3 SYLLABUS CE 93 05 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING L T P C 3 0 0 3 TOTAL L: 45 UNIT 1. HIGHWAY PLANNING AND ALIGNMENTHistory of road development in India – Classification of highways – Institutions for Highway planning, design and implementation at different levels – factors influencing highway alignment – Engineering surveys for alignment, objectives, conventional and modern methods.UNIT GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAYS INCLUDING HILL ROADSTypical cross sections of Urban and Rural roads – Lateral and vertical clearance at underpasses – Cross sectional elements – Horizontal curves, super elevation, transition curves, widening of curves – Sight distances – Vertical curves, gradients, hairpin bends – IRC standardsUNIT DESIGN FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTSDesign principles – pavement components and their role - Design practice for flexible and rigid pavements, (IRC methods only).UNIT HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, EQUIPMENTS AND PRACTICEHighway construction materials, properties, testing methods – Construction practice including modern methods, concrete road constructions (problem not included) - Highway drainage – Special considerations for hilly roads.UNIT EVALUATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PAVEMENTSPavement distress in flexible and rigid pavement – Pavement evaluation, roughness, present serviceability index, skid resistance, structural evaluation, evaluation by deflection measurements – Strengthening of pavements –Types of maintenance – IRC standards
4 TEXT BOOKSKhanna.K and Justo.C.E.G. Highway Engineering, Khanna Publishers, Roorkee, 1994.Kadiyali.L.R. “Principles and practice of Highway Engineering,” Khanna Technical Publications, Delhi, 1997.Indian Road Congress (IRC), Guidelines and Special Publications of Planning and Design.
5 REFERENCESBlunden W.R and J.A Black, The Land Use Transport Systems, Pergamon Press, 1994.Vazirani, V.N and S.P.Chandola, Transportation Engineering, Vol.1. Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 1999Clarkson.H Oglesby and R.Gary Hicks, Highway Engineering, John Wileysons , 1992Arora.N.L. Transportation Engineering, New India Publishing Home, 1996.Sharma.S.K Principles , Practices and Design of Highway Engineering, S.Chand and Company Ltd.1995O’Flaherty.C.A Highways, Butterworth – Heinemann, Oxford 2006
6 UNIT 1. HIGHWAY PLANNING AND ALIGNMENT 8 History of road development in India.Classification of highways.Institutions for Highway planning, design and implementation at different levelsFactors influencing highway alignmentEngineering surveys for alignment, objectives, conventional and modern methods.
10 Roman Road Construction Basic cross section The road building techniques used by the Romans is a good model for present techniques. The basic idea is to provide a structure that has successively stronger layers as we proceed from the sub grade to the surface. The major difference is in materials that were used. Present day surface materials like asphalt and concrete are superior in ease of construction compared to the rock slabs used by the Romans. In fact the major difference between then and now is in the amount of human labor where slave labor is used instead of Caterpillar excavators. The typical Roman road was a layered system as shown below and is described by (1,2)10
11 Ancient Greek Roads – grooves and large stone blocks Greece is a country that does not lend itself to development of major road networks because of geography and political reasons. The country is mountainous and roads are likely to be expensive to build and hard to maintain. In addition the city states politics did not provided the basis to develop a country wide roads system. Most roads were single tracks following stream beds or the path of least resistance. Typically the roads would be muddy, narrow tracks with a few exceptions paved with slabs of fieldstone. (4)One innovation traced to Greek technology is the use of carved ruts in the road path. In order to make roads as safe as possible the Greeks cut grooves ( 3 to 6 inches deep) in the road. Evidence points to the fact that much of Greece was covered with these roads. One can only imagine the disputes that would erupt as opposing traffic met and tried to pass each other. (12)The reason for using this type of road is usually given to be a way to reduce the effort to make a serviceable road. The groves were true and level but the remaining part of the traveled way was rough and unleveled. (2). It might also be possible that in critical situations a lubricant could be poured in the grove to lower friction at the interface. It is also conceivable that on steep grades it would be easier to place rocks or other wedges behind wheel to prevent the wagon from going backward. On the other hand concentrating the wheel loads at a particular point on the travel way would lead to premature failure because of the stress concentrations.. Typical dimensions for the ruts were 4 in deep and 9 in wide with a space between of approximately 4 to 5 ft.11
13 India Grand Trunk Road 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi). Over the centuries, the road, which was one of the most important trade routes in the region, facilitated both travel and postal communication. Even during the era of Sher Shah Suri, the road was dotted with caravansarais (highway inns) at regular intervals, and trees were planted on both sides of the road to give shade to the passers-by.The road was well planned, with milestones along the whole stretch. Some of these milestones can still be seen along the present delhi ambala highway. On another note, the road also facilitated the rapid movement of troops and of foreign invaders. It expedited the looting raids, into India's interior regions, of Afghan and Persian invaders and also facilitated the movement of British troops from Bengal into the north Indian plain.The Grand Trunk Road continues to be one of the major arteries of India and Pakistan. The Indian section is part of the ambitious Golden Quadrilateral project. For over four centuries, the Grand Trunk Road has remained "such a river of life as nowhere else exists in the world".13
14 Plank Road – Western US Early 20th Century Plank roads were typically constructed of wood planks two inches thick and eight feet long, which were nailed to four-inch-square stringers at a 90-degree angle. 14
17 History of Road Development in India Ancient Period (3500 BC)Mughul Period (15th Century)British Period (17th & 18th Century)Free India (1950 onwards)
18 Types of Ancient Indian Roads Indus Valley Civilization (Harrapa and Mohenjedaro):Roads with brick drains on both sides.Mauryan rule in the 4th century constructedRajpath (high roads)Banikpaths (merchant roads).Ashoka Regime:Road networks with horticulture and rest houses at 4.8 – 6.4km along the roads.Mughul PeriodTrunk roads between Northwest to Eastern part and also linking coastal and central part of IndiaBritish PeriodTrunk roads, bridges, PWD was formed, construction of Grand Trunk Road
19 Indian RoadsIndia has a large road network of over million kilometers of roadways (2.1 million miles).It is 3rd largest road network in the world.At 0.66 km of highway per square kilometer of land the density of India’s highway network is higher than that of the United States (0.65) and far higher than that of China's (0.16) or Brazil's (0.20).
20 Golden QuadrilateralIt connects India's four largest metropolises: Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.Four other top ten metropolises: Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, and Surat, are also served by the network.The largest highway project in India, initiated by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, it is the first phase of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP),It consists of building 5,846 km (3,633 mi) of four/six lane express highways.Cost : 60,000 crore
21 Impact of Transportation Economic DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentSpatial DevelopmentCultural DevelopmentPolitical Development
22 Institution for Highway Planning, Design and Implementation at Different Levels Jayakar Committee (1927)Central Road Fund (1929)Indian Roads Congress (IRC), 1934Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), 1950National Highway Act, 1956National Highway Authority of India (NHAI),1995National Highway Act ( 1956 )Second Twenty Year Road Plan ( 1961 )Highway Research Board ( 1973 )National Transport Policy Committee ( 1978 )Third Twenty Year Road Plan ( 1981 )
23 Jayakar Committee,1927Road development should be made a national interest since the provincial and local govt do not have financial and technical capacity for road development.Levy extra tax on petrol from road users to create the road development fund.To establish a semi-official ,technical institution to pool technical knowledge, sharing of ideas and to act as an advisory body.To create a national level institution to carry research , development works and consultation.
24 Central Road Fund , 1929 CRF Act , 2000 MORTH Distribution of 100% cess on petrol as follows:57.5% for NH30% for SH12.5% for safety works on rail-Road crossing.50% cess on diesel for Rural Road developmentMORTH
25 Indian Roads Congress, 1934To provide national forum for regular pooling of experience and ideas on matters related to construction and maintenance of highways.To recommend standard specifications.To provide a platform for expression of professional opinion on matters relating to roads and road transport.
27 CRRIA constituent of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)engaged in carrying out research and development projects.design, construction and maintenance of roads and runways, traffic and transportation planning of mega and medium cities, management of roads in different terrains,Improvement of marginal materials,Utilization of industrial waste in road construction,Landslide control,Ground improvements environmental pollution,Road traffic safety,Service life assessment and rehabilitation of highway & railway bridges.
28 Ministry of Road Transport & Highways Planning, development and maintenance of National Highways in the country.Extends technical and financial support to State Governments for the development of state roads and the roads of inter-state connectivity and economic importance. Evolves standard specifications for roads and bridges in the country. Serves as a repository of technical knowledge on roads and bridges.
29 Classification of Highways Depending on weatherAll weather roadsFair weather roadsDepending on the type of Carriage wayPaved roadsUnpaved roadsDepending upon the pavement surfaceSurfaced roadsUn surfaced roadsNational highway act ( 1956 )
30 Classification of Highways Based on the Traffic VolumeHeavyMediumLightBased on Load or TonnageClass 1 or Class 2 etc or Class A , B etc Tonnes per dayBased on location and function ( Nagpur road plan )NHSHMDRODRVR
31 Based on modified system of Highways classification PrimaryExpresswaysNational HighwaysSecondarySHMDRTertiaryODRVR
32 Classification of Roadways Expressways KmNational Highways ,548 KmState Highways ,31,899 KmMajor District Roads 4,67,763 KmRural and Other Roads 26,50,000 Km
33 Expressways Heavy traffic at high speed (120km/hr) Land Width (90m) Full access controlConnects major points of traffic generationNo slow moving traffic allowedNo loading, unloading, parking.
34 National Highways India has a huge network of national highways. The national highways have a total length of 70,548 kms. Indian highways cover 2% of the total road network of India and carry 40% of the total traffic.The entire highway network of India is managed by the National Highway Authority of India which is responsible for development and maintenance of highways.Longest highway in India is NH7 (2,369 km),which stretches from Varansi in Uttar Pradesh to Kanyakumari in the southern most point of Indian mainland.Shortest National Highway is the NH 47A (5.9 km (3.7 mi)), which connects Kundanoor Junction in Kochi city to the Kochi port at Willingdon Island.
37 State HighwaysThey are the arterial roads of a state, connecting up with the national highways of adjacent states, district head quarters and important cities within the state.Total length of all SH in the country is 1,37,119 Kms.
38 Major District RoadsImportant roads with in a district serving areas of production and markets , connecting those with each other or with the major highways.India has a total of 4,70,000 kms of MDR.
39 Other district roadsRoads serving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centers or other important roads like MDR or SH.
40 Village roadsThey are roads connecting villages or group of villages with each other or to the nearest road of a higher category like ODR or MDR.India has 26,50,000 kms of ODR+VR out of the total 33,15,231 kms of all type of roads.
45 ARTERIALNo frontage access, no standing vehicle, very little cross traffic.Design Speed : 80km/hrLand width : 50 – 60mSpacing 1.5km in CBD & 8km or more in sparsely developed areas.Divided roads with full or partial parkingPedestrian allowed to walk only at intersection
46 SUB ARTERIAL Bus stops but no standing vehicle. Less mobility than arterial.Spacing for CBD : 0.5kmSub-urban fringes : 3.5kmDesign speed : 60 km/hrLand width : 30 – 40 m
47 Collector Street Collects and distributes traffic from local streets Provides access to arterial roadsLocated in residential, business and industrial areas.Full access allowed.Parking permitted.Design speed : 50km/hrLand Width : 20-30m
48 Local Street Design Speed : 30km/hr. Land Width : 10 – 20m. Primary access to residence, business or other abutting propertyLess volume of traffic at slow speedOrigin and termination of trips.Unrestricted parking, pedestrian movements. (with frontage access, parked vehicle, bus stops and no waiting restrictions)
49 CUL–DE- SACDead End Street with only one entry access for entry and exit.Recommended in Residential areas
50 Road Patterns Rectangular or Block patterns Radial or Star block patternRadial or Star Circular patternRadial or Star grid patternHexagonal PatternMinimum Travel Pattern
55 Factors Influencing Highway Alignment Requirements:ShortEasySafeEconomicalFactors controlling alignment :1) Obligatory pointsA. Obligatory points through which alignment should pass through ( bridge site,intermediate town , Mountain pass etcB. Obligatory points through which alignment should not pass. (Religious Places,Lakes/Ponds2) Traffic3) Geometric design4) Economics5) Other considerations
56 Factors governing alignment Obligatory pointsThe location should avoid obstructions such as places of cemeteries, archeological, historical monument, public facilities like schools and hospitals, utility services.Geometric design featuresFacilitate easy grade and curvatureEnable ruling gradient in most sectionsVoid sudden changes in sight distance, especially near crossingsAvoid sharp horizontal curvesAvoid road intersections near bend or at the top or bottom of a hill
57 Factors governing alignment Precautions at river and railway crossingsBridges should be preferably be located at right angles to the river flow, not located on a horizontal curve.Crossing railway lines should avoid intersections at gradient, frequent crossing and recrossing
58 Factors governing alignment Topographical control pointsThe alignment, where possible should avoid passing throughMarshy and low lying land with poor drainageFlood prone areasUnstable hilly featuresAvalanche prone areasCross SlopeFlat terrain : 0 – 10%Rolling terrain :10 to 25%Mountainous terrain:–25% - 40%Steep : >60%A location on high ground should be preferred rather than valley to avoid cross drainage works
59 Factors governing alignment Materials and constructional featuresDeep cutting should be avoidedEarth work is to be balanced; quantities for filling and excavationAlignment should preferably be through better soil area to minimize pavement thicknessLocation may be near sources of embankment and pavement materials
60 Traffic Trend, Direction and pattern of traffic are critical elements. OD survey should be conducted.Desire lines based on survey should be drawn to indicate the desired pattern of traffic flow.
62 Horizontal alignmentAdjustments in horizontal alignment can help reduce the potential for generating roadway sediment.The objective is to minimize roadway cuts and fills and to avoid unstable areas.When unstable or steep slopes must be traversed, adjustments in vertical alignment can minimize impacts and produce a stable road by reducing cuts and fills
63 ECONOMIC FACTORS Capital cost Maintenance Cost Operational cost Road User CostEmbankment and deep cuttings cost.
64 Other Considerations Engineering feasibility Environmental considerationSocial considerationPolitical AcceptabilityMonotony.
65 Engineering Surveys for Highway locations Provisional alignment Identification ( Map study)Reconnaissance surveyPreliminary surveyFinal location to determine center line and detailed survey
66 Drawing and Report Key map Index map Preliminary survey plans Detailed plan and longitudinal sectionDetailed cross sectionLand acquisition plansDrawings of cross drainage and other retaining structuresDrawings of road intersectionsLand plans showing quarries etc
67 SURVEY DATA COLLECTION Natural and man made features.Proposed Geometric Design elements.Number of cross drainage structures.Soil characteristicsSource of construction materials.Geological formation, type of rocks.Drainage
68 MAP STUDY Base Map preparation Topographical map (SoI) Scale -1: 2,50,0001: 50,0001: 25,000Shows man made and natural features and contour lines at 15 or 30m interval.Shows possible alignments with obligatory points and minimum number of cross drainage structures.
69 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY Map updating – to confirm features indicated on map.Checking for:Number of cross drainage structures.High Flood Level (HFL)Confirming Length and value of gradient to IRC standards.Soil Characteristics.Geological features.Proximity to source of construction materials- quarries, water sources.Prepare a report on merits and demerits and profile map of scale 1:50,000.
71 PRELIMINARY SURVEY Base Plan Hz Vr Establish center line Built up area/hilly terrain 1: :100Plain and rolling terrain : :250Establish center lineIncorporation of natural and man made featuresLongitudinal and cross sectional profile (Levelling).Plain Terrain` : 100 – 200mRolling Terrain : 50mHilly Terrain : 30mOther studiesDrainage, Hydrological, soil, Traffic and Materials.Finalisation of the best alignmentComparative analysis.Choose best alignment among alternatives.Design geometric elements.
72 DETAILED SURVEY FOR FINAL LOCATION Transferring the alignment on to ground.Detail Survey – levelling work for longitudinal and transverse direction.Intervals for cross sectional levellingPlain 50 – 100mRolling 50 – 75mBuilt up 50mHilly 20mSoil Profile
74 Alignment for hill roads Minimum hair pin bends.Bends should be located on stable and flat slopes.Cross section for hair pin bends should be at intervals of 20-25m.Avoid bends in valleys.Survey for a width of ;15 m on either side of centre line in straight alignment30m on sharp curves.
75 MODERN SURVEY METHODSProvisional alignment Identification ( Map study)Reconnaissance surveyHand held GPS giving 3D positions to an accuracy of 10-20m .Preliminary SurveyMapping of topography and reliefUse of aerial PhotosAirborne Laser Terain MappingFinal location and detailed survey.
76 Modern Equipments for Surveying EDM – Electronic Distance MeasurementAuto level.Digital level.Total station.GPS – global positioning system.
77 Aerial Photos Balloon photography (1858) Pigeon cameras (1903) Kite photography (1890)Aircraft (WWI and WWII)Space (1947)Nader (Gaspard Felix Tournachon) 1858 Paris photographer went up in balloons. Also used during American Civil War.Arthur Batut, French Kite photographer published book in 1890Julius Neubronner patented breast mounted cameras on pigeons (1903)Photo reconnaissance in WWI for mapping terrain and troop movementsWWII troop movements, V-2 rocket facilities
78 IKONOS (1 m Panchromatic) Landsat TM (False Color Composite)LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)
79 DATA FROM AERIAL SURVEY Mosaic for longitudinal and lateral overlaps.Control pointsExamination of photos for spot levels and contour linesTopo detailsPhoto interpretation for geological features, soil and drainage for the study area
80 GEOMETRIC DESIGN Elements of design: Sight distance The length of road ahead visible to driversStopping sight distancePassing sight distanceHorizontal alignmentSuper elevation rates (0.1 for rural areas, 0.06 for urban)Minimum radiusVertical alignmentPavement designIntersection and crossing design
81 Guidance for Route Selection Straight line alignment preferred.Avoid obstructions and frequent railway and river crossings.Avoid landslide, erosion prone and water logged and marshy area.Avoid alignment on clayey soil.Alignment should aim at maintaining uniform design speed, easy grades and curvature.
82 Comparison of Conventional and Modern Methods of Surveying Elements of comparisonConventionalModernMaps- Base materialTopo sheetsRS data, Aerial Photos, Satellite ImageriesInstrumentsChains, Tapes, Theodolite, Dumpy levelsEDM, Total Station, GPS, Auto and Digital Level, Photogrammetry.AccuracyChain/Tape 1 in 3000 to 1 in 30,000Tacheometer 1 in 1000 to 1 in 10,000EDM/TS 1 in to 1 in 1,00,000Photogrammetry. 1 in to 1 in 1,00,000PlottingCAD SystemsSoftwareErrorsHuman errorsClosing Errors hence re measuring is required.
83 UNIT 1. HIGHWAY PLANNING AND ALIGNMENT 8 History of road development in India.Classification of highways.Institutions for Highway planning, design and implementation at different levelsFactors influencing highway alignmentEngineering surveys for alignment, objectives, conventional and modern methods.
84 QUESTIONS Recommendations of various Committees. Factors influencing alignment.Classification of Highways.Difference between modern and conventional surveys.Highway Development Plan.