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1 Udai Pareeks Understanding Organizational Behaviour Third Edition 1 Dr. Udai Pareek Revised and Updated by Prof. Sushama Khanna EMPI, New Delhi.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Udai Pareeks Understanding Organizational Behaviour Third Edition 1 Dr. Udai Pareek Revised and Updated by Prof. Sushama Khanna EMPI, New Delhi."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Udai Pareeks Understanding Organizational Behaviour Third Edition 1 Dr. Udai Pareek Revised and Updated by Prof. Sushama Khanna EMPI, New Delhi

3 1 Chapter 5 Personality and personal effectiveness

4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you will be able to: 1.Elaborate psychometric theories of personality 2.Enumerate psychodynamic theories of personality, and their main features 3.Distinguish between Type A and Type B personalities and between enlarging and enfolding lifestyles 4.Relate Holland's personality types to occupational groups 5.Discuss the three-dimensional model of personal effectiveness 6.Enumerate theories of emotion

5 Theories Of Personality Psychometric Theories Of Personality Sixteen Personality Factors (16 P-F) (Cattel) Big Five FIRO-B Psychometric Theories Of Personality Sigmund Freud Carl Jung and MBTI Transactional Analysis Life Styles based Theories of Personality Type A vs Type B Enlarging vs Enfolding Personality-Job Fit

6 1 S. NoFactorsBipolar Dimensions of Personality 1Warmth:Outgoing vs reserved 2Reasoning:More intelligent vs less intelligent 3Emotional stability:Emotionally stable vs unstable 4Dominance:Assertive vs humble 5Liveliness:Happy-go-lucky vs sober 6Rule-consciousnessConscientious vs expedient 7Social boldness:Venturesome vs timid 8Sensitivity:Tough-minded vs sensitive 9Vigilance:Suspicious vs trusting 10Abstractedness:Imaginative vs practical 11Privateness:Shrewd vs forthright 12ApprehensionApprehensive vs self-assured 13Openness to change:Experimental vs conservative 14Self-relianceSelf-sufficient vs group dependent 15PerfectionismControlled vs casual 16Tension:Relaxed vs tense Sixteen Personality Factors (16 P-F) (Cattel)

7 1 The Big Five Model of Personality (Digman) Ones comfort level with relationships: talkative, outgoing, Extroversion: Ones comfort level with relationships: talkative, outgoing, Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Ones inclination to defer to others:, G warm, caring, Agreeableness: Ones inclination to defer to others:, Good- natured, cooperative, warm, caring,. and trusting Ones reliability regarding responsibility Conscientiousness: Ones reliability regarding responsibility Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. Ones range of interests and fascination with novelty: creative, curious Openness to Experience: Ones range of interests and fascination with novelty: Imaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism creative, curious. Ones ability to withstand stress Emotional Stability: Ones ability to withstand stress Calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).

8 1 Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation–Behavior (FIRO-B) Developed by William Schutz in late 1950s Based on theory of interpersonal relations. Interpersonal needs are very important to understand and predict behaviour of human beings. Three main basic needs people have: 1.To give and receive affection; 2.To control others and be controlled by others; and 3.Need to socialize and interact with people.

9 1 Expressed and Wanted Dimensions three basic needs (William Schutz) InclusionControlAffection Expressed Behavior Expressed Inclusion Expressed Control Expressed Affection Wanted Behavior Wanted Inclusion Wanted Control Wanted Affection

10 1 Freud & Personality Structure Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Super Ego - voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave Ego Super Ego Id

11 1 Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 months) - centered on the mouth Anal (18-36 months) - focus on bowel/bladder elimination Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals (Identification & Gender Identity) Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3

12 1 Freudian Personality Types 1.Erotic (Oral): Optimistic, Manipulative, Boastful, Gullible (easy to cheat) 2.Obsessive (Anal): Stingy, Stubborn, Orderly, Meticulous 3.Narcissistic (Phallic): Vain (ineffective), Brash, Courageous, Stylish 4.Detached (Genital): Democratic, Building systems, Linking with others, Situation-specific

13 1 Ego Defense Mechanisms The Ego has some tools to satisfy both the Id and the Superego, that help to defend the Ego., called ego defence mechanisms. Main defence mechanisms are: Denial: Displacement: Intellectualisation: Projection: Rationalisation: Reaction formation Regression Repression Sublimation Suppression

14 1 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Personality Types Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Personality Types Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.

15 1 MBTI Framework Aspects Source of Energy Extraversion (E) Introversion (I) Collecting Information Sensing (S) Intuiting (N) Decision Making Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Understanding the world Judging (J) Perceiving (P) Characteristics Outgoing: speaks, and then thinks. Relates more easily to the outer world of people and things than to the inner world of ideas. Reflective: thinks, and then speaks. Relates more easily to the inner world of ideas than to the outer world of people. Practical, concrete. Would work with known facts than look for possibilities and relationships. Theoretical, abstract. Would look for possibilities and relationships than work with known facts Analytical, head. Relates more on interpersonal analysis and logic than on personal values Subjective, heart. Relies more on personal values than on impersonal analysis and logic Structured, organized. Likes a planned and orderly way of life than a flexible spontaneous way Flexible, spontaneous. Likes a flexible, spontaneous way than a planned and orderly way of life.

16 1 Combination of Four Jungian Aspects for 16 Personality Types ISTJESTJINTJENTJ ISTPESTPINTPENTP ISFJESFJINFJENFJ ISFPESFPINFPENFP

17 1 LIFESTYLE APPROACHES 1.Type A Type B 2. Enlarging & Enfolding

18 1 Type A Type B Personality Types Type As 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type Bs 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.

19 1 Enlarging & Enfolding Personality Types Enlarging: associated with career/job success; goals of motivation; self-improvement/development; growth; non-traditional; moves to influential position; likely to read, attend theatre, keep up with current events; Enfolding: associated with less career/job success; goals of tradition; stability; inner strength; values parental ties, is not member of any social or community gp.; does not join any program for self- improvement/development

20 1 Regulates Nurtures Task Creativity Reacting Adjusting P A C TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS Ego states

21 1 Analysis or Interaction between two persons Transaction – Act of communication or Interaction between two persons A transaction starts with a stimulus and ends with a response to stimulus Berne identifies three types of transactions: Complementary, Crossed and Ulterior or Covert. Transactions

22 Complimentary Transactions(1) P A C P A P A C P A C Customer Sales Boss Subordinate C C. What is the price of the Boss. Our values are getting eroded watch? S. Rs.400 S. Yes. We are deteriorating every day.

23 1 P P P P C C C c A A A A S.Would you like to go to the Magic show? Boss. You are again late. Boss. Surely, lets go. S. I am sorry, Sir Complimentary Transactions (2)

24 1 Crossed Transactions P A C P A C P A C P A C Boss: Is the report ready? Staff: I want to discuss the resources to resources I need to complete the project. Staff: Do you think I have Boss: You are always no other work to do?. complaining

25 1 P A C P A C Sales: This shirt is rather expensive, especially tailored for exclusive tastes. Overt message (A A): Giving information. Covert message (A C): ` You can't buy this! Customer: I shall buy it. (C A) Ulterior Transaction (2)

26 1 Hollands Personality Types for Occupational Groups PERSONALIT JOB FIT THEORY

27 Personal Effectiveness Areas of Personal Effectiveness 1.Self-disclosure 2.Use of feedback 3.Perceptiveness

28 1 KNOWN TO SELF NOT KNOWN TO SELF KNOWN TO OTHERS A ARENA B BLIND NOT KNOWN TO OTHERS C CLOSED D DARK JOHARI WINDOW

29 1 Categories of Personal Effectiveness S. No. CategorySelf- disclosure Openness to feedback Perceptiveness 1EffectiveHigh 2InsensitiveHigh Low 3EgocentricHighLow 4DogmaticHighLowHigh 5SecretiveLowHigh 6Task obsessedLowHighLow 7Lonely-empathicLow High 8IneffectiveLow

30 1 Emotion is a neural impulse that moves an organism to action. Emotions

31 1 Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience Emotions

32 1 Emotion is a neural impulse that moves an organism to action. Emotions have three components: cognitive, physiological component, and conative or expressive. 1.Cognitive component includes the conscious experience of emotions, and the way we 'label' our emotions. 2.Physiological component includes emotional arousal. Different emotions have different arousals. For example, fear, anger, and sadness increase heart rate; anger raises blood pressure; embarrassment is shown in blushing. 3.Expressive component includes body language (gaze, gestures, posture, and walk). Emotions

33 1 Primary and Secondary Emotions Primary emotions are those that we feel first, as a first response to a situation, e.g. fear, anger, sadness, and happiness etc. Secondary emotions appear after primary emotions. They may be caused directly by themfor example, where the fear of a threat turns to anger that fuels the body for a fight reaction.

34 1 James-Lange theory Cannon-Bard theory Two-factor theory Theories of Emotion

35 1 Healthy emotional life requires us to learn how to experience emotion and how to express feelings. Experiencing and Expressing Feelings

36 1 Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide ones thinking and actions. It may be categorized into five domains: 1.Self-awareness 2.Managing emotions 3.Motivating oneself 4.Empathy 5.Handling relationships Emotional Intelligence


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