MT AND F UNCTIONAL T RANSLATION T HEORY (1) Skopos theory (Reiss & Vermeer 1984) pragmalinguistic model (House 1997), function and loyalty (Nord 1997, 2006) functional equivalence change in function documentary instrumental over covert
MT AND F UNCTIONAL T RANSLATION T HEORY (2) aimed at functional equivalence (but does a machine or a GT user know?) aimed at instrumental (but in fact rather documentary; ethical dimensions?)
MT AND F UNCTIONAL T RANSLATION T HEORY (3) MT and its lack of translation–functional considerations in system design (Schmidt in print) human, purposeful action-theoretic conception of translation as hindrance to acceptance of MT (Rozmyslowicz in print)
MT AND T RANSLATION F ACTORS : R EGISTER AND T RANSLATION D IRECTION often spoken of domains, but that term is too vague Kurokawa et al. (2009) – training translation models according to translation direction (A), and without (B) – for a performance of (A) equivalent to (B), they needed only ca. 1/5 of the data size feature selection problem: which feature per register and translation direction (e.g. Diwersy et al. 2013, also an overview in Oakes & Ji 2012)
I NCREASING ROLE OF MT IN TRANSLATION MT integrated into Translation Memories, many translation workflows (SDL 2011, Bajon et al. 2012, OBrien 2012) as MT needs to be post-edited, in consequence post-editing becomes a more and more important component of the translators job profile
CRITT TPR D ATABASE project coordinator: Copenhagen Business School English-German data collection at FTSK in Germersheim translation vs. post-editing vs. (blind) editing 6 source texts (ST) with different complexity levels (Hvelplund 2011) 12 professional translators, 12 semi-professional translators MT system: Google Translate eye-tracking (Tobii TX 300), key-logging (Translog II), retrospective questionnaires
E YE -T RACKING AND K EY -L OGGING P OST - EDITING
P ROCESSING T IMES cf. Carl, Gutermuth & Hansen-Schirra in print
P ROCESSING S TYLES Time Word number Time Word number
P ROCESSING P ATTERNS Time Word number Time Word number
I NTERFERENCE ST: In a gesture sure to rattle the Chinese Government, Steven Spielberg pulled out of the Beijing Olympics to protest against China's backing for Sudan's policy in Darfur. HT: Als Zeichen des Widerstands gegen die Chinesische Regierung... As sign the-GEN. resistance against the Chinese government…
L ACK OF C ONSISTENCY ST: Killer nurse receives four life sentences. Hospital nurse C.N. was imprisoned for life today for the killing of four of his patients. PE: Killer-Krankenschwester zu viermal lebenslanger Haft verurteilt. Der Krankenpfleger C.N. wurde heute auf Lebenszeit eingesperrt für die Tötung von vier seiner Patienten. Killer nurse.FEM to four times lifetime imprisonment sentenced. The nurse.MASC C.N. was today on lifetime imprisoned for the killing of four his.GEN patients.
F UTURE WORK Entrenchment of MT in TS (theory): – common ground – more acceptance – improved description of MT workflow for the translator – imrpoved task descriptions for PE
S OME TENTATIVE SUGGESTIONS TO OURSELVES FOR BETTER TASK DESCRIPTION BASED ON TRANSLATOR CONCEPTS Task descriptionFunction of the text (e.g. Nord 2006, House 1997) terminologicalidiomaticity As little as possible (rapid PE) documentaryConceptually equivalent, non- terms but also dispreferred or deprecated terms may be used Unidiomatic, but understandable wording may remain (disambiguated at word level!) As much as possible (full PE) Covert instrumental Only allowed terms can be used Phraseology according to the domain Intermediate levelsOvert instrumental (usable, but identifiable as translation) Only terms, but also dispreferred and maybe deprecated Idiomatic, but also non-standard phraseology
T HANK Y OU FOR Y OUR A TTENTION !... AND Y OUR Q UESTIONS, C OMMENTS,...
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