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Current Status, Experience

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1 Current Status, Experience
IAEA TM on the Disposal of Intermediate Level Waste, Vienna, 9 ~ 13 Sept. 2013 Current Status, Experience and Planning of Radioactive Waste Disposal in KOREA September 10, 2013 Haiyong JUNG, Ph.D Radioactive Waste Safety Evaluation Dept.

2 Contents Introduction of KINS Current Status of RWM in Korea
Korean LILW Repository Future plan Summary

3 Introduction of KINS

4 Introduction of KINS

5 Organization of KINS President Expert Staff Support Total 1 369 48 418

6 Current Status of RWM

7 Related Major Ministry & Organizations
PRESIDENT Prime Minister Implementer Regulator Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) Other Ministry NSSC (Nuclear Safety & Security Commission) Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) Expert Organization for Nuclear Safety Expert Organization for Physical Protection, Safeguards, etc. NPP Operator Radioactive Waste Management Organization

8 Major Nuclear Facilities
(As of May 2013) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 23 in Operation and 5 under Construction and 4 under contemplation Research Rector (RR) / Education Reactor (ER) HANARO (RR) KRR 1 and 2 (RR, under decommissioning) AGN (ER) Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility (FC) Fuel Fabrication Plant for NPP Fuel Fabrication Facility for RR Post-Irradiation Examination Facility Radioactive Waste Management Facilities (RW) RI Waste Management Facility LILW Disposal Facility (under construction) Seoul RR RR Ulchin ER Daejeon RR RW Wolsong FC FC FC Younggwang RW Kori NPP in operation under construction

9 Framework of RW Management
Nuclear Power Reactors (KHNP) Temporary Storage (9) RI Users (Hospitals, Industries, etc.) Temporary Storage (1) RI Waste Management Facility (KRMC) Commercial Fuel Fabrication Plant (KEPCO-NF) Temporary Storage (2) End Point LILW disposal site (KORAD) under construction Research Complex (KAERI) Temporary Storage (2) (HANARO, PIEF, Fuel Fabrication Facility) Temporary Storage KRR1 and 2 UCF under decommissioning released from regulation

10 Recept./storage Building
Inventory of Radioactive Waste Total 132, L-Drum Equivalents 90,583 drums from NPPs (68.5%) 41,674 drums from Other Facilities (31.5%) (As of March. 2013) KRR 1,2 852 Seoul (0.6%) Ulchin (12.5%) Storage 1, 2 16,521 Daejeon (23.0%) KAERI 20,614 KEPCO-NF 6,686 KRMC 3,096 Sum 30,396 Storage 1 10,379 Wolsong (7.8%) WLDC (2.5%) Recept./storage Building 3,243 Younggwang (16.7%) Kori (31.5%) Storage 1, 2, 3, 4 41,606 Others (5.4%) Storage 1, 2 22,077 Taegwang 7,131 Daegu Tech 52 Sum 7,183

11 Legislation for Radioactive Waste Safety
Law Nuclear Safety Act (NSA) Presidential Decree Enforcement Decree of the NSA Ministerial Ordinance Enforcement Regulation of the NSA Enforcement Regulations on Technical Standards for Radiation Safety Management, etc. Ministerial Notices of the NSSC Site Characterization Report Siting Criteria Disposal Inspection Safety Analysis Report Structure and Equipment of LILW Repository Radiological Protection Criteria Clearance of radioactive waste Incineration of RW Packaging and Transport of RM Generic Waste Acceptance Criteria Operation and Control of LILW Repository Standards on Radiation Protection Environmental Radiation Survey, etc. Structure and Equipment of LILW Treatment Sys. Radiological Environmental Report Quality Assurance Regulatory Guidance 11

12 Current RW Classification System in Korea
NSSC Notice No HLW: Long-lived α-emitters (T1/2 > 20 years) : > 4,000Bq/g and Heat Generation Rate : > 2 kW/m3 LILW: Other radioactive waste except HLW Current system was established in Aug. 1998, which is based on the IAEA Safety Series No 111-G-1.1 (1994) Research project on the feasibility of the revision of classification system of RW based on the IAEA GSG-1 is in progress Classification system will be revised next year through this feasibility study Classification system was prescribed in NSSC notice No It define HLW as like this.. if RW are Long lived alpha and over than 4000 Bq.g and Heat generation raio.. It is HLW..

13 RW Classification System in Korea

14 Korea LILW Repository

15 Overview of LILW Disposal Site
Located in the south-east coast of Korean peninsula - Adjacent to Wolsong NPP Area : about 2,000,000 sq. m underground silo type/150~200 m below surface Disposal capacity : total 800,000 waste packages (100,000 packages for the 1st stage) Wolsong#1,2,3,4 Shin-Wolsong #1,#2 LILW disposal site (2.0 km2)

16 LILW Disposal Site Wolsong LILW Disposal Site has been under construction since August 2008. Operation of all facilities is planned to begin in July 2014 16 16

17 LILW Disposal Site Portal of the access tunnel 17 17

18 LILW Disposal Facility

19 LILW Disposal Facility Construction
Overall Progress Rate : 95 % (As of June 2013)

20 Surface Facilities in LILW site

21 LILW Disposal Facility Project Milestone
Jan. 2006 Designation as LILW Disposal Facility Site Feb. 2006 Detailed Site Investigation & Design Jul. 2006 Disposal Method (1st Stage : Underground Silo Type) Jan. 2007 Application for Construction & Operating License Jul. 2008 Issued Construction & Operating License Dec. 2010 Operation of LILW Reception/Storage Buildings Jun. 2014 Full Operation of the Facility 21

22 Post-closure SA Criteria for LILW Disposal
The predicted annual radiological dose caused by natural evolution on individuals of critical group shall not exceed 0.1 mSv. Annual risk due to unexpected disruptive events caused by either natural or artificial factors shall be limited to below 10-6. After the institutional control of disposal facilities, radiological impacts due to human intrusion shall be limited below 1mSv/y. Normal evolution Performance Objective caused by natural evolution: ≤ 0.1 mSv/y Disruptive events Risk induced by un-controlled natural or man-made dispuptive events : ≤ 10-6/y Human Intrusion Radiation dose : ≤ 1.0 mSv/y

23 Post-closure SA & Institutional Control
Waste Disposal Container Backfill Silo Geosphere Biosphere Near Field Timeframe Post-closure Institutional Control Not requested to exceed 1,000 y If no peak by 1,000 y, need to demonstrate non-drastic increase of the release rate and non-acute radiological risk to be demonstrated. Proposed institutional control period: 100 y based on the results of SA Effectiveness of the control period: to be re-verified by safety reassessment, renewal of safety analysis, institutional control plan, and institutional control termination plan, etc.

24 Future plan

25 Development of 2nd stage disposal facility
2nd stage: near surface facility engineered barriers 125 thousands packages Milestone (in planning) In late 2014, apply for license In early 2017, start its operation

26 Revision of RW classification system
In order to revise the current RW classification system in taking account to the current status & prediction of RW Management based on IAEA GSG-1, the research project by KINS has been launched in 2012. The connection between the RW classification and the disposal type would be the key factors in this research. It is likely that the revision of RW classification system in legal framework would be done based on this research. 26

27 ? Current System VS Future System Geological Disposal HLW (SNF)
(in the future) HLW (SNF) Geological Disposal (in the future) HLW (SNF) ? Intermediate Depth Disposal (??) ILW L&ILW LLW Near Surface Disposal (Surface landfill / Engineered Barrier) VLLW 27

28 Summary The SA of the LILW repository in Korea guaranteed the long-term safety in showing the compliance with the post-closure performance criteria. Korean LILW repository is now under construction and expected to start its operation in July 2014. KORAD, which is responsible for RWM in Korea, is planning to develop the 2nd stage of RW disposal facility in Wolsong site. It is expected to be a near surface disposal facility with engineered barriers. New RW classification system is under research by KINS in taking into account the linkage between the category and disposal type based on the long-term safety. 28

29 Thank you for your attention .

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