions per test groupOthers: 5 – 10 questions
23General Rules in Writing Test Questions 6. Avoid humorous مضحكitems. Classroom testing is very important and humorous items may cause students to either not take the exam seriously or become confused or anxiousقلق .7. Items should measure only the construct of interest, not one’s knowledge of the item context.8. Be scientifically honest: Write items to measure what students know, not what they do not know.
24Commonly used Test Items/Formats Multiple Choice: allows the greatest flexibilityTrue or False: Need too much thinking.Matching: most effective for assuring that students understand similarities and differences among closely related conceptsSentence Completion: Fill-in the blanks.5. Short Answer: must have an excellent question stem.6. Essay: good at gauging/measuring the depth of a learner’s knowledge about a particular topic.7. Cloze: ملأ الفراغات في النص بكلماته الأصلية8. Gap-fill: ملأ الفراغات في النص بكلماته الأصلية أو بكلمات قريبة المعنى
26Anatomy of a MCQ 2 parts: - Stem جذر– present a problem situation Stems may be in the form of a question or an incomplete statement.-Alternatives/Options/Choices: provide possible answersAlternatives include the correct answer and several plausible wrong answers, called distracters
27General Rules in Writing The Multiple Choice Test (1) Use negatively stated stems sparingly بإعتدال and when using negatives such as NOT, underline or bold the print.Use none of the above and all of the above sparingly, and when you do use them, don't always make them the right answer.Only one option should be correct or clearly best.All options should be homogenous and nearly equal in length.The stem (question) should contain only one main idea.Keep all options either singular or plural.
28Multiple Choice Test (2) 7. Have four or five responses per stem (question).When using incomplete statements place the blank space at the end of the stem versus the beginning.9. When possible organize the responses.10. Reduce wordiness إطناب/رغي.11. When writing distracters, think of incorrect responses that students might make.
29Multiple Choice Questions Pros Allows for broad content coverage: many items can be presented & answered in a short period of timeBest for knowledge & cognitive skills مهارة معرفيةEasy to be managed in groupsCan compute statistics to help evaluate item quality
30Multiple Choice Questions Cons Tests for recognition instead of recall or the ability to arrive at answer without cues مبررCannot assess practical or interpersonal skillsMCQ study encourages habits like rote memorizationالحفظ عن ظهر قلب
31Types of MCQs Direct Question Incomplete Statement Negatively Worded ItemsExhibitsV. Combined Responses
32Illustrative Examples What is the effect of releasing a ball in positive gravity?a) It will fall “down.” correctb) It will retain its mass. true but unrelatedc) It will rise. false but relatedd) Its shape will change. false and unrelated
33Better: Eliminate excessive wording and irrelevant information: Example (2):Sheldon developed a highly controversial theory of personality based on body type and temperament of the individual. Which of the following is a criticism of Sheldon's work?a. He was influenced too much by the Freudian psychoanalysis.b. His rating of physique and temperament were not independent.c. He failed to use empirical approach.d. His research sample was improperly selected.Better: Eliminate excessive wording and irrelevant information:Which of the following is a criticism of Sheldon's theory of personality?
34The receptors for the vestibular sense are located: Example (3):The receptors for the vestibular sense are located:a. In the fovea. b. In the brain.c. In the middle ear. d. In the inner ear.Better: Include in the stem any word(s) that might otherwise be repeated in each option.The receptors for the vestibular senses are located in the _______.a. fovea. b. brain.c. middle ear. d. inner ear.
35Example (4):Which is not a major technique for studying brain function?a. Accident and injury. b. Cutting and removing.c. Electrical stimulation. d. Direct phrenology.Better: Use negatively stated stems sparingly. When used, underline and/or capitalize the negative word.Which is NOT a major technique for studying brain function?
36Example (5):________________ is the least form of behavior disorder.a. Psychosis. b. Panic disorder.c. Neurasthenia. d. Neurosis.Better: When using incomplete statements avoid beginning with the blank space.The least severe form of behavior disorder is __________________.
37Better: When possible, present alternatives in some logical order) Example (6):The number of photoreceptors in the retina of each human is abouta. 115 million. b. 5 million.c. 65 million. d. 35 billion.Better: When possible, present alternatives in some logical order)The number of photo receptors in the retina of each human is abouta million. b million.c million. d. 115 million.
38و قبل النهاية تبقى صـــــــــــــورة The Teacher-Student Match/Exam
39و قبل النهاية تبقى كلمةالإمتحان وجبة نموذجية يعدها طباخ/محاضر ماهر ليست حارة – ليست دلعة ليست دسمة - ليست مائعة ذات رائحة زكية تبصرها و تقرأها عين الطالب ذات نكهة طيبة يستسيغها و يعيـــها عقل الطالب ذات مذاق حسن رائع تستطيبه و تخطه يد الطالب
40النهـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــاية و إن كان هنــــــــــاك تقصيراً فمن نفسي و الشيطان. أعوذ بالله العلي العظيم منهما.إذا كان هناك توفيقاً فمن الله سبحانه و تعالى عز و جل شأنه.Thank you ,For Your Presence, Attentionand No Questions/Comments.