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Udai Pareek’s Understanding Organizational Behaviour Third Edition

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1 Udai Pareek’s Understanding Organizational Behaviour Third Edition
1 Udai Pareek’s Understanding Organizational Behaviour Third Edition Dr. Udai Pareek Revised and Updated by Prof. Sushama Khanna EMPI, New Delhi 1

2 Chapter 5 Personality and personal effectiveness

3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
Elaborate psychometric theories of personality Enumerate psychodynamic theories of personality, and their main features Distinguish between Type A and Type B personalities and between enlarging and enfolding lifestyles Relate Holland's personality types to occupational groups Discuss the three-dimensional model of personal effectiveness Enumerate theories of emotion

4 Theories Of Personality
Psychometric Theories Of Personality Sixteen Personality Factors (16 P-F) (Cattel) Big Five FIRO-B Psychometric Theories Of Personality Sigmund Freud Carl Jung and MBTI Transactional Analysis Life Styles based Theories of Personality Type A vs Type B Enlarging vs Enfolding Personality-Job Fit

5 1 Sixteen Personality Factors (16 P-F) (Cattel) S. No Factors’
Bipolar Dimensions of Personality’ 1 Warmth: Outgoing vs reserved 2 Reasoning: More intelligent vs less intelligent 3 Emotional stability: Emotionally stable vs unstable 4 Dominance: Assertive vs humble 5 Liveliness: Happy-go-lucky vs sober 6 Rule-consciousness Conscientious vs expedient 7 Social boldness: Venturesome vs timid 8 Sensitivity: Tough-minded vs sensitive 9 Vigilance: Suspicious vs trusting 10 Abstractedness: Imaginative vs practical 11 Privateness: Shrewd vs forthright 12 Apprehension Apprehensive vs self-assured 13 Openness to change: Experimental vs conservative 14 Self-reliance Self-sufficient vs group dependent 15 Perfectionism Controlled vs casual 16 Tension: Relaxed vs tense Sixteen Personality Factors (16 P-F) (Cattel) 1

6 The Big Five Model of Personality (Digman)
Extroversion: One’s comfort level with relationships: talkative, outgoing, Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Agreeableness: One’s inclination to defer to others:, Good-natured, cooperative, warm, caring,. and trusting Conscientiousness: One’s reliability regarding responsibility Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. Emotional Stability: One’s ability to withstand stress Calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative). Openness to Experience: One’s range of interests and fascination with novelty: Imaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism creative, curious. 1

7 Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation–Behavior (FIRO-B)
Developed by William Schutz in late 1950s Based on theory of interpersonal relations. Interpersonal needs are very important to understand and predict behaviour of human beings. Three main basic needs people have: To give and receive affection; To control others and be controlled by others; and Need to socialize and interact with people. 1

8 Expressed and Wanted Dimensions three basic needs (William Schutz)
Inclusion Control Affection Expressed Behavior Expressed Inclusion Expressed Control Expressed Affection Wanted Behavior Wanted Inclusion Wanted Control Wanted Affection 1

9 Freud & Personality Structure
Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Ego Super Id Super Ego - voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave 1

10 Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development
“personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 months) - centered on the mouth Anal (18-36 months) - focus on bowel/bladder elimination Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals (Identification & Gender Identity) Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3 1

11 Freudian Personality Types
Erotic (Oral): Optimistic, Manipulative, Boastful, Gullible (easy to cheat) Obsessive (Anal): Stingy, Stubborn, Orderly, Meticulous Narcissistic (Phallic): Vain (ineffective), Brash, Courageous, Stylish Detached (Genital): Democratic, Building systems, Linking with others, Situation-specific 1

12 Ego Defense Mechanisms
The Ego has some tools to satisfy both the Id and the Superego , that help to defend the Ego., called ego defence mechanisms. Main defence mechanisms are: Denial: Displacement: Intellectualisation: Projection: Rationalisation: Reaction formation Regression Repression Sublimation Suppression 1

13 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. Personality Types Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) 1

14 MBTI Framework 1 Aspects Characteristics Source of Energy
Extraversion (E) Introversion (I) Collecting Information Sensing (S) Intuiting (N) Decision Making Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Understanding the world Judging (J) Perceiving (P) Characteristics Outgoing: speaks, and then thinks. Relates more easily to the outer world of people and things than to the inner world of ideas. Reflective: thinks, and then speaks. Relates more easily to the inner world of ideas than to the outer world of people. Practical, concrete. Would work with known facts than look for possibilities and relationships. Theoretical, abstract. Would look for possibilities and relationships than work with known facts Analytical, head. Relates more on interpersonal analysis and logic than on personal values Subjective, heart. Relies more on personal values than on impersonal analysis and logic Structured, organized. Likes a planned and orderly way of life than a flexible spontaneous way Flexible, spontaneous. Likes a flexible, spontaneous way than a planned and orderly way of life. 1

15 Combination of Four Jungian Aspects for 16 Personality Types

16 LIFESTYLE APPROACHES Type A Type B 2. Enlarging & Enfolding 1

17 Type A Type B Personality Types
Type A’s are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; strive to think or do two or more things at once; cannot cope with leisure time; are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type B’s never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; can relax without guilt. 1

18 Enlarging & Enfolding Personality Types
Enlarging: associated with career/job success; goals of motivation; self-improvement/development; growth; non-traditional; moves to influential position; likely to read, attend theatre, keep up with current events; Enfolding: associated with less career/job success; goals of tradition; stability; inner strength; values parental ties, is not member of any social or community gp.; does not join any program for self- improvement/development 1

19 Ego states TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS 1 Regulates Nurtures Task Creativity
Reacting Adjusting P A C 1

20 Transactions 1 Analysis or Interaction between two persons
Transaction – Act of communication or Interaction between two persons A transaction starts with a stimulus and ends with a response to stimulus Berne identifies three types of transactions: Complementary, Crossed and Ulterior or Covert. 1

21 Complimentary Transactions(1)
A A A C C C C Customer Sales Boss Subordinate C. What is the price of the Boss. Our values are getting eroded watch? S. Rs S. Yes. We are deteriorating every day.

22 1 Complimentary Transactions (2) P P P P A A A A C C C
P P P P A A A A C C C c S.Would you like to go to the Magic show? Boss. You are again late. Boss. Surely, let’s go S. I am sorry, Sir 1

23 Crossed Transactions 1 P P P P A A A A C C C C
Boss: Is the report ready? Staff: I want to discuss the resources to resources I need to complete the project. Staff: Do you think I have Boss: You are always no other work to do? complaining 1

24 Ulterior Transaction (2)
P P Sales: This shirt is rather expensive, especially tailored for exclusive tastes. Overt message (A A): Giving information. Covert message (A C): ` You can't buy this’! Customer: I shall buy it. (C A) A A C C 1

25 Holland’s Personality Types for Occupational Groups
PERSONALIT JOB FIT THEORY Holland’s Personality Types for Occupational Groups 1

26 Personal Effectiveness
Areas of Personal Effectiveness Self-disclosure Use of feedback Perceptiveness


28 Categories of Personal Effectiveness
S. No. Category Self- disclosure Openness to feedback Perceptiveness 1 Effective High 2 Insensitive Low 3 Egocentric 4 Dogmatic 5 Secretive 6 Task obsessed 7 Lonely-empathic 8 Ineffective 1

29 Emotions Emotion is a neural impulse that moves an organism to action. 1

30 Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience
Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus 1

31 Emotions Emotion is a neural impulse that moves an organism to action. Emotions have three components: cognitive, physiological component, and conative or expressive. Cognitive component includes the conscious experience of emotions, and the way we 'label' our emotions. Physiological component includes emotional arousal. Different emotions have different arousals. For example, fear, anger, and sadness increase heart rate; anger raises blood pressure; embarrassment is shown in blushing. Expressive component includes body language (gaze, gestures, posture, and walk). 1

32 Primary and Secondary Emotions
Primary emotions are those that we feel first, as a first response to a situation, e.g. fear, anger, sadness, and happiness etc. Secondary emotions appear after primary emotions. They may be caused directly by them—for example, where the fear of a threat turns to anger that fuels the body for a fight reaction. 1

33 Theories of Emotion 1 James-Lange theory Cannon-Bard theory
Two-factor theory 1

34 Experiencing and Expressing Feelings
Healthy emotional life requires us to learn how to experience emotion and how to express feelings. 1

35 Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions. It may be categorized into five domains: Self-awareness Managing emotions Motivating oneself Empathy Handling relationships 1

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