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Excavation for Construction. Industries engaged in excavation v General contractors v Highway and street construction contractors v Bridge and tunnel.

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Presentation on theme: "Excavation for Construction. Industries engaged in excavation v General contractors v Highway and street construction contractors v Bridge and tunnel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Excavation for Construction

2 Industries engaged in excavation v General contractors v Highway and street construction contractors v Bridge and tunnel contractors 1a

3 Industries engaged in excavation v Water, sewer, pipeline contractors v Communication and power line contractors v Concrete worker and well drilling contractors 1b

4 Hazards of excavation work v Cave-ins v Underground utilities v Materials/ equipment falling into excavation sites 2a

5 Hazards of excavation work v Struck-by accidents v Asphyxiation v Explosions v Falls 2b

6 Hazards of excavation work v Electrocutions v Drowning 2c

7 Safety considerations v Excavation is one of the most hazardous types of work in the construction industry v Accidents result from inadequate planning v Build safety into pre-bid planning 3a

8 Safety considerations v Plan safety into the job. Consider: TrafficTraffic Nearness of structures and their conditionsNearness of structures and their conditions SoilSoil 3b

9 Safety considerations v Plan safety into the job. Consider: Surface and ground waterSurface and ground water Water tableWater table Overhead/ underground utilitiesOverhead/ underground utilities WeatherWeather 3c

10 Jobsite safety and health programs v Establish and maintain a safety and health program for the worksite v Provide adequate systematic policies, procedures, practices v Recognize job-related safety/health hazards 4a

11 Jobsite safety and health programs v Safety and health programs should reflect the unique characteristics of the jobsite v Proper implementation depends on cooperation among: supervisorssupervisors employee groupsemployee groups individual employeesindividual employees 4b

12 Jobsite safety and health programs v Supervisors must understand his/her degree of responsibility/authority v Get unions involved 4c

13 Locating utilities v Employers must determine the estimated locations of utility installations v Contact utility companies before starting excavation v Utility owners must attempt to find exact location of utilities 5a

14 Locating utilities v Proceed with caution if the exact location of utilities cannot be found v Use safe and acceptable means to locate exact locations of installations 5b

15 Safety starts at the surface v Surface encumbrances that create hazards must be removed/supported v Wear warning vests when near traffic v Employees must be trained to operate heavy equipment 6a

16 Safety starts at the surface v Stay away from loads being handled by lifting/digging equipment v Stay away from vehicles being loaded/unloaded 6b

17 Safety starts at the surface v Use barricades, hand or mechanical signals, stop logs to keep operators safe 6c

18 Safety starts at the surface v Warn mobile equipment operators about the edge of the excavation site v Keep the grade away from the excavation site 6d

19 Safety starts at the surface v Take care when walking near excavation sites v Barricade or cover wells, pits, shafts v Use appropriate PPE 6e

20 Protecting utilities v Exact locations of utilities must be determined v Utilities must be exposed before digging 7a

21 Protecting utilities v Excavation sites must be protected, supported to safeguard employees v Approach utility lines as if they are land mines 7b

22 Employee access/egress from excavations v Ramps must be designed by a competent person v Ramps must be structurally sound and not create a tripping hazard v Use surface treatments on ramps to prevent slipping 8a

23 Employee access/egress from excavations v Trenches 4 or more feet deep need a safe means of egress StairwayStairway LadderLadder RampsRamps v Means of egress must be fixed and secure 8b

24 Employee access/egress from excavations v Means of egress must be within 25 feet of workers v Ladders must extend a minimum of 36 inches above the landing v Use metal ladders with caution around utilities 8c

25 Hazardous atmospheres v Explosive v Flammable v Poisonous v Corrosive 9a

26 Hazardous atmospheres v Oxidizing v Irritating v Oxygen deficient v Toxic 9b

27 Hazardous atmospheres v Operations inside an excavation can introduce a hazardous atmosphere v Test the air of excavation sites more than 4 feet deep before entering 9c

28 Hazardous atmospheres v Take extra precautions when the atmosphere has: less than 19.5 percent, or more than 23.5 percent oxygenless than 19.5 percent, or more than 23.5 percent oxygen a combustible gas concentration greater than 20 percent of the lower flammable limita combustible gas concentration greater than 20 percent of the lower flammable limit concentrations of hazardous substances that exceed threshold limit valuesconcentrations of hazardous substances that exceed threshold limit values 9d

29 Hazardous atmospheres v Conduct all operations within OSHA requirements v Regularly conduct atmospheric testing if atmospheric hazards are present 9e

30 Hazardous atmospheres v Wear respiratory equipment when required v Know the hazards of confined spaces 9f

31 Emergency equipment v Emergency rescue equipment is required when there is a risk for hazardous atmospheres v Emergency rescue equipment must be attended when in use 10a

32 Emergency equipment v Respirators must be suitable for the type of exposure v Independent lifelines must be provided when appropriate 10b

33 Water accumulation hazards v Employees are prohibited from entering excavation sites with accumulated water unless adequate protection has been provided 11a

34 Water accumulation hazards v Methods for controlling standing water include: special support/shield systemsspecial support/shield systems water removal equipmentwater removal equipment safety harnesses and lifelinessafety harnesses and lifelines 11b

35 Water accumulation hazards v Workers should be prepared to leave excavation sites if control measures begin to fail v Use diversion ditches or dikes to prevent surface water from entering excavation sites 11c

36 Water accumulation hazards v Competent person inspects excavation sites subject to water runoff 11d

37 Protect structures next to excavation sites v Use support systems to keep nearby buildings, walls stable ShoringShoring BracingBracing UnderpinningUnderpinning 12a

38 Protect structures next to excavation sites v Excavation below the base of a footing or retaining wall is prohibited unless a support system is provided v Excavations under sidewalks/pavements are prohibited unless a support system is used 12b

39 Protect structures next to excavation sites v Workers must be prepared to leave excavation sites if support systems begin to fail 12c

40 Loose rock and soil as hazards v Prevent loose rock/soil from falling onto employees in excavation sites v Use barricades to contain material 13a

41 Loose rock and soil as hazards v Keep surface materials at least 2 feet from the edge of excavation sites v Keep employees off of sloped surfaces at levels above other employees 13b

42 Protective systems v Excavations where employees are exposed to cave-ins must be protected by: sloping or benchingsloping or benching support systemssupport systems shield systemsshield systems other protective systemsother protective systems 14a

43 Protective systems v Protective systems are not needed if the excavation is: made in stable rockmade in stable rock less than 5 feet deepless than 5 feet deep v Employers are free to choose the most practical design approach for a particular circumstance 14b

44 Protective systems v Designing a protective system is complex v Protective systems must be able to resist all loads v A competent person must examine protective systems materials 14c

45 Soil types v Classify the soil type: Stable rockStable rock Type AType A Type BType B Type CType C 15a

46 Sloping and benching v Slope the excavations sides to a safe angle v Slope angle not be steeper than 1 1/2 horizontal to 1 or less vertical is safe v Soil classification may not be needed if sloped to this angle 16a

47 Sloping and benching v Other slopes may be used for other soil types v Benching systems excavate the sides of an excavation to form a series of horizontal levels or steps 16b

48 Sloping and benching v Benching systems have vertical or near-vertical surfaces between levels 16c

49 Support, shield, and protective systems v Shoring systems support the sides of the excavation with: timbertimber aluminumaluminum hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical systemshydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical systems 17a

50 Support, shield, and protective systems v Shoring systems are made up of cross braces, wales, and uprights v Selection and design involves using tabulated data 17b

51 Precautions when protective systems are being installed v Securely connect members of support systems v Safely install support systems v Never overload members of support systems 18a

52 v Install other structural members to carry loads when temporary removal of members is necessary v The installation of support systems must be closely coordinated with the excavation process 18b Precautions when protective systems are being installed

53 Daily inspections v Inspect excavations for possible: cave-inscave-ins failure of protective systemsfailure of protective systems hazardous atmosphereshazardous atmospheres other hazardous conditionsother hazardous conditions 19a

54 Trench failure v Recognize hazardous conditions v Sudden changes can mean disaster 20a

55 Trench failure v Things that can cause immediate change include: bulldozers coming too close to the trenchbulldozers coming too close to the trench a sudden downpoura sudden downpour striking an underground utility linestriking an underground utility line 20b

56 Trench failure v Tension cracks can cause sliding, sluffing, or toppling v Unsupported excavation can cause bulging in the vertical face 20c

57 Trench failure v Downward pressure can cause bottom heaving or squeezing v Upward water flow can cause boiling in the bottom of the excavation 20d


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