The Art Of Testing (WWHWW) Prepared By: Dr. Eng. Ahmed Shehata Dr. Eng. Moustafa Reda Abd-ALLAH 2/40 Faculty of Science in Zulfi Department of Computer Science On-The-Run-Talking Version (40 Slides)
Outlines: Part I Testing Principles in Test Construction Steps in Preparing Test Questions Part II Multiple Choice Questions 3/40
I. Testing 4/40
يوم الإمتحان يكرم المرء و لا يهان 5/40 Basic Principle in Test Construction
6/40 Teacher Leave Them Kids Alone Pink Floyd No Thought Control No Dark Sarcasm in Classrooms سخرية
What are Exams? A form of torture تعذيب Developed by the staff? Or…Where you show the links between the lessons No – They are designed to test her/his knowledge, and not the memory! Or… That piece of coursework and ALL those books you were supposed to read! 7/40
Purpose of Testing (1. Individuals) فيما يخص الطلاب To provide a record for assigning grades. To provide a learning experience for students. To motivate students to learn. To Pick up the distinguished students. To serve as a guide for further study. Identifying scholarship recipients/receivers 8/40
To assess how well students are achieving the stated goals of the programs. To provide the instructor with an opportunity to reinforce the stated objectives and highlight what is important for students to remember. Purpose of Testing (2. Institution) 9/40 Purposes of Testing (3. State/Nation) To license individuals for practice in an occupation or profession
Characteristics/Quality of Good Tests Practicality: test should be economical in terms of: Time, Money and Resources (human, equipment, etc.) Usability – the test can be administered/managed / controlled with ease, clarity and uniformity Scorability تحصيل النتائج – easy to score with clarity and uniformity Interpretability تفسير النتائج – test results can be properly interpreted (Normal, Left-Exp, Right-Exp) and is a major basis in making sound educational decisions Validity شرعية النتائج – the extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure (what is set out to test is actually tested) لكل إمتحان على حدى Reliability موثوقية النتائج – the results should be consistent over time). على مدار الفصل الدراسي 10/40
General Steps in Test Construction Process Outlines Draft Order Solve the Test Analyze Submission Produce A Table Of Specifications T.O.S. 11/40
OUTLINE –The unit learning objectives, or –The unit content or major concepts to be covered by the test Back to Main Menu 12/40
Table of Specifications (TOS) (1) A two way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course content It enables the examiner to prepare a test containing a representative sample of student behavior in each of the areas tested. 13/40
Draft the questions covering the content in the outline Back to Main Menu 15/40 DRAFT
ORDER The Selected Questions Logically. Place simpler items at the beginning to ease students into the exam. Group item types together under common instructions. If desirable, order the questions logically from a content standpoint (e.g. chronologically or by conceptual groups, etc.) Back to Main Menu 16/40
Test Solution PUT the questions away for one or two days before rereading them or have someone else review them for clarity. TEST the questions by actually taking the test. Back to Main Menu 17/40
Analyze The items to give you an idea whether the questions were well written or poorly written as well as if there were problems in understanding instruction. Submission To The Control Back to Main Menu 18/40
تبعة Backwash عاقبة Backwash = the effect of testing on teaching and learning. 19/40 Backwash harmful if the test content and test techniques are at variance تفاوت/تناقض/إختلاف with the objectives of the course. Backwash beneficial when the test can improve education process, and integrate all parts of course competence كفاءة-جدارة.
20/40 To be able to prepare a good test, one has to have: 1. Mastery براعة of the subject matter, 2. Severe knowledge of the abilities of the students to be tested, 3. High skills in verbal expressions and the use of the different test format
Please: 1. Look carefully, 2. Investigate the questions 3. Compare objectively the methodology, In the exam-documents in your hands. 21/40 Dear Participants
General Rules in Writing Test Questions 1. Number test questions continuously. 2. Put the mark beside each question. 3. Keep your test question in each test group uniform. 4. Make your layout presentable. 5. Do not put too many test questions in one test group. i. T or F: 10 – 15 questions ii. Multiple Choice: max. of 30 questions iii. Matching type: max. of 10 questions per test group iv. Others: 5 – 10 questions 22/40
6.Avoid humorous مضحك items. Classroom testing is very important and humorous items may cause students to either not take the exam seriously or become confused or anxious قلق. 7.Items should measure only the construct of interest, not ones knowledge of the item context. 8.Be scientifically honest: Write items to measure what students know, not what they do not know. 23/40 General Rules in Writing Test Questions
1. Multiple Choice: allows the greatest flexibility 2. True or False: Need too much thinking. 3. Matching: most effective for assuring that students understand similarities and differences among closely related concepts 4. Sentence Completion: Fill-in the blanks. 5. Short Answer: must have an excellent question stem. 6. Essay: good at gauging/measuring the depth of a learners knowledge about a particular topic. 7. Cloze: ملأ الفراغات في النص بكلماته الأصلية 8. Gap-fill: ملأ الفراغات في النص بكلماته الأصلية أو بكلمات قريبة المعنى Commonly used Test Items/Formats 24/40
II. Multiple Choice Test 25/40
Anatomy of a MCQ 2 parts: - Stem جذر – present a problem situation Stems may be in the form of a question or an incomplete statement. -Alternatives/Options/Choices: provide possible answers Alternatives include the correct answer and several plausible wrong answers, called distracters 26/40
1. Use negatively stated stems sparingly بإعتدال and when using negatives such as NOT, underline or bold the print. 2. Use none of the above and all of the above sparingly, and when you do use them, don't always make them the right answer. 3. Only one option should be correct or clearly best. 4. All options should be homogenous and nearly equal in length. 5. The stem (question) should contain only one main idea. 6. Keep all options either singular or plural. 27/40 General Rules in Writing The Multiple Choice Test (1)
7.Have four or five responses per stem (question). 8. When using incomplete statements place the blank space at the end of the stem versus the beginning. 9.When possible organize the responses. 10.Reduce wordiness إطناب/رغي. 11.When writing distracters, think of incorrect responses that students might make. 28/40 Multiple Choice Test (2)
Multiple Choice Questions Pros Allows for broad content coverage: many items can be presented & answered in a short period of time Best for knowledge & cognitive skills مهارة معرفية Easy to be managed in groups Can compute statistics to help evaluate item quality 29/40
Tests for recognition instead of recall or the ability to arrive at answer without cues مبرر Cannot assess practical or interpersonal skills MCQ study encourages habits like rote memorization الحفظ عن ظهر قلب Multiple Choice Questions Cons 30/40
Types of MCQs I. Direct Question II. Incomplete Statement III. Negatively Worded Items IV. Exhibits V. Combined Responses 31/40
Example (1): What is the effect of releasing a ball in positive gravity? a) It will fall down. correct b) It will retain its mass. true but unrelated c) It will rise. false but related d) Its shape will change. false and unrelated 32/40 Illustrative Examples
Example (2): Sheldon developed a highly controversial theory of personality based on body type and temperament of the individual. Which of the following is a criticism of Sheldon's work? a. He was influenced too much by the Freudian psychoanalysis. b. His rating of physique and temperament were not independent. c. He failed to use empirical approach. d. His research sample was improperly selected. 33/40 Better: Eliminate excessive wording and irrelevant information: Which of the following is a criticism of Sheldon's theory of personality?
The receptors for the vestibular sense are located: a. In the fovea.b. In the brain. c. In the middle ear.d. In the inner ear. 34/40 Example (3): Better: Include in the stem any word(s) that might otherwise be repeated in each option. The receptors for the vestibular senses are located in the _______. a. fovea.b. brain. c. middle ear.d. inner ear.
Which is not a major technique for studying brain function? a. Accident and injury.b. Cutting and removing. c. Electrical stimulation.d. Direct phrenology. 35/40 Example (4): Better: Use negatively stated stems sparingly. When used, underline and/or capitalize the negative word. Which is NOT a major technique for studying brain function?
________________ is the least form of behavior disorder. a. Psychosis.b. Panic disorder. c. Neurasthenia.d. Neurosis. 36/40 Example (5): Better: When using incomplete statements avoid beginning with the blank space. The least severe form of behavior disorder is __________________.
The number of photoreceptors in the retina of each human is about a. 115 million.b. 5 million. c. 65 million.d. 35 billion. 37/40 Example (6): Better: When possible, present alternatives in some logical order) The number of photo receptors in the retina of each human is about a. 5 million.b. 35 million. c. 65 million.d. 115 million.
38/40 و قبل النهاية تبقى صـــــــــــــورة The Teacher-Student Match/Exam
و قبل النهاية تبقى كلمة الإمتحان وجبة نموذجية يعدها طباخ/محاضر ماهر ليست حارة – ليست دلعة ليست دسمة - ليست مائعة ذات رائحة زكية تبصرها و تقرأها عين الطالب ذات نكهة طيبة يستسيغها و يعيـــها عقل الطالب ذات مذاق حسن رائع تستطيبه و تخطه يد الطالب 39
40/40 Thank you, For Your Presence, Attention and Questions/Comments. and No Questions/Comments. إذا كان هناك توفيقاً فمن الله سبحانه و تعالى عز و جل شأنه. و إن كان هنــــــــــاك تقصيراً فمن نفسي و الشيطان. أعوذ بالله العلي العظيم منهما. النهـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــاية