Presentation on theme: "Workmanship and Tests During Construction Phase Presented by: Er. Bhagawan Shrestha."— Presentation transcript:
Workmanship and Tests During Construction Phase Presented by: Er. Bhagawan Shrestha
Specification Definition: A detailed description of the particulars of some projected work in building, engineering, or the like, giving the dimensions, materials, quantities etc, of the work, together with directions to be followed by builders or constructor.
Back ground Prevailing Specification approved on July 2001 and enforced to use. Contains 31 sections including blank Section 300.
DOR SPECIFICATIONS SECTION 100 - GENERAL SECTION 200– SITE CLEARANCE Section 500 deals with QUALITY CONTROL Section 600 deals with MATERIALS AND TESTING OF MATERIALS Section 700 deals with PIPE DRAINS, PIPE CULVERTS AND CONCRETE CHANNELS Section 900 deals with EARTHWORKS
Section 500 –Quality Control contains: 501 SCOPE 502 CONTRACTOR RESPONSIBLE FOR THE QUALITY OF THE WORKS 503 QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM 504 QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN 505 TESTING PROCEDURES AND SETS OF TESTS 506 LABORATORY TRIALS 507 SITE TRIALS 508 CONTROL TESTING DURING CONSTRUCTION 509 ACCEPTANCE TESTS FOR COMPLETED WORKS OR PARTS OF THE WORKS 510 SCHEDULE OF TESTS 511 LABORATORY
General All materials incorporated and all workmanship performed shall be strictly in conformity with the requirements of the Specifications and the Contractor shall be responsible for the quality of the works in the entire construction within the contract.
Testing Procedures and Set of Tests For ensuring quality of work, materials and workmanship be subjected to testing in accordance with procedures, sets of tests and frequencies as specified in Specifications Specified testing frequencies are not restrictive Engineer directs for the tests to be carried out as frequently as deemed necessary Where no specific testing procedure mentioned in Specifications, tests be carried out as per prevalent accepted engineering practice or directions of Engineer
Laboratory Trials Laboratory trials/mixes be carried out by Contractor on materials proposed to be used in works in their natural state. laboratory trials establish a relationship between specified requirements of end product and properties which can be determined in field for purpose of construction control.
Site Trials Materials, used for laboratory trial, composition of which meets specified requirements and is accepted by Engineer, shall then be used in site trials Contractor shall submit the proposal for the site trials to the Engineer at least two weeks before
Site Trials(contd.) Site trials for laying and compaction shall be carried out by Contractor on all earthworks and pavement materials proposed for works using same equipment and methods proposed for use in works.
Site Trials(contd.) Site trials for concrete mixes as specified shall be carried out by Contractor to demonstrate suitability of his mixing equipment. During site trials, compliance with Specifications for weighing equipment, storage of ingredients, means of transport for concrete, placing, compaction and curing shall be checked by Engineer. During the site trial a full scale sequence including placing and compaction of concrete shall be carried out on a part of works which will represent particular difficulties due to presence of reinforcement, obstructions or others.
Site Trials(contd.) Site trials demonstrates: I.suitability of materials, II. suitability of equipment for laying and compacting materials to specified density, and III.confirmation of achievement of other requirement of completed works.
Site Trials(contd.) Each site trial (for earthworks & pavement) to be at least 100 m long and to full width and to the specified depth of materials. Site trial be carried out at least 21 days ahead of commencement of related works.
Site Trials(contd.) Data to be recorded for each site trial: i.Composition and grading of material before site trial, ii.Composition and grading of material including bitumen content, iii.Moisture content at compaction and Optimum Moisture content for that specified compaction,
Site Trials(contd.) iv. Equipment details like type, size and tyre pressures, frequency of vibration and number of passes made by compaction equipment, v. Maximum dry density measured on sample before site trials (Lab. Test), vi. Density achieved, vii. Compacted thickness of the layer
Site Trials(contd.) Contractor conducts 8 sets of tests on each 100m length of trial section for each level of compaction effort. If all eight sets of results meet specified requirements for material and workmanship, site trial be deemed successful. Data recorded in trial becomes agreed basis on which particular material be provided and processed to achieve specified requirements.
CONTROL TESTING DURING CONSTRUCTION All earthworks, pavement layers, and backfill to drainage and other structures shall be subject to control testing (process control) including, if required, testing by the Engineer in accordance with the Conditions of Contract and Clause 503. The tests to be carried out and their frequency for the quality control of the works are detailed in the relevant Sections of these Specifications
Testing Schedule (Example) PART OR COMPONENT OF THE WORKS Section/Clause No of Specification TESTSFREQUENCY PIPE DRAINS, PIPE CULVERTS AND CONCRETE CHANNELS 700 MATERIALS FOR RE - FILLING THE TRENCHES 701Identification : Gradation, Plasticity Index, CBR In-Situ Density (95% MDD) As specified or required by the Engineer
Testing Schedule (Example) EARTHWORKS FILL MATERIAL COMPACTION 900 1.Material Identificati on, MDD, OMC, CBR 2.MC 3.Field Density 1.For each new source and in every 1500 m 3 2.For each new source and in every 250 m 3 3.One test per 250m 2 of each layer
Acceptance testing Contractor requests, in writing for Engineer's approval for each layer of each section of earthwork, pavement construction and backfill Such request be accompanied by tests results required by Specifications. Engineer inspects section for any visible defects including, heaving material (visible during compaction), segregation, and for uniformity of mixing and compaction
Acceptance testing (contd.) If visual aspects satisfactory Engineer tests Section of works submitted and informs Contractor in writing of results of tests specifying acceptance or rejection of section or layer concerned Work on a layer in no circumstances commences until preceding layer been approved and accepted by Engineer in writing.
Acceptance testing (contd.) Contractor fully responsible for protecting and maintaining condition of work submitted for approval. any layer left unprotected for more than 24 hours subsequent to approval shall again be subject to construction control testing, and tolerance checks. Contractor responsible for making good any subsequent damage due to traffic, ingress of water or any other reason
Section 600 contains 601 SCOPE 602 QUALITY OF MATERIALS 603 SOURCES OF MATERIALS 604 INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF MATERIALS 605 MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURED ARTICLES 606 DEFECTIVE MATERIALS
Section 600 Table 6.3 : Classes of Material Quality MATERIALLAAAIVSSSDegradabilit y FlakinessCrushin g CLASSES%ACVTest IndexRatio %% A<25<20<12<5<20100 B<30<20<12<5<25100 C1<35<25<12<5<2580 C C2*<30<20<12<5<25- D1<40<30<12<5<3060 D D2*<35<20<12<5<30- E1>35 & <50<25<18<10-- EE2>40 & <50<30<18<10-- E3>50<30<18---
Table 6.4: Tests Procedures Applicable to Disturbed/Undistributed Samples of Soils and Gravels
Tests Test procedure Determination of : i) Moisture ContentIS 2720Part 2 (Oven-drying method) ii) Liquid LimitIS 2720 Part 5 (Cone Penetrometer or by Casagrande Apparatus) ApparatusaP iii) Plastic LimitIS 2720Part 5 iv) Plasticity IndexIS 2720Part 5 v) Linear ShrinkageIS 2720Part 20 vi) Specific Gravity of ParticlesIS 2720Part 3 vii) Particle Size DistributionIS 2720Part 4 viii) Organic Matter ContentIS 2720Part 22 ix ) Total Sulphate ContentIS 2720Part 27 x) pH ValueIS 2720Part 26 (Electrometric Method) xi) Mica Content-Manual mineralogical counting xii) Density-Moisture Content relationship (2.5 kg rammer) IS 2720Part 7 xiii) Density-Moisture Content relationship (4.9 kg rammer) IS 2720Part 8 xiv) California Bearing RatioIS 2720Part 16 xv) Sand EquivalentIS 2720Part 37 (Mechanical Shaker or Manual Shaker method) xvi) Field Dry DensityIS 2720Part 28/Part 29 xvii)Unconfined compression testIS2720Part 10 xviii)Consolidation testIS2720Part 15 xix)Direct shear testIS2720Part 13 xx)Triaxial testIS2720Part 11,12 xxi)Hydrometer analysisIS 2720Part 4 xxii)Vane shear testIS 2720Part 30
Table 6.5 : Tests Procedures Applicable to Stone Aggregate and Fillers
Table 6.11: Tests Procedure Applicable to Straight run Bitumen TestsTest Procedure Determination of : i)PenetrationASTM D 5 ii)Softening point (Ring and Ball)ASTM D 36 iii)Flash and fire points ( open cup)ASTM D 92 iv)Loss on heatingASTM D 6/D1754 v)Ductility ASTM D 113 vi)Water ContentASTM D1461/D95 vii)Solubility in Trichloroethylene ASTM D 2042 viii)Specific gravityASTM D70 ix)Penetration of residue from loss on heating ASTM D5
TestsTest Procedure Determination of : i)Kinematic viscosityASTM D 2170 ii)(a) Flash point (Tag open cup) (RC-MC)ASTM D 3143 (b) Flash point ( open cup) (SC)ASTM D 92 iii)PenetrationASTM D 5 iv)Specific gravity by hydrometer methodASTM D 3142 v) Asphalt residue of 100 pen (SC)ASTM D 243 vi)Water contentASTM D 95 vii)DistillationASTM D 402 viii)Penetration of residue from distillationASTM D 5 ix)Ductility of residue from distillationASTM D 113 x)Solubility of residue from distillationASTM D 2042 Table 6.12: Tests Procedure Applicable to cutback Bitumen
Table 6.13: Tests Procedure Applicable to Bitumen Emulsion TestTest Procedures Determination of : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) Residue on 0.710 mm sieve Residue on 0.150 mm sieve Stability to mixing with coarse aggregate Stability to mixing with cement Binder content Engler viscosity Redwood II viscosity Storage stability (short period) Storage stability (long period) Particle charge BS 434 Part I, Appendix C 1 " " " C 2 " " " D 1 " " " D 2 " " " E " " " F 1 " " " F 2 " " " H 1 " " " H 2 " " " J
S.N.Physical characteristicsOPC / PSC HSPCTest Procedure i)Fineness, m 2 /kg: (by Blaine's Air Permeability method) 225 IS-4031 Part 2 ii)Setting Time : (a) Minimum Initial Setting Time (minutes) 45 IS 4031 Part 5 (b) Maximum Final Setting Time (minutes) 600 iii)Soundness by Lechatelier method, mm, maximum 10 IS 4031 Part 3 iv)Compressive Strength : Minimum Average Compressive Strength of three mortar cube(N/mm²) (a)3 days1627 (b)7 days2237IS 4031 Part 6 (c) 28 days3353 Table 6.6: Requirements on the Physical Characteristics of Cement
CONCRETE The minimum frequency of sampling of concrete of each grade shall be as following: For 1-5 m 3 quantity of work- 1 no. of sample For 5-20 m 3 quantity of work- 2 no. of sample For 20 m 3 and more quantity of work - 3 no. of sample plus one additional for each 20m 3 or part thereof. At least one sample shall be taken from each shifts of work.
S.N. Specifications Penetration Grade 60/7080/100180/200 i)Penetration, at 25°C (100g-5s), in 0.1 mm60-7080-100180-200 ii)Softening point (Ring and Ball), °C44-5441-5133-42 iii)Flash point ( open cup), °C (min)250225200 iv)Ductility at 25°C, cm (min)100 v) Loss on heating (5 h at 163°C) % (max)0.20.5 vi) Penetration of residue from loss on heating at 25°C (100 -5s) % of initial pen (min) 80 vii)Specific Gravity at 25°C1.01-1.061.00-1.05 viii)Water, % by weight (max)0.2 ix)Solubility in tricloroethylene, % by weight (min) 99.099.5 The number of tests and criteria for conformity shall be as per IS 73. Table 6.14: Specification for Straight run Bitumen
Table 6.15: Tests Procedure Applicable to Bituminous Mixtures TestsTest Procedure Determination of : i)Moisture and volatile distillatesASTM D 1461 ii)Quantitative extraction of bitumenASTM D 2172 iii)Specific gravity of compacted mixtureASTM D 1188 & D 2726 iv)Recovery of bitumen from solutionASTM D 1856 v) Coating and strippingASTM D 1664 vi)Degree of particle coatingASTM D 2489 vii)Maximum specific gravityASTM D 2041 viii)Degree of pavement compactionAASHTO T230 ix)stabilityASTM D1559
2401GABIONS Gabions shall consist of steel wire mesh crates. Steel wire shall be mild steel wire complying with NS 169-2045. Weight of deposition of zinc shall be in accordance with NS 163-2045. Zinc coating shall be uniform and be able to withstand minimum number of dips and adhesion test specified as per NS 163-2045 Wire shall be woven into hexagonal mesh with minimum of 3 twists
2401GABIONS (Contd.) Selvedge wire at least 3 gauges heavier than mesh wire Gabion wire shall be tested for mass, uniformity and adhesion of zinc coating and tensile strength of the wire itself.
Section 1200 (Contd.) 1201 MECHANICALLY STABLE SUBBASE CONTAINS: 1.Scope 2.Sources of Materials 3.Material Requirements- (a) Gravel, (b) Sand, Silty and Clayey Sands, (c ) All Materials 4.Compaction Trials 5.Laying and Compaction
Section 1200 (Contd.) 6. Proof Rolling 7.Setting out and Tolerances 8.Drainage of Subgrade and Subbase 9.Testing – (a) Process Control, (b) Routine Inspection and Testing 10.Measurement 11.Payment
Mechanically Stable Sub base (Example) TestsOne test in every Min. no of tests per section Materials: Gradation Plasticity Index Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content Workmanship: Field Density and Moisture Content 200 m 3 or part of it and change in source " " 1000 m 3 " " " 500 m 2 22222222 Construction Tolerances: Surface Levels Thickness Width 10 m 25 m 200 m ------ Table 12.2 : Minimum Testing Frequency
Construction & Workmanship Tests Earthwork in cutting/Sugrade a)Deter n of Insitu MC b)Deter n of Insitu Density c)Horizontal Alignment d)Surface Level e)Surface regularity
Construction & Workmanship Tests Granular Sub base a)Gradation of In situ materials b)LL/PL –PI of In situ materials c)AIV of In situ materials d)Deter n of In situ MC e)Deter n of In situ Density f)Compacted thickness g)Horizontal Alignment h)Surface Level i)Surface regularity
Construction Control Testing/Process Control Testing Unless otherwise directed, values given in these Specifications are minimum values for the properties of materials and the workmanship. They shall be considered satisfactory, if all results of the tests, taken at the frequencies specified, are at least equal to the values given in the relevant Section of these Specifications