7 Related Major Ministry & Organizations PRESIDENTPrime MinisterImplementerRegulatorMinistry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE)Other MinistryNSSC(Nuclear Safety & Security Commission)Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP)Korea Radioactive Waste Agency(KORAD)Korea Instituteof Nuclear Safety(KINS)Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC)Expert Organizationfor Nuclear SafetyExpert Organizationfor Physical Protection, Safeguards, etc.NPP OperatorRadioactive WasteManagement Organization
8 Major Nuclear Facilities (As of May 2013)Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)23 in Operation and 5 under Construction and 4 under contemplationResearch Rector (RR) / Education Reactor (ER)HANARO (RR)KRR 1 and 2 (RR, under decommissioning)AGN (ER)Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility (FC)Fuel Fabrication Plant for NPPFuel Fabrication Facility for RRPost-Irradiation Examination FacilityRadioactive Waste Management Facilities (RW)RI Waste Management FacilityLILW Disposal Facility (under construction)SeoulRRRRUlchinERDaejeonRRRWWolsongFCFCFCYounggwangRWKoriNPPin operationunder construction
9 Framework of RW Management Nuclear PowerReactors(KHNP)Temporary Storage (9)RI Users(Hospitals, Industries, etc.)Temporary Storage (1)RI Waste ManagementFacility (KRMC)CommercialFuel FabricationPlant(KEPCO-NF)Temporary Storage (2)End PointLILW disposal site (KORAD)under constructionResearchComplex(KAERI)Temporary Storage (2)(HANARO, PIEF, Fuel Fabrication Facility)Temporary StorageKRR1 and 2UCFunder decommissioningreleased from regulation
10 Recept./storage Building Inventory of Radioactive WasteTotal 132, L-Drum Equivalents90,583 drums from NPPs (68.5%)41,674 drums from Other Facilities (31.5%)(As of March. 2013)KRR 1,2852Seoul(0.6%)Ulchin(12.5%)Storage 1, 216,521Daejeon(23.0%)KAERI20,614KEPCO-NF6,686KRMC3,096Sum30,396Storage 110,379Wolsong(7.8%)WLDC(2.5%)Recept./storage Building3,243Younggwang(16.7%)Kori(31.5%)Storage1, 2, 3, 441,606Others (5.4%)Storage 1, 222,077Taegwang7,131Daegu Tech52Sum7,183
11 Legislation for Radioactive Waste Safety LawNuclear Safety Act (NSA)Presidential DecreeEnforcement Decree of the NSAMinisterial OrdinanceEnforcement Regulationof the NSAEnforcement Regulations on Technical Standards for Radiation Safety Management, etc.Ministerial Noticesof the NSSCSite Characterization ReportSiting CriteriaDisposal InspectionSafety Analysis ReportStructure and Equipment of LILW RepositoryRadiological Protection CriteriaClearance of radioactive wasteIncineration of RWPackaging and Transport of RMGeneric Waste Acceptance CriteriaOperation and Control of LILW RepositoryStandards on Radiation ProtectionEnvironmental Radiation Survey, etc.Structure and Equipment of LILW Treatment Sys.Radiological Environmental ReportQuality AssuranceRegulatory Guidance11
12 Current RW Classification System in Korea NSSC Notice NoHLW: Long-lived α-emitters (T1/2 > 20 years) : > 4,000Bq/gand Heat Generation Rate : > 2 kW/m3LILW: Other radioactive waste except HLWCurrent system was established in Aug. 1998, which is based on the IAEA Safety Series No 111-G-1.1 (1994)Research project on the feasibility of the revision of classification system of RW based on the IAEA GSG-1 is in progressClassification system will be revised next year through this feasibility studyClassification system was prescribed in NSSC notice NoIt define HLW as like this.. if RW are Long lived alpha and over than 4000 Bq.g and Heat generation raio.. It is HLW..
15 Overview of LILW Disposal Site Located in the south-east coast of Korean peninsula- Adjacent to Wolsong NPPArea : about 2,000,000 sq. munderground silo type/150~200 m below surfaceDisposal capacity : total 800,000 waste packages(100,000 packages for the 1st stage)Wolsong#1,2,3,4Shin-Wolsong #1,#2LILW disposal site(2.0 km2)
16 LILW Disposal SiteWolsong LILW Disposal Site has been under construction since August 2008.Operation of all facilities is planned to begin in July 20141616
17 LILW Disposal SitePortal of the access tunnel1717
21 LILW Disposal Facility Project Milestone Jan. 2006Designation as LILW Disposal Facility SiteFeb. 2006Detailed Site Investigation & DesignJul. 2006Disposal Method (1st Stage : Underground Silo Type)Jan. 2007Application for Construction & Operating LicenseJul. 2008Issued Construction & Operating LicenseDec. 2010Operation of LILW Reception/Storage BuildingsJun. 2014Full Operation of the Facility21
22 Post-closure SA Criteria for LILW Disposal The predicted annual radiological dose caused by natural evolution on individuals of critical group shall not exceed 0.1 mSv.Annual risk due to unexpected disruptive events caused by either natural or artificial factors shall be limited to below 10-6.After the institutional control of disposal facilities, radiological impacts due to human intrusion shall be limited below 1mSv/y.Normal evolutionPerformance Objective caused by natural evolution: ≤ 0.1 mSv/yDisruptive eventsRisk induced by un-controlled natural or man-made dispuptive events : ≤ 10-6/yHuman IntrusionRadiation dose : ≤ 1.0 mSv/y
23 Post-closure SA & Institutional Control WasteDisposalContainerBackfillSiloGeosphereBiosphere①②③④⑤①②③④⑤⑥Near FieldTimeframePost-closure Institutional ControlNot requested to exceed 1,000 yIf no peak by 1,000 y, need to demonstrate non-drastic increase of the release rate and non-acute radiological risk to be demonstrated.Proposed institutional control period:100 y based on the results of SAEffectiveness of the control period: to be re-verified by safety reassessment, renewal of safety analysis, institutional control plan, and institutional control termination plan, etc.
25 Development of 2nd stage disposal facility 2nd stage: near surface facilityengineered barriers125 thousands packagesMilestone (in planning)In late 2014, apply for licenseIn early 2017, start its operation
26 Revision of RW classification system In order to revise the current RW classification system in taking account to the current status & prediction of RW Management based on IAEA GSG-1, the research project by KINS has been launched in 2012.The connection between the RW classification and the disposal type would be the key factors in this research.It is likely that the revision of RW classification system in legal framework would be done based on this research.26
27 ? Current System VS Future System Geological Disposal HLW (SNF) (in the future)HLW (SNF)Geological Disposal(in the future)HLW (SNF)?Intermediate DepthDisposal (??)ILWL&ILWLLWNear SurfaceDisposal(Surface landfill /Engineered Barrier)VLLW27
28 SummaryThe SA of the LILW repository in Korea guaranteed the long-term safety in showing the compliance with the post-closure performance criteria.Korean LILW repository is now under construction and expected to start its operation in July 2014.KORAD, which is responsible for RWM in Korea, is planning to develop the 2nd stage of RW disposal facility in Wolsong site. It is expected to be a near surface disposal facility with engineered barriers.New RW classification system is under research by KINS in taking into account the linkage between the category and disposal type based on the long-term safety.28