Presentation on theme: "Introduction Stone is a natural material of construction. Building stones arte obtained from a quarry be distingration of rocks. Man has been using stones."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Stone is a natural material of construction. Building stones arte obtained from a quarry be distingration of rocks. Man has been using stones from very ancient times for constructing foundations, walls, pillars, lintels, beams, floors, roofs, etc. of buildings and also for major engineering works such as weirs, dams etc. Ancient temples and other important historical buildings in India and abroad were built will red sand stone. The Secretariat, Assembly Buildings and Rashtrapati Bhawan in New Delhi were built with pink and grey sand stones the Taj Mahal at Agra and the Victoria Memorial in Calcutta were built with marble.
Natural material of construction which is obtained from rocks by any suitable method is called a stone. The stone which is used for construction of engineering structures is known as building stone. Stones when derived from rocks are very irregular in shape and size they are, therefore, dressed for proper bedding, thin joints and speedy construction. Stone possesses long lasting properties and is naturally available in large quantity, it is there fore, considered as one of the most and popular important engineering material of contraction.
Utility of Stone Now a days, brick-in-mortar and concrete are replacing stone as a building material almost everywhere, because good building stones are not easily and cheaply available in all parts of India and are difficult to handle due to their heavy weight. Moreover, they are costly in construction as they involve heavy transportation and dressing charges. Their use is, therefore, restricted to the construction of heavy and permanent engineering structures such as dams, docks, harbors, light houses, abutments and piers of bridges. Their use is also recommended for building work in hilly areas, where a good quality of stone is easily and cheaply available. Stone are being commonly used as an aggregate for concrete, as slabs for paving floors, as flags for paving streets, as ballast in railway tracks and as road metal.
a. Igneous rocks b. Sedimentary rocks c. Metamorphic rocks a. Igneous rocks:- The rocks formed directly by solidification of molten material, either inside or on the surface of earth are called igneous rocks. These are primary or first formed rocks. They are also known as unstratifled or eruptive rocks. Examples:-Granite, basalt, trap etc. Formation of igneous rocks- These rocks are formed as described below:-
It has been established that as we go deeper, the temperature of the materials of the earth goes on increasing. At certain depths, this temperature may become so high that the materials may acquire a molten state. This molten material, believed to exit below the earths surface, is called magma and when this molten material is erupted out surface, is called magma and when this molten material is erupted out on the surface of earth, it is known as lava. The magma can exist in a molten condition so long as its physical and chemical environments do not change but whenever there is change in one or more of the conditions (like temperature, pressure, chemical composition), surrounding the magma it changes into a solid state in the form of simple or complex solid masses, known as igneous rocks these rocks are known as intrusive rocks when formed beneath the surface of earth by solid fiction of magma such as granite.
The magma along with other gases also moves from one place to another underneath the earth and as soon as it finds a weak portion in the earths crust, it comes out with great pressure in the form of Lava. The lava so erupted out solidifies due to atmospheric action, thus they are known as eruptive rocks when formed over the earth by solidification of lava due to volcanic eruption such as basalt and trap.
(b) Sedimentary rocks:- The rocks formed by the consolidation of particles of the pre-existing rocks under the effects of the weathering agencies such as wind, running water, glaciers etc. are called sedimentary rocks. These are secondary rocks and are also known as stratified and aqueous rocks. Examples:- Conglomerate, sand stone, lime stones, etc. Formation of sedimentary rocks:- these rocks are formed by the process ad described below:- (i) Disintegration of pre-existing rocks under the effect of weathering agencies
(C) Metamorphic rocks: - The rocks formed from the pre-existing rocsks within the earths crust under the influence of variation in temperature or both are called metamorphic rocks. The existing rocks may be igneous, sedimentary or even metamorphic. The metamorphic rocks so formed are having their original structure and composition totally changed Examples: Marbale, state, Gneiss etc. Formation of metamorphic rocks:- Metamorphic rocks are formed as described below:- The pre-existing rocks within the earths crust do not change their state so long as their temperature and pressure remain unchanged whenever there is any change in the temperature pressure of both, the equilum of the existing rocks is disturbed and consequently change in texture structure and composition of the rock takes place. This process of formation of new rocks is known as metamorphism and the rocks thus formed are called metamorphic rocks./ Some metamorphic rocks with their parent rocks are given below:- i. Marble changed from lime stone (sedimentary rock) Ii. Slatechanged fromshale(-do) Iii. Quartzitechanged fromsand stone(-do-) Iv. Gneisschanged fromgranite(Igneous rock)
(ii) Transportation of disintegrated sediments either in solution or in suspension to other places. (iii) Gradual deposition of sediments due to setting down of the suspended particles or precipitation of the soluble constituents. (Iv) Compaction and consolidation for the deposited sediments either due to pressure or chemical action i.e. cementation with materials like silica, carbonate of lime, iron oxide etc. This process of consolidation turns the loose sediments into hard masses, known as sedimentary rocks.
General Characteristics of a good building stone The following characteristics are considered while making selection of a good building stone for different engineering works:- 1. Appearance:- The stone to be used for face work must have a uniform and pleasing colour. It must be free from cavities, cracks, flaws and patches of loose and soft material etc. 2. Strength:- A good building stone should have sufficient crushing strength to withstand the load of superstructure. In general, it should not be less than 1000kg/cm2 3. Hardness, toughness and resistance to abrasion: the stone to be used in stairs, pavements, as railway ballast or road metal must be sufficiency hard, tough and resistant to abrasion i.e. it must be able to resist wear and tear. 4. Durability:- A good building stone must be durable enough to resist the effect of weathering agencies e.g. rain, wind. Temperature etc. It should have fine grained, compact and crystalline stature..
5. Texture:- A good building stone should have a close grained and compact texture. 6. Workability:- The stone to be used for ornamental carvings and architectural appearance, should be easily and economically dressed. 7. Seasoning:- The stone to be used for an important interior work should be well seasoned. Presence of moisture (quarry sap) makes the stone soft and it is liable to an early decay when used in structural work. 8. Porosity:- A good building ne should be less porous it should not absorb than 5% of water. Any stone absorbing 10% of water should be rejected. 9. Resistance to fire:- a good building stone should be able to resist high temperature. Its mineral constitutes should have equal co-efficient of expansion. 10. Specific gravity: The stone to be used on heavy engineering works, docks, harbors, gravity dams etc. must have high specific gravity. In general, it varies from 2.4 to Resistance to electricity:- A good building stone should be non absorbent like marble and slate so that it can offer good resistance to electricity
(2.) Physical classification: It is based on the physical properties i.e. structure (the arrangement of particles) of rocks. Physically rocks are classified in the following three types (a). Un-structure rocks:- the rocks which do not show distinct signs of layers and can not be easily splitted up into layers are called un stratified rocks. Examples: Granite, basalt, trap etc. (b) Stratified rocks:- The rocks which show distinct signs of layers and can be easily splitted up into layers are called stratified rocks. Examples: Sand Stone, Lime stone etc. (c). Foliated rocks:- The rocks which can be splitted up into thin sheets are known as foliated rocks. Examples:- Slate, schist etc.
When the sedimentary rocks are formed by mechanical action transportation, deposition and compaction of particles in suspension of weathering agencies, they are called mechanic if formed by chemical action by decomposition, precipitation and crystallization of particles in solution of denuding (weathering) agents, they are known as chemically formed rocks such as lime stone the sedimentary rocks formed by the activities of organism (both plants and animals) are called organically formed rocks such as lime stone, coal etc.
Granite A. Origin and composition:- This stone is a common variety of Igneous rocks. It is formed by solidification of magma below the earths surface at the place of its origin. It is physically unstratified and chemically siliceous in nature. It is chiefly composed of quartz and felspars mixed with particles of mica. B. Properties: Following are the properties of granite:-. It is hard, very strong and durable its crushing strength is 1000 to 1400 kg/sq.cm. It is grey, green, pink, redand some times black in colour according to the colour of felspar.
It has got high specific gravity (2-63 to 2.65). Its weight is nearly 2640kg/cu m. It is less porous (porosity is less then 1%) It is fine grained and can take a good polish. It has got a crystalline, uniform and dense texture which makes it more suitable for ornamental works. Its workability is less and it is costly to dress. It is not fire proof as it cracks badly under a strong fire.
It is chiefly used as large building blocks for heave engineering works, such as piers and abutments of bridges, light houses, harbors etc. It fine grained quality is used for decorative monumental facing works where high polish is desired. It is used for constructing steps, sills and columns. It is also advantageously used as aggregate in concrete, as ballast in railway tracks and as road metal. Localities :- Granite is available at the following localities in India:- Kashmir, Dalhousi and Kangra (H.P), Jhansi (U.P), Jabbalpore (M.P), Ajmer (Rajasthan), Banglore (Mysore), Gujrat, secundrabad, Madras etc.
Origin and Composition: these stones are the common varieties of Igneous rocks they are formed by solidification of lava on the earths surface due to volcanic eruption. Some basalts develop step like appearance and are known as traps. They are chiefly composed of silica, alumina and felspar. Properties:- Following are the properties of basalt and trap Their crushing strength is 700 to 850 kg/sq.cm. They are hard and tough They are greenish grey to dark grey in colour. Their specific gravity (2-9 to 2.96) is more than that of granite their weight is nearly 2900kg/cm 3.
They are less porous their porosity is less than 0.5% They are having compact and non-crystalline texture. They are difficult to work (c) uses: Following are the uses of ballast and trap:- They are most suitable as road metal, railway ballast and as aggregates in concrete. They are also used as flag stones for paving streets and for constructing steps. They are used in rubble masonry for building purposes where cheaply and easily available. (d) Localities:- They are available at the following localities in India They are available as a vast deposit of basaltic rock, near the western Ghats of India, known as Deccan trap. They are also available at Rajmahal Hills (Bihar) known as Rajmahal Trap. Varieties of basalts jike, Bombay Basalt, Blue basalt, red basalt and yellow basalt are found and used in Maharasatra, Gujrat etc.
Origin and composition :-This stone is a common variety of sedimentary rocks mechanical origin. it is physically, stratified and chemically, siliceous in siliceous in nature, it is chiefly composed of quartz (grains of sand) bound together by a cementing material, but other minerals such as felspars, mica, magnetite etc. are also present. Properties:-following are the properties of sand stone:- it's crushing strength is 400 to 650 kg/cm 2 it is white, grey, yellow, light brown, and red in colour. its specific gravity is 2.3 to 2.4. its weight is nearly 2350 kg/cu m. it is more porous (porosity is 5% to 6%) it is fine grained to coarse grained in texture its fine grained and compact variety ca be easily carved and coarse grained is generally hard. it is easy to work fire and is little affected up to a temperature of 800c
Uses:- following are the uses of sand stone:- its compact and fine grained variety is used in ashlars masonry and other works of architectural appearance. the sand stone composed of angular, sharp edged sand and grains is used in heavy engineering works such as monumental building dams, docks etc. Localities.:- the sand stone is available at the following localities in India sand stone of fine and uniform grains is found in Mirzapur fatehpur sikri chuan rupas (U.P) Gwaliro, Jabbalpur, Sambalpur, and Raipur (M.P.)nagpur (maharashtra).
Marble origin and composition :-it is a most common variety of metamorphic rock. it is formed from crystallized limestone by metamorphism\, chemically, it is calcareous and is chiefly composed of calcium carbonate. properties :- following are the propertied of marble:_ its crushing strength is from 500 to 600 kg/cm 2 the usual color of marble is white, but it is also available in different shades of colors such as grey, black, red, brown, yellow and combination of these it is compact and crystalline in structure due to which it can take a fine polish it is les durable it can be carved easily and thus is most suited for sculpture work. its specific gravity is 2.72 its weight 2720 kg/cum its absorption is 1 to 3%
uses:- following are the of marble:- it is mainly used for ornamental pieces, table slabs window sills floors finishes steps etc. it is also used for electrical switch boards wall lining and other decorative purposes localities :- Marble is available at the following localities in India. white variety is available in Johdpur and Ajmer (Rajesthan) Jabalpur (M.P.) Green marble is available at baroda (Gujrat) yellow marble (rajesthan ) Marble is also available at chhindwara, gwalior.
origin and composition :- it is a common variety of metamorphic rock. it is formed from clay mudstones and shale's which are altered by heat and pressure. thus their original plans of stratification are completely changed and new well defined planes of splitting nature called cleavage plans are developed in the rock. it can be splitter up into thin sheet along there cleavage plans
following are the properties of slate:- its crushing strength varies from 700 to 2100 kg/cm 2 it is hard tough and is least absorptive it also offers good abrasive resistance. it is a good heat and electrical insulator. its water absorption varies from 0.5 to 1%.
uses.:-following are the uses of slate. it is a valuable material for roofing and black boards thick slabs of harder variety of slates are used for flooring steps shelves mental pieces sills of doors and window etc. being non absorbent it is also used in baths cisterns and urinal partitions etc. it is also used for making electrical switch boards and other such electrical equipment being a good insulator. localities slate a available at the available at the following localities in India:_ simla, kangra, gurgaon, Gurdaspur, Alwar, Rajasthan, (MP) (Haryana) (Gujrat)