Presentation on theme: "Parallel Construction The Walden University Writing Center Staff."— Presentation transcript:
Parallel Construction The Walden University Writing Center Staff
What is Parallel Construction? Parallel construction is making similar parts of your writing follow the same pattern. These parts need to be presented in parallel form.
It may help to think of parallel lines. Parallel lines are lines that never cross because they are at the same angle. The same is true for writing. Parallel construction means words are in the same form. Parallel Construction
Parallel construction errors are most obvious in lists. For example, take a look at the following sentences: Sarah likes to swim, read, and to run. I like hiking, camping, and to bike. There was a shoe, shirt, and a sock on the bed. All of these sentences have errors in parallel construction because the items in the list are not in parallel form. Parallel Construction
For these sentences to have parallel construction, we need to fix some things. Sarah likes to swim, to read, and to run. Notice each item is now in the same format: to swim, to read, to run. I like hiking, camping, and biking. Notice each item is now in the same format because each item ends in –ing (a gerund). There was a shoe, a shirt, and a sock on the bed. Notice each item is now preceded by an article.
Parallel Construction Remember the basic concept of parallel construction is to have similar parts of writing in the same format. This can get a little complicated as the construction gets more complicated.
Parallel Construction. Good runners eat well balanced meals, maintain steady training schedules, and focus on their form. Notice here there is parallel construction because there are three things listed, and each thing begins with a verb (eat, maintain, and focus).
Parallel Construction Because Ryan studied thoroughly for his entrance exam, receives good grades, and worked as an intern, he was a candidate for the job. Notice that each of these items begins with a verb, but they are not all in the same tense. In order to have parallel construction here, all of the verbs must be in the same tense. By changing receives to received, we now have parallel construction. Because Ryan studied for his entrance exam, received good grades, and worked as an intern, he was a candidate for the job.
Parallel Construction Jamie noticed that the students paper was incorrectly numbered and that the title page was not centered. Notice here that the two things discussed in this sentence have the same wording (both begin with the word that).
Parallel Construction Is there parallel construction in the following sentence? Adams (2006) stated that the study incorporated the demographics of the population, analyzed the eligibility of the participants, examined the results of the survey, and defines key terminology.
Parallel Construction Adams (2006) stated that the study incorporated the demographics of the population, analyzed the eligibility of the participants, examined the results of the survey, and defined key terminology.
Parallel Construction Between and And Incorrect: We debated the difference between the weather in Minnesota in the winter and how hot it is in the summer. Correct: We debated the difference between the weather in Minnesota in the winter and the weather in Minnesota in the summer.
Parallel Construction Both and And Incorrect: The books were both enjoyable to watch and discuss. Correct: The books were enjoyable both to watch and to discuss.
Parallel Construction Neither and Nor; Either and Or Incorrect: Neither the responses to the questionnaire nor what we asked on the survey were answered. Correct: Neither the responses to the questionnaire nor the responses to the survey were answered.
Resources Parallel Construction: Writing Center Website: Library: Residencies:
Questions? What kinds of questions do you have regarding parallel construction?