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Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs

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Presentation on theme: "Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs
Teacher – Shahed Rahman

Using Short Sentences Limiting Sentence Content Economizing on Words Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design Giving the Sentences Unity Arranging Sentences for Clarity CARE IN PARAGRAPH DESIGN Giving Paragraphs Unity Keeping Paragraphs Short Making Good Use of Topic Sentences Leaving out Unnecessary Details Giving the Paragraphs Movement

3 Adaptation Sentence should be adapted to readers
Use the simpler sentence structures for people who are less able to understand Use the more complex structures when appropriate You should aim a little below the level of your reader Simplification is best for all reader

4 Using Short Sentences Readers are busy > Writing efficient you saving their time  Short sentences communicate better because of mind limitations Short means words for middle level readers. But the excessive use of short words in also bad.

5 Limiting Sentence Content
Limiting content is one way to make short sentences Selecting thought units and making separate sentences Don’t - when thoughts are closely related you want to deemphasize on the content Avoid overdoing this suggestion. Remember too many short sentences give a choppy effect

6 Economizing on Words Another way to shorten sentences is through word economy Seek shorter ways of saying things Some suggestions: Cluttering Phrases Surplus Words Roundabout Constructions Unnecessary Repetition of Words or Idea

7 Cluttering Phrases Avoid cluttering phrases
Substitutes shorter expressions Example At the present time >> Now In the mean time >> Meanwhile In the near future >> Soon On the basis of >> By

8 Surplus Words Eliminate Surplus Words
Eliminate words that add nothing to sentence meaning We often use meaningless words as a matter of habit Example – He ordered a desks that are of the executive type He ordered executive –type desks There are four rules that should be observed Four Rules should be observed

9 Roundabout Constructions
Avoid round about ways of saying things You can say direct or the same ground in a roundabout way. Direct always communicates better Example – He criticized everyone he came in contact with >> he criticized everyone he met. The department budget can be observed to be decreasing each new year <<< The department budget decreases each year

10 Unnecessary Repetition of Words or Ideas
Repeat words only for effect and emphasis He stated that he believes that we are responsible >> He stated that he believes we are responsible We must assemble together at 10:30 am in the morning >> We must assemble at 10:30 am

11 Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design
You should give every item its due emphasis ( Importance ) Short sentences emphasize contents Long sentences de-emphasize contents Determining emphasis is a matter of good judgment Example – The company lost money last year. The loss occurred in spite of record sales. ( Equal Emphasis ) Although the company enjoyed the record sales last year, it lost money. (Emphasis on the lost money) The company enjoyed record sales last year, although it lost money. ( Emphasis on the record sales )

12 Giving the Sentence Unity
All parts of a sentence should concern one thought Good sentence have unity Three causes of unity error Unrelated ideas Excessive details illogical Constructions

13 Unrelated Ideas Placing unrelated ideas in one sentence violates unity
Its not grammatically wrong You can avoid this error by Putting unrelated ideas in separate sentences Subordinating an ideas Adding word that shows relationship Mr Jordan is sales manager, and he has a degree in law Mr Jordan is our sales manager. He has a law degree. ( Separate ) Mr Jordan, Our sales manager, has a law degree ( Subordinating )

14 Excessive Detail Excessive details is another cause of lack of unity
If the details important put it in a separate sentence This mean again using short sentence

15 illogical Constructions
Illogical construction can rob a sentence of unity Active and Passive voice in the same sentence can violate unity -First we cut prices, and then quality was reduced >>> First we cut prices and then we reduced quality

16 Arranging Sentences for Clarity
Clear writing requires that you follow the established rules of grammar These rules are based on custom and logical relationships Do a proof reading

Give the paragraphs Unity The contents of a paragraph should concern one topic or idea (unity ) But unity can vary in breadth. Paragraphs unity concern a narrow topic Keeping Paragraphs short Generally paragraphs should be short Short paragraphs show organization better than long ones Most readers prefer to read short paragraphs About eight lines is a good average length But length can vary with need

Making Good Use of Topic Sentences Topic sentences can help make good paragraphs Not every paragraphs must have a topic Placement of the topic sentence depends on the writer’s plan Leaving out Unnecessary Detail In writing paragraphs, leave out unnecessary information But deciding what to include is a matter of judgment

Giving the Paragraphs Movement Good writing has movement Movement is the writing quality that takes the reader towards the goal with a logical step – without side trips and backward shifts. The progress is steadily forward

20 Next Week Midterm Exam Please go through with the first three chapters. Make sure you read all the contents of the chapter

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