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8th Grade Comprehensive Review

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1 8th Grade Comprehensive Review
SCIENCE SCIENCE 2013

2 Overview Purpose: 8th grade standardized testing review for Science
Vocabulary: Find useful vocabulary here! Overview Purpose: 8th grade standardized testing review for Science (Can be used as enrichment or remediation for middle school levels) Contents: Concept vocabulary & practice exercises/ solutions. Vocabulary Recognition, Multiple Choice, Short Response Sources: Science Grade 8 Assessment Anchors & Eligible Content PDE Science Glossary PDE Overview of Science Assessment Anchors PDE SAS Assessment Creator Reinforcement: Created by: Jessie Minor

3 INSTRUCTIONS Please Begin!!! 
Science: Search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation. INSTRUCTIONS There are four categories tested; The Nature of Science, Biological Sciences, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences. Each category has subcategories that break down the concepts within the four tested categories. Most of the subcategories have vocabulary comparison sections, followed by multiple choice or short response exercises that are aligned with each of the Assessment Anchors for 8th grade Science. Navigate through the review as you would a regular PowerPoint slide show. Exercise answers will appear at the click of a mouse. You will also notice the friendly skeleton to the right blurting out helpful vocabulary words that relate to that particular section of the review. Please Begin!!!  Tool: Any device used to extend human capability including computer-based tools.

4 Technological design process: Recognizing the problem, proposing a solution, implementing the solution, evaluating the solution and communicating the problem, design and solution. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). Theory: Organized knowledge applicable in a wide variety of circumstances; especially, assumptions, accepted principles and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict and explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of events. Ask yourself… Can you distinguish between a scientific theory and an opinion? Did you know that even though a theory is supported by evidence, new experimentation and data can change an existing theory? Do you know how to use observations and experimental results to support your ideas and conclusions?

5 FACT vs. OPINION A truth known by actual experience or observation.
A belief or personal view which cannot give complete certainty.

6 Law: Summarizing statement of observed experimental facts that has been tested many times and is generally accepted as true. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). Rubber Band Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 A 3.7 cm 3.9 cm 3.4 cm 3.6 cm B 2.5 cm 2.7 cm 2.8 cm Regulation: A rule or order issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law. A lab group measured how far two rubber bands stretched when attached to 100-gram masses. Five measurements were made for each rubber band. What is the range or the data collected for rubber band B? 2.7cm 2.8cm 0.5cm 0.3cm

7 Inquiry: A seeking or request for truth, information, knowledge.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). A student predicts that similar ice cubes will melt faster in a microwave than in a pot on the stove. How should this hypothesis be tested? Measure & compare the volume of the pot & the microwave. Identify and record the temperature of each ice cube before each trail. Determine the volume of liquid water made by each ice cube. Observe & record the time for each ice cube to completely change to a liquid. The best scientific reason for a scientist to accept a specific theory is? because there can only be one correct theory to obtain funding for the research that research & observations support the theory to gain recognition as a great scientist Hypothesis: An educated guess that is usually testing by experimentation.

8 Number of Washes to Remove stain
Evidence: That which tends to disprove something; ground for belief, proof S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). Students tested three different types of laundry detergent to determine how effective they were at removing stains. The washing was done with the same washing machine set at the same water temperature. Each type of stain was on the same fabric & was the same size and shape. The students recorded the number of times the fabric had to be washed to completely remove each stain. The students had a null hypothesis: Detergents X, Y, & Z are equally effective at removing stains. Which conclusion is best supported by the data? Type of Stain Number of Washes to Remove stain Detergent X Detergent Y Detergent Z mud 1 ink 2 3 ketchup grass Observations: Acts or instances of watching, or noticing. Detergent X is more effective than both Y & Z at removing stains. Detergent Y is more effective than both X & Z at removing stains. Detergent X is more effective than Y at removing stains, but equal in effectiveness to Z. Detergent Z is more effective than X at removing stains, but equal in effectiveness to Y.

9 Prediction: The act of predicting; what is going to happen.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). In the design process, a trade-off occurs when a problem is solved but a feature is sacrificed. Which of the following is an example of a trade-off? A car’s gas mileage is increased & the engine has less power. An airplane uses a more efficient engine & has higher performance. A sports drink’s taste is improved and has the same nutritional content. A computer company upgrades the hardware and the price remains unchanged. Which question about the Allegheny river can best be answered through scientific inquiry? Will this river be a fun place to visit? How many species of fishes are present in this river? Will fishing be a popular sport on this river in five years? How much money should be spent to manage this river? Scenario: An imagined or projected sequence of events, especially plans or possibilities.

10 Integrated Pest Management: A variety of pest control methods that include repairs, traps, bait, poison, etc. to eliminate pests. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. Ask yourself… Did you know that environmental issues such as, pollution, vaccinations and pesticides have potential long-term health effects? Ever heard of Sir Isaac Newton, one of the most influential scientists, who formulated laws of motion? Are you aware of how many technological advancements the world of science has made within the last 100 years? Pest: A label applied to an organism when it is in competition with humans for some resource.

11 POINT NONPOINT SOURCE vs. SOURCE POLLUTION POLLUTION
Pollutants discharged from a single identifiable location (e.g., pipes, ditches, sewers, tunnels, containers of various types). Contamination that originates from many locations that all discharge into a location (e.g., a lake, stream, land area).

12 Manufacturing Technology: The ways that humans produce goods and products.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. Some species of bacteria produce a substance that is toxic to insects but harmless to humans. Scientists have isolated the gene that controls production of this substance. Which of the following is the best reason for inserting this gene into corn plants? The corn will grow faster. Less fertilizer will be needed. Fewer pesticides will be needed. The corn will be more nutritious. Which of the following best describes a result of using interchangeable parts to manufacture automobiles? The automobiles are identical. The automobiles wear out quickly. The automobiles are difficult to design. The automobiles can be produced on an assembly line. Instructional Technology: Any mechanical aid (including computer technology) used to assist in or enhance the process of teaching and learning.

13 Acid deposition: Precipitation with a pH less than 5
Acid deposition: Precipitation with a pH less than 5.6 that forms in the atmosphere when certain pollutants mix with water vapor. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. The machine pictured to the right is used in a factory to make metal parts for toy cars. What is the most likely purpose of this machine in making the metal parts? to sand the parts to make holes in the parts to fasten the parts together to measure the size of the parts Geologic hazard: A naturally occurring or man-made condition that presents a potential danger to life and property (e.g., landslides, floods, earthquakes, coastal & beach erosion, faulting, dam leakage , mining disasters, pollution, waste & disposal, sinkholes).

14 Technology Education: The application of tools, materials, processes and systems to solve problems and extend human capabilities. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. Company X makes 100 custom buses each year. Company Y makes 10,000 of one type of bus each year. Which of the following is the most likely reason a customer would buy a bus from company X? to keep the cost of the bus low to ensure that the bus will be easy to replace to provide ideas about how the bus will be built to ensure that people know how to drive the bus A stone arch bridge relies primarily on which of the following for its load strength? bending compression tension torsion Construction Technology: The ways that humans build structures on sites.

15 Succession: The series of changes that occur in an ecosystem with the passing of time.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.3 Identify and analyze evidence that certain variables may have caused in natural or human-made systems. Theory of Evolution: A theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modification in successive generations. Ask yourself… Do you realize how much time it actually takes for a fossil to form? Are you able to recognize the relative order of succession in an ecosystem? Does the theory of evolution stump your brain? Or does it make you wonder about previous life form?

16 Sustainability: The ability to keep in existence or maintain
Sustainability: The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.3 Identify and analyze evidence that certain variables may have caused in natural or human-made systems. The diagrams to the left show the plant communities present in the same area at different times over a 200-year period following a forest fire. What is the correct sequence of these plant communities following the forest fire? BADC BCDA BDCA BACD Scale: Relates concepts and ideas to one another by some measurement; provides a measure of size and/or incremental change.

17 Capacity: The maximum amount or number that can be received or contained.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.1 Reasoning and Analysis S8.A.1.3 Identify and analyze evidence that certain variables may have caused in natural or human-made systems. The diagrams below show changes in a natural community over a period of 200 years. Which process is illustrated in the diagrams? ozone depletion global warming recycling resources ecological succession Variable: A quantity or function that may assume any given value or set of values; capable of being changed.

18 Transportation systems: A group of related parts that function together to perform a major task in any form of transportation. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific Investigations S8.A.2.1 Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design in different contexts to made inferences to solve problems . Volume: the amount of space, measured by cubic units, that an object or substance can occupy Ask yourself… Can you identify the dependent and independent variables in a controlled experiment? Are you able to determine an object’s mass, density, volume, or temperature? Do you think about the operational process of a vehicle while you ride to school, or a plane while you fly to sunny Florida?

19 PHYSICAL vs. TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY
The ways that humans construct, manufacture and transport products. The physical ways humans move materials, goods and people.

20 DEPENDENT vs. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE VARIABLE
A variable (often shown by y) whose value depends on that of another. A variable (often shown by x) whose variation does not depend on that of another.

21 Controlled Experiment: A trial or experiment that uses control, usually separating the subjects into one or more control groups and experimental groups. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific Investigations S8.A.2.1 Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design in different contexts to made inferences to solve problems . A student experimented with different factors that affect melting rates of snow. The student divided a pile of snow into two identical containers. He then mixed dirt into the snow in one of the containers. A lighted bulb, which modeled energy from the sun, was placed directly above the two containers. After ten minutes, the amount of snow remaining in each container was measured. Which variable changed in this experiment? the size and shape of each container the length of time the light shines on each container the distance between the light bulb and each container the amount of dirt that is mixed in each container Manipulate: To manage or influence skillfully, especially in an unfair manner.

22 Mass, Volume, & Density Measurements of Substances
Conclusion: A result, issue or outcome; a reasoned inference. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific Investigations S8.A.2.1 Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design in different contexts to made inferences to solve problems . Use the given table to answer this question. Which conclusion is supported by the data in the table? By increasing the mass of a substance, its density will increase. By increasing the mass of a substance, its volume will increase. By increasing the volume of a substance, its mass will decrease. By increasing the volume of a substance, its density will decrease. Flaw: A defect impairing validity; fault. Mass, Volume, & Density Measurements of Substances Substance Mass (g) Volume (cm³) Density (g/cm³) copper 5.0 0.56 8.93 10.0 1.12 zinc 15.0 2.10 7.14 20.0 2.80 lead 25.0 2.20 11.36 30.0 2.64

23 Telescope: An instrument that allows the observation of remote objects by collecting visible light.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific Investigations S8.A.2.2 Apply appropriate instruments for a specific purpose and describe the information the instrument can provide. Seismograph: Any of series of instruments used to measure vibrations of earthquakes. Ask yourself… Did you know that our skin contains tiny bacteria that can only be seen by a microscope? Have you ever had the opportunity to see the moon through the lens of a magnified telescope? Would you use a scale or a stop watch to measure your body weight?

24 Use the diagram and steps to answer this question.
Microscope: An optical instrument having a magnifying lens or a combination of lenses for inspecting objects too small to be seen with the unaided eye. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific Investigations S8.A.2.2 Apply appropriate instruments for a specific purpose and describe the information the instrument can provide. Use the diagram and steps to answer this question. Using a Balance Which sequence shows the correct order to measure the mass of the box? 2, 1, 4, 3 2, 3, 4, 1 4, 1, 2, 3 4, 2, 3, 1 Steps—Out of Order Read the measurement. Place the box on the pan. Slide the riders until the pointer line up with the zero (0) line. “Zero” the balance. Balance: An instrument for determining weight, typically by the equilibrium of a bar with a fulcrum in the center.

25 Barometer: Any instrument that measures atmospheric pressure.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific Investigations This is a short open-ended (SOE) question. Answer parts A & B below about how a doctor uses microscopes. Describe one way microscopes are used to help doctors determine whether people are healthy. Describe one way a doctor’s job would be difficult if the doctor did not have a microscope as a tool for diagnosis. Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: The doctor can look for small things like bacteria. Cells can be examined closely by a doctor. Hydraulics: The science that deals with the laws of governing water or other liquids in motion or other liquids in motion and their applications in engineering. Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: The doctor might need to conduct more tests to help a person get better. A doctor’s ability to study diseases would be limited.

26 Trophic Levels: The role of an organism in nutrient and energy flow within an ecosystem (e.g., herbivore, carnivore, decomposer). S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. Homeostasis: The tendency for a system to remain in a state of equilibrium by resisting change. Ask yourself… Can you name the order of a living system from simplest to complex structures? Do you know some ways that systems achieve homeostasis? What are some ways to distinguish between a closed loop and an open loop system?

27 CLOSED vs. OPEN LOOP LOOP
A group of related objects that have feedback and can modify themselves (e.g., materials in the nitrogen & carbon cycles, closed-switch systems. A group of related objects that do not have feedback and cannot modify themselves (e.g., energy flow, food web).

28 Habitat: The natural environment of an organism.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. Populations living in one place form a community system habitat species Robert Hooke looked at a piece of cork under a microscope. The little boxes he saw in the cork are called– genes nuclei cells chromosomes Mitigation: The policy of constructing or creating man-made habitats, such as wetlands, to replace those lost to development. Which substance provides humans with their main source of energy? food carbon dioxide water chlorophyll

29 Closing the Loop: The link in the circular chain of recycling events that promotes the use of products made with recycled materials. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. Base your answers to the following questions on the table below, which compares human populations and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere over time. Human population & Carbon Dioxide Levels Year Human Population (billions) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Levels in the Atmosphere (parts per million) 1960 2.50 317 1970 2.75 325 1980 3.00 337 1990 5.00 342 Population: the total numbers of persons or organisms inhabiting an area. How have the size of the human population and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere changed from 1960 to 1990? The human population has increased while the amount of CO2 has decreased. The human population has decreased while the amount of CO2 has increased. Both the human population and the amount of CO2 have increased. Both the human population and the amount of CO2 have decreased.

30 Human-made System: Produced, formed, or made by humans.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. Base your answers to the following questions on the table below, which compares human populations and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere over time. Human population & Carbon Dioxide Levels Year Human Population (billions) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Levels in the Atmosphere (parts per million) 1960 2.50 317 1970 2.75 325 1980 3.00 337 1990 5.00 342 Feedback: Information derived by such a reaction or response. Which human activity might explain the change in carbon dioxide levels shown in the graph? storing nuclear waste collecting solar energy using wind energy burning fossil fuels

31 Model: A description, analogy or a representation of something that helps us understand it better (e.g., a physical model, a conceptual model, a mathematical model). S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.2 Apply knowledge of models to make predictions, draw inferences, or explain technological concepts. Engineering: The application of scientific, physical, mechanical and mathematical principles to design processes, products and structures that improve the quality of life. Ask yourself… Have you ever used a model to predict outcomes or solve a task? Did you know that engineering is one of the most intense and growing fields in the job market today? How many times have you recognized the cause and accepted the effect, or consequence, of not doing your science homework?

32 Diffusion: Dispersing, scattering, or spreading through a surface, such as dispersion of vapor in the air. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.2 Apply knowledge of models to make predictions, draw inferences, or explain technological concepts. What is the process that occurs in trees which helps reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? diffusion photosynthesis infiltration carbon gas conversion Which geometric shape is the most basic recurring element in the truss bridge? cube square trapezoid triangle Biomass Conversion: The changing of organic matter that has been produced by photosynthesis into useful liquid, gas, or fuel.

33 Photosynthesis: A complex process by which water and carbon dioxide are converted to carbohydrates by green plants, algae, and some bacteria, using energy from the sun and chlorophyll. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.2 Apply knowledge of models to make predictions, draw inferences, or explain technological concepts. Where is water most likely to become contaminated? Near a cattle farm By a dam At the ocean bottom In a forest Incinerating: Burning to ashes; reducing to ashes. The equation for photosynthesis is shown. Which of these is required to complete the equation for photosynthesis? Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen Carbon What gas do animals need to carry out life processes? Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen Helium

34 Patterns: Repeated processes that are exhibited in a wide variety of ways; identifiable recurrences of the element and/ or the form. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Electronic communication: System for the transmission of information using electronic technology (e.g., digital cameras, cellular telephones, Internet, television, fiber optics). Ask yourself… Did you know that the rings of a tree trunk represent the number of living years? Leaves have veins like humans, but if not blood, what runs through plant veins? How does your cell phone allow you to call your friends if it does not plug into the wall???

35 Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. A gardener performs an experiment growing three types of plants in equal amounts of soil. Three different types of plants are used. Each plant is 10 centimeters tall at the beginning of the experiment. The three plants are given 4 milliliters of water every day for 20 days. The results of the experiment are shown on the graph. Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

36 Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Which plant was the tallest at the end of the 20-day period? Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 All plants were the same height Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

37 Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Other than at the beginning of the experiment, on what day were plant 2 & plant 3 the same height? Day 5 Day 7 Day 15 Day 17 Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

38 Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Which plant grew at the slowest rate from Day 0 to Day 5? Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 All plants grew at the same rate Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

39 Delineate: To trace the outline; to draw; to sketch; to depict or picture.
S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Which sample contains particles in a rigid, fixed, geometric pattern? NH3 B. H2O C. KCl D. CO2 Dichotomous: Divided or dividing into parts or classifications.

40 Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to:
Camouflage: The act of deceiving an enemy. S8.A The Nature of Science S8.A.3 Systems, Models, and Patterns S8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. The diagram below shows two different-colored moths resting on a tree trunk. How is this difference in pattern and color affect the moths’ ability to survive in the environment? Biological Diversity: The variety and complexity of species present and interacting in an ecosystem and the relative abundance of each. Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: The dark moth’s pattern will help it hide from predators. The light moth’s color will allow its predators to see it better. The dark moth blends in with the tree and helps it hide. The dark moth’s color/ pattern provides camouflage.

41 Embryology: The branch of biology dealing with the development of living things from fertilized egg to its developed state. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of Organisms S8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Mitosis: The usual method of cell division, characterized by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into two separate chromosomes that go into each of the new cells resulting from the original cell. Ask yourself… Have you noticed that the prefix of a scientific term can tell a lot about the meaning of that term (e.g., uni-, poly-, multi-, non-,in-)? Can you name the various categories of organisms? Could you imagine not having a backbone?

42 UNICELLULAR vs. MULTICELLULAR
Consisting of a single cell. Composed of several or many cells.

43 VASCULAR vs. NONVASCULAR
Pertaining to, composed of, or provided with tissues or vessels that carry fluids. Containing no tissues or vessels to carry water, minerals, etc. (e.g., mosses, lichens, fungi).

44 VERTIBRATE vs. INVERTIBRATE
An animal possessing a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds and reptiles. An animal lacking a backbone, such as an arthropod or mollusk.

45 Shredder: Through chewing and/or grinding, microorganisms feed on non-woody coarse particulate matter, primarily leaves. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of Organisms S8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Which characteristic is used to classify frogs into a different phylum from squid, snails, and jellyfish? Frogs are predators. Frogs breathe oxygen. Frogs have backbones. Frogs live on land. The diagram below show a major system of the human body. Which of the following best describes the function of this system? absorbing nutrients from food protecting the body from infection exchanging gases with the environment responding to stimuli in the environment Meiosis: Part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjunction and two cell divisions. Chloroplasts are found only in organisms that are able to– grow to a larger size generate their own energy hunt for prey migrate to other ecosystems

46 Phylum: The primary subdivision of a taxonomic kingdom, grouping together all classes of organisms that have the same body plan. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of Organisms S8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Substances enter any plant or animal cell by passing through which of the following structures? nucleus cell membrane vacuole chloroplast Vacuole: A membrane bound cavity with the cytoplasm of a cell, often containing a watery liquid. How is this fish adapted for weedy areas in freshwater lakes? The upper fin of the fish looks like waves of water. The lower fins of the fish look like the legs of a turtle. The stripes of the fish look like plants in the water The front of the fish looks like the surface of a rock. Which factor has the least effect on a person’s metabolism? exercise intelligence hormones diet

47 Protista: A kingdom comprised of various one-celled organisms.
Amniotic Eggs: The sac in which the embryo is suspended; laid by reptiles, birds, and mammals. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of Organisms S8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Which statement most accurately describes a relationship between two animals in this relationship diagram? The turtle and opossum have amniotic eggs. The turtle and salamander have amniotic eggs. The turtle and opossum are warm-blooded. The turtle and salamander are warm-blooded. Protista: A kingdom comprised of various one-celled organisms.

48 Omnivorous: Eating both animal and plant foods.
Fungi: Comprising all the fungus groups and sometimes also the slime molds. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of Organisms S8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Omnivorous: Eating both animal and plant foods. Which two organisms above belong to the same kingdom? Acceptable response: bird and shark All plants and animals have mechanisms that transport nutrients perform photosynthesis regulate nerves produce flowers

49 Biotechnology: The ways that humans apply biological concepts to produce products and provide services. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.1 Explain the basic concept of natural selection. Endangered species: A species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Ask yourself… Have you heard of a genetically engineered fish with cattle growth genes?! Did you know that currently there are over 2,000 plant and animal endangered species in the world? Have you ever have to adapt to a new environment such as, a new school, town, or home? What kind of changes did you have to make?

50 Extinction: The complete elimination of a species from the earth.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.1 Explain the basic concept of natural selection. The vast variety of different traits found in humans results from intensive training and education sexual reproduction and mutations exercise and conditioning birth defects and recessive genes The fur of a snow rabbit changes to white during the winter. This change is an example of adaptation competition metamorphosis metabolism Selective Breeding: The intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait. If a species is no longer able to reproduce, it will adapt to its environment become immune to disease become extinct increase its population The effects of natural selection are generally seen most quickly in which organisms? bacteria corn plants humans cats

51 Biomedical technology: The application of health care theories to develop methods, products and tools to maintain or improve homeostasis. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.1 Explain the basic concept of natural selection. The eyes of the owl and the rabbit shown in the diagram below give each animal a different advantage. The front-facing owl eyes allow the bird to accurately judge distance when swooping in on prey. The side-facing rabbit eyes allow the animal to detect the motion of possible predators. The specialized eye types of these animals are examples of disruptions of the natural balance the interdependence of living things adaptations for survival under certain conditions involuntary responses to stimuli Natural Selection: The process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures such as, predators, food sources, changes in climate or mating competition.

52 Wing span: Measuring the length from the tip of one wing to the tip of the other wing of an organism that flies or has wings. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.1 Explain the basic concept of natural selection. A new variety of tomato plant is better tasting and can be stored longer than other tomato varieties. This new tomato is produced by placing additional gene segments into the cells of the tomato plant. This process is known as genetic engineering selective breeding natural selection sexual reproduction A scientist observed two populations of birds of the same species. One population lives in a warm climate, and the other population lives in a cold climate. The birds in the two populations look very different. The birds in the cold climate are larger than the birds in the warm climate and have smaller wingspans. Which statement explains why these two populations have different adaptations? Birds in warm climates fly more often than birds in cold climates. Birds in warm climates eat more food than birds in cold climates. Birds in cold climates need to grow more slowly than birds in warm climates. Birds in cold climates need to conserve more body heat than birds in warm climates. Genetic Engineering: The development and applications of scientific methods, procedures, and technologies that permit direct manipulation of genetic material in order to alter the hereditary traits of a cell, organism, or population.

53 Interdependent: Mutually dependent; depending or relying on each other.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.1 Explain the basic concept of natural selection. The diagram shows the beaks of five species of birds that developed over time from one parent species. The five species of birds can be found living in the same area. Which of the following best explains why the beak shape of each species of bird developed differently? Each beak shape helps the birds to produce different songs. Each beak shape is an adaptation to a specific food source. Each beak shape is designed to construct a different type of nest. Each beak shape helps protect the birds from a different predator. Stimuli: Something that excites an organism, or part of an organism, into functional activity.

54 ADAPTATIONS vs. MUTATIONS
The process in which an organism changes to become suitable to a new or special environment. When a gene is damaged or changed in such a way that alters the genetic message carried by that gene.

55 Allele: Any of a set of possible forms of a gene.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.2 Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. Gene: The basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the coded instructions which are translated and lead to the expression of hereditary character. Ask yourself… Do you have the same color hair or eyes as one or both of your parents? Why do you think you write with your left or right hand? Does mom or dad do the same? Did you know you could be carrying a gene for red hair, even though your hair is brown?

56 DOMINANT vs. RECESSIVE ALLELES ALLELES
The allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different. An allele that produces the same phenotype only when its paired allele is identical.

57 GENOTYPE vs PHENOTYPE The genetic make up of an organism referencing a single trait or set of traits. The appearance of an organism based on its interaction of its genotype and the environment.

58 INHERITED vs. ACQUIRED TRAITS TRAITS
A trait or character that was genetically passed down from generation to generation. A physical characteristic that is not inherited but may be an effect of the environment or of a mutation.

59 Breeding: To cause to reproduce by controlled pollination.
Impulse: The influence of a particular feeling, or mental state. S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.2 Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. All of these can be inherited by people EXCEPT– height eye color blood type language The cows in a rancher’s herd of cattle have been selectively bred to produce milk. Which of the following will cause the next generation of cows to receive the trait for producing large quantities of milk? nutrients in the cows’ food essential minerals in the cows’ water electrical impulses in the cows’ brains information in the cows’ chromosomes : Breeding: To cause to reproduce by controlled pollination. Which statement best describes a dominant gene? It is the gene that produces mutations. It is the gene that produces desirable traits. It is the gene that masks a recessive gene. It is the gene that is masked by a recessive gene.

60 Offspring: The children, young, or product of a particular parent, or result of something.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.2 Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. The diagram shows the offspring shows the offspring of a white mouse and a gray mouse. All of the offspring are gray. Which is a correct gene combination for the parents shown in the diagram? GG x GG gg x gg gg x GG Gg x Gg Reproduction: The natural process among organisms by which new individuals are created.

61 Offspring: The children, young, or product of a particular parent, or result of something.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.2 Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. The diagram shows the offspring shows the offspring of a white mouse and a gray mouse. All of the offspring are gray. If two gray (Gg) mice mated, what percent of their offspring would have pure white fur? 25% 50% 75% 100% Reproduction: The natural process among organisms by which new individuals are created.

62 Fertile: Bearing or capable of bearing offspring, crops, vegetation, abundantly.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.2 Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. Which example would result in new cells that are most different from parent cells? yeast cells splitting into new cells bacteria cells dividing into new cells skin cells dividing to produce more skin cells sperm and egg cells uniting to produce fertilized egg cells Which statement describes the pattern of inheritance that produces 100% red-flowered first-generation offspring? Red flowers are dominant and white flowers are recessive. Red flowers are recessive and white flowers are dominant. Both red flowers and white flowers are recessive. Both red flowers and white flowers are dominant. Dynamic Equilibrium: A state of balance achieved by two parties, forces or individuals. Which process gives rise to a variety of traits within a species? sexual reproduction dynamic equilibrium cellular respiration internal regulation

63 Gender: kind, sort, or class; one such class of a set.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.2 Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. Gender in humans is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes. A female has two X chromosomes and a male has one X and one Y chromosome. A recessive gene that causes color blindness is located on the X chromosome. When a male inherits this gene, he will be color-blind because the Y chromosome does not contain a gene for color blindness. In order for a female to be color-blind, she must inherit the recessive gene on both X chromosomes. If she has the gene on only one chromosome, she is not colorblind. She is called a carrier because she can pass this gene along to her offspring. The pedigree chart shows the children and grandchildren of a female carrier and a male who is not color-blind. How many children did the original parent have? Sex: Either the male or female division of a species, especially as differentiated with reference to the reproductive functions. 4

64 Gender: kind, sort, or class; one such class of a set.
S8.A Biological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of Life S8.B.2.2 Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. Gender in humans is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes. A female has two X chromosomes and a male has one X and one Y chromosome. A recessive gene that causes color blindness is located on the X chromosome. When a male inherits this gene, he will be color-blind because the Y chromosome does not contain a gene for color blindness. In order for a female to be color-blind, she must inherit the recessive gene on both X chromosomes. If she has the gene on only one chromosome, she is not colorblind. She is called a carrier because she can pass this gene along to her offspring. The pedigree chart shows the children and grandchildren of a female carrier and a male who is not color-blind. What is the total number of children and grandchildren who are color-blind in this family? Sex: Either the male or female division of a species, especially as differentiated with reference to the reproductive functions. 2

65 Biome: A community of living organisms of a single major ecological region.
S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.1 Explain the relationships among and between organisms in different ecosystems Niche (ecological): The role played by an organism in an ecosystem; its food preferences, requirements for shelter, special behaviors and the timing of its activities (e.g., nocturnal, diurnal), interaction with other organisms and its habitat. Ask yourself… Humans take part in several different food chains, what type of foods make up your food chain? Are there any special geological features such as streams or large rock forms in the town which you reside? Can you think of some organisms that will decompose other organisms or materials?

66 An environmental factor related to or produced by living organisms.
ABIOTIC vs BIOTIC A nonliving factor or element (e.g., light, water, heat, rock, energy, mineral.) An environmental factor related to or produced by living organisms.

67 PRODUCER vs CONSUMER An organism that serves as a food source for other organisms in a food chain. Those organisms that obtain energy by feeding on other organisms and their remains.

68 PREDATOR vs PREY An organism that lives by capturing and eating other organisms. An organism hunted or seized for food.

69 Deciduous: Shedding the leaves annually, as certain trees and shrubs.
S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.1 Explain the relationships among and between organisms in different ecosystems Competition is most likely to occur between which two organisms? deer and butterflies owls and bacteria goldfish and rabbits grass and strawberry plants For separate ecosystems to be classified as the same type of biome, they must– have deciduous forests be located along the equator have similar organisms and climates be at least one hundred square meters in area Microbe: A microorganism, especially a pathogenic bacterium. Most of the bacteria in a forest ecosystem are best classified as which of the following type of organisms? consumers decomposers predators producers

70 Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Ecosystem: A community of living organisms and their interrelated physical and chemical environment. S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.1 Explain the relationships among and between organisms in different ecosystems Base your answer on the food web and on your knowledge of science. Identify the producer in this food web. ________________________________ Explain why mice are classified as omnivores in this food web. Decomposer: An organism, often microscopic in size, that obtains nutrients by consuming dead organic matter, thereby making nutrients accessible to other organisms; examples of decomposers include fungi, scavengers, rodents and other animals. grass Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: Mice eat both plants and animals. Mice eat both grass and crickets.

71 Ecosystem: A community of living organisms and their interrelated physical and chemical environment.
S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.1 Explain the relationships among and between organisms in different ecosystems Letters A, B, C, and D represent different energy levels in the energy pyramid below. Identify one organism labeled in the food web that could be placed on the energy pyramid at level B. ________________________________ Decomposer: An organism, often microscopic in size, that obtains nutrients by consuming dead organic matter, thereby making nutrients accessible to other organisms; examples of decomposers include fungi, scavengers, rodents and other animals. crickets or mice

72 Food Chain: A series or organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc. S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.1 Explain the relationships among and between organisms in different ecosystems Some microorganisms cause human disease. Other microorganisms are used in making cheese, yogurt, and bread. Based on this information, the relationship between humans and microorganisms can be beneficial, only harmful, only beneficial or harmful Food Web: A series of organisms related by predator-prey and consumer-resource interactions; the entirety of interrelated food chains in an ecological community.

73 Biological diversity: The variety and complexity of species present and interacting in an ecosystem and the relative abundance of each. S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.2 Identify evidence of change to infer and explain the ways different variables may affect change in natural or human-made systems. Equilibrium: The ability of an ecosystem to maintain stability among its biological resources (e.g., forest, fisheries, crops) so that there is a steady optimum yield. Ask yourself… Can you recall which natural disasters have taken place in the United States that had a major impact on the population of a specific area? Did you ever wonder why most birds, and possibly even your grandmother, move south for the winter? Two words: SUNNY BEACHES! What are some reasons why forests are depleting, and how can deforestation be stopped?

74 Deforestation: To divest or clear the forest of trees.
S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.2 Identify evidence of change to infer and explain the ways different variables may affect change in natural or human-made systems. The table below shows the symptoms of some diseases that are caused by bacteria. Which two diseases listed in the table affect the digestive system? botulism and typhoid fever botulism and pneumonia tetanus and pneumonia tetanus and typhoid fever Disease Symptoms botulism vomiting, abdominal pain, coughing, muscular weakness, visual disturbance pneumonia inflammation of lungs, fever, shortness of breath, fluid in lungs typhoid fever red rashes, high fever, intestinal bleeding tetanus uncontrolled contractions of voluntary muscles Invasive species: A species which enters and begins to reside in an unfamiliar environment or community.

75 This is a Short Open-Ended (SOE) question.
Hibernation: To spend the winter season in closed quarters in a dormant condition, as bears and certain other animals. S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.2 Identify evidence of change to infer and explain the ways different variables may affect change in natural or human-made systems. This is a Short Open-Ended (SOE) question. A gardener wanted two plant species in his house to flower at the same time. He read that light is one factor that can affect whether plants produce flowers. The gardener designed an experiment to determine the effect of light on his two plant species (X and Y). He placed three plants of each species in separate rooms. Each plant was exposed to periods of light and dark. Some plants received an additional 15 minutes of light at the same time during the dark period. The results of the gardener’s experiment are shown in the table: Identify the plant species that needs long nights to flower and the plant species that needs short nights to flower. Explain your answers. Explain why 15 minutes of light helped on of the plants to produce flowers. Ecological Integrity: Determines how species-rich and ecosystem is and how well it functions. Species Plant Number of Hours Receives 15 minutes of light during dark period? Produces Flowers? In Light In Dark X 1 14 10 no yes 2 3 Y 4 5 6

76 Hibernation: To spend the winter season in closed quarters in a dormant condition, as bears and certain other animals. S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.2 Identify evidence of change to infer and explain the ways different variables may affect change in natural or human-made systems. This is a Short Open-Ended (SOE) question. A. Identify the plant species that needs long nights to flower and the plant species that needs short nights to flower. Explain your answers. Species Plant Number of Hours Receives 15 minutes of light during dark period? Produces Flowers? In Light In Dark X 1 14 10 no yes 2 3 Y 4 5 6 Ecological Integrity: Determines how species-rich and ecosystem is and how well it functions. An acceptable response includes, but is not limited to: Plant species X is a short-night flowering plant because it produces flowers when the number of hours of darkness is less than the number of hours of light or when a long length of darkness is shortened by the 15 minutes of extra light. Plant species Y is a long-night flowering plant, because it produces flowers when the number of hours of darkness is more than the number of hours of light.

77 Hibernation: To spend the winter season in closed quarters in a dormant condition, as bears and certain other animals. S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.2 Identify evidence of change to infer and explain the ways different variables may affect change in natural or human-made systems. This is a Short Open-Ended (SOE) question. B. Explain why 15 minutes of light helped on of the plants to produce flowers. Species Plant Number of Hours Receives 15 minutes of light during dark period? Produces Flowers? In Light In Dark X 1 14 10 no yes 2 3 Y 4 5 6 Ecological Integrity: Determines how species-rich and ecosystem is and how well it functions. An acceptable response includes, but is not limited to: The extra light shortened the length of darkness for the plant that is a short-night flowering plant.

78 Composting: The process of mixing decaying leaves, manure and other nutritive matter to improve and fertilize soil. S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.3 Explain how renewable and non-renewable resources provide for human needs or how these needs impact the environment. Hazardous waste: A solid that, because of its quantity, concentration or its physical, chemical or infectious characteristics, may cause or pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, or transported. Ask yourself… Have you located the nearest recycling center in your town? If so, where is that location and how often do you pay a quick visit to recycle your household materials? Did you know that some ‘scrap’ or left over food from dinner can make an excellent source of fertilizer for your garden if properly composted? How long do you think we will be able to put our trash in buried land fills? What are some alternatives?

79 Recycling: To treat or process (used or waste materials) so as to make suitable for reuse.
S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.3 Explain how renewable and non-renewable resources provide for human needs or how these needs impact the environment. The drawing below shows a woodpecker using its long, sharp beak to obtain insects. What factor might contribute to the extinction of this species of woodpecker? a new source of food an overabundance of trees the use of pesticides in the forest an increase in the population of insects Which statement describes how recycling aluminum cans positively affects the environment? Recycling uses energy. Recycling makes solid waste. Recycling conserves mineral resources. Recycling produces air pollution. Waste Stream: The flow of (waste) materials from generation, collection and separation to disposal. Which of the following is a nonrenewable energy source? Fossil Fuel Solar collector Wind turbine Hydroelectric generator

80 Herbicides: A substance or preparation for killing plants, especially weeds.
S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.3 Explain how renewable and non-renewable resources provide for human needs or how these needs impact the environment. A small lake has an algae bloom, and the water is very green. Which change is most likely the cause of the algae growth? an increase in the amount of fertilizer used near the lake an increase in the amount of fresh water flowering into the lake an increase in the number of people fishing in the lake and increase in the number of boats using the lake Which statement correctly describes an energy source and its effect on the environment? Fossil fuel, which comes from a continuously renewable resource, generates greenhouse gases. Solar power, which comes from a continuously renewable resource, generates greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy, which comes from a nonrenewable resource, generates dangerous waste. Hydroelectric power, which comes from a nonrenewable resource, generates dangerous waste. Biogenetics: Another term for genetic engineering.

81 Refuge: Shelter or protection from danger, trouble.
S8.B Biological Sciences S8.B.3 Ecological Behavior and Systems S8.B.3.3 Explain how renewable and non-renewable resources provide for human needs or how these needs impact the environment. This is a short open-ended (SOE) question. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska is over 19 million acres of land. Its unique habitat supports at least 45 species of land and marine animals, 36 species of fish, and 180 species of birds. Some people want to drill for oil in parts of the refuge. Scientists estimate that the total amount of recoverable oil in the refuge is between 5 and 16 billion barrels. Describe an environmental problem that could be caused by drilling for oil in Alaska. Describe a regional benefit of drilling for oil in Alaska. Marine Animals: Species that dwell in the sea or ocean. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: If oil is spilled, it can kill plants and animals for a long time. Oil can pollute the environment and harm many animals. An acceptable response includes, but is not limited to: Drilling for roil will create jobs and increase income.

82 Density: Mass per unit of volume; the state or quality of being dense; compactness. The density of water is approx. 1.00g/cm³. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. Enzyme: A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst. Ask yourself… If the average cruise ship weighs around 100,000 TONS, how in the world is it able to float in water??? At which temperature does it take to boil a pot of eggs? Do you know how to tell the difference between a physical and a chemical change?

83 FREEZING POINT vs. MELTING POINT
The temperature at which a liquid freezes, releasing heat, and becomes a solid. The temperature at which a solid, given heat, returns to liquid form.

84 PHYSICAL vs. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PROPERTIES
Observable or measureable characteristics that do not change the composition of the substance or object. Undergoing a reaction or change that alters the chemical composition of a substance or object.

85 REACTANTS vs PRODUCTS Any substance participating in a chemical reaction. Any result of a chemical change or reaction.

86 COMPOUND vs MIXTURE Proportionally mixing substances with no ability to physically separate or obtain original characteristics . Substances are combined but do not lose individual characteristics and can be separated by physical means.

87 EVAPORATION vs. CONDENSATION
Changing from a liquid to a gaseous state of matter. Changing from a gaseous to a liquid state of matter.

88 FREEZING vs MELTING Changing from a liquid to a solid state of matter. Changing from a solid to a liquid state of matter.

89 SUBLIMATION vs. DEPOSITION
Changing from a solid to a gaseous state of matter. Changing from a gaseous to a solid state of matter.

90 Radioactive isotope: An atom that gives off nuclear radiation and has the same number of protons (atomic number) as another atom but a different number of neutrons. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. The diagram shows a rock being placed in a graduated cylinder containing water. What is the volume of the rock? Note: 1mL = 1cm³. _________________________________ Element: One of a class of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. Arranged on the Periodic Table of Elements. Volume = 10cm³

91 Newton: The SI unit of force, that produces an acceleration of one meter per second per second on a mass of one kilogram. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. Which is an SI metric unit of measurement that is used to record the heat transfer of a solution in a classroom investigation? Degree Celsius Liter Newton Volt A student is given a mixture of 200 plastic beads that all look alike. Each bead is made from one of two types of plastic: plastic X or plastic Y. Which statement describes what will happen when the mixture of beads is placed in water? Both kinds of plastic beads will float in the water. Both kinds of plastic beads will sink in the water. Plastic X beads will float and plastic Y beads will sink. Plastic X beads will sink and plastic Y beads will float. Streak Test: Also called powder color, is a test performed on a mineral by dragging a sample across an unweathered surface revealing a color. Substance Plastic X Plastic Y water Density (g/cm³) 1.38 0.90 1.00

92 Volt: The SI unit of potential difference and electromotive force, formally defined to be the difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor carrying constant current. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. According to this equation, what happened to the carbon and oxygen? They combined chemically to form carbon and oxygen. They combined chemically to form a new compound. They combined physically to form a new element. They combined physically to form a new mixture. A student makes a drawing of a carbon atom. Which of these should the student show in the nucleus of an atom? Ions Protons Electrons Molecules Ion: One of the electrically charged particles formed in a gas by electric discharge or a similar instance. Which of these substances is an element? Steel Chlorine Plastic Sugar

93 Number of Atoms per Molecule
Molecule: The smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. The table below shows the number of each kind of atom that makes up one molecule of the compounds sucrose and ethanol. Which of the following is the same for both compounds? the mass of each molecule the length of each molecule the types of atoms in each molecule the number of atoms in each molecule What is the smallest unit of a chemical compound that still has the properties of that compound? a nucleus a molecule an element an atom Desalinization: To remove salts and other chemicals from sea or saline water. Compound Number of Atoms per Molecule Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen sucrose 12 11 22 ethanol 2 1 6 Which of the following is an example of a container that is filled with a pure substance rather than with a mixture? a tire filled with air a jar filled with salt water a balloon filled with helium a glass filled with chocolate milk

94 Reflection: An image; representation; counterpart.
S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. A chemical property of a mineral is evident if the mineral breaks easily when struck with a hammer bubbles when acid is placed on it is easily scratched by a fingernail reflects light from its surface Water Vapor: H2O in the gaseous state. Time (minutes) Mass of Block of Ice (grams) 15 30 45 60 800 750 700 650 600 This data table shows the mass of an 800-gram block of ice. If the current rate of melting continues, how many more minutes will be required for the 600-gram block of ice to reach a mass of 400 grams? 15 B. 30 C D. 60

95 Thermal Expansion: When an object is heated and its size becomes proportionally larger to its original size (expand). S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. Contraction: When an object is cooled and its size becomes proportionally smaller to its original size (shrink, compress) . The diagrams show liquid water changing to water vapor in four different situations. Which observation would be evidence that the water is undergoing a phase change? Waves form on the top of the pond. Water soaks into the wet sand. The water splashes out of the swimming pool. The water level in the glass of water decreases.

96 Thermal Expansion: When an object is heated and its size becomes proportionally larger to its original size (expand). S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.1 Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy S8.C.1.1 Explain concepts about the structure and properties (physical and chemical) of matter. Contraction: When an object is cooled and its size becomes proportionally smaller to its original size (shrink, compress) . The diagrams show liquid water changing to water vapor in four different situations. How is heat energy transferred within the liquid water in the pond? compound formation convection currents chemical reactions nuclear reactions

97 Radiation: The process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves and absorbed by another object. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.2 Forms, Sources, Conversion, and Transfer of Energy S8.C.2.1 Describe energy sources, transfer of energy, or conversion of energy. Energy: An exertion of an adequate amount of power. Ask yourself… Did you know that you are using some form of energy every minute of the day? Can you name some types of renewable and nonrenewable resources? How is energy transferred from one place to another?

98 CONDUCTION vs. CONVECTION
Heat transfer by means of molecular agitation within a material without actually moving the material as a whole. Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one area to another; fluid motion caused by an external force.

99 RENEWABLE vs. NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES RESOURCES
A naturally occurring raw material or form of energy that will be replenished through natural ecological cycles or monitored management practices (e.g., the sun, wind, water, trees). Substances (e.g., oil, gas, coal, copper, gold) that, once used, cannot be replaced in this geological age.

100 Watt: The SI unit of power, equivalent to one joule per second and equal to the power in a circuit in which a current of one ampere flows across a potential difference of one volt. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.2 Forms, Sources, Conversion, and Transfer of Energy S8.C.2.1 Describe energy sources, transfer of energy, or conversion of energy. The energy obtained from food is measured in units called watts Calories degrees pounds The pie chart compares amounts of energy used in the United States each year. Which two energy sources together provide more than 50% of the energy needs of the United States? nuclear and natural gas hydropower and oil oil and coal natural gas and coal Geothermal: Of or pertaining to the internal heat of the Earth. Fats are important nutrients because they provide genetic information contain stored energy are used in photosynthesis maintain bone density

101 Nuclear: Operated or powered by atomic energy.
S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.2 Forms, Sources, Conversion, and Transfer of Energy S8.C.2.1 Describe energy sources, transfer of energy, or conversion of energy. A television set changes electrical energy to sound and light energy. In this process, some energy is created destroyed changed to matter changed to heat Which energy transformation is best shown in this diagram? heat to mechanical mechanical to light sound to heat heat to sound Transformation: Change in form, nature, appearance, or character. Which block will increase in temperature most rapidly? block 1 block 2 block 3 block 4

102 Absorption: A taking in or reception of substances by tissues or chemical or molecular action, as of gases, liquids, or nutrients. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.2 Forms, Sources, Conversion, and Transfer of Energy S8.C.2.1 Describe energy sources, transfer of energy, or conversion of energy. The diagram below shows a boy observing a fish located at position B below the surface of the water. The boy sees the fish at position A. The apparent position of the fish is different from the actual position of the fish. What has happened to the light passing through the water to cause this difference? reflection absorption compression refraction Adsorption: To gather (a gas, liquid, or other dissolved substance) on a surface in a condense layer.

103 Compression: Usually the result of being cooled; condensed to smaller size by some force.
S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.2 Forms, Sources, Conversion, and Transfer of Energy S8.C.2.1 Describe energy sources, transfer of energy, or conversion of energy. The picture shows a radiometer. It is designed to be placed in a sunny window. One side of each thin blade of the radiometer is painted black, and the other side is painted white. The Sun’s rays strike the blades, and the device begins to spin. The device is powered by which kind of energy? Electrical Geothermal Wind Solar Which energy transformation occurs first in a coal-burning power plant? Thermal energy to electrical energy Chemical energy to thermal energy Thermal energy to mechanical energy Mechanical energy to electrical energy Expansion: Usually the result of being heated.

104 Alternative Fuels: A fuel other than gasoline or diesel for powering motor vehicles, often with improved energy efficiency and pollution reduction features. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.2 Forms, Sources, Conversion, and Transfer of Energy S8.C.2.2 Compare the environmental impact of different energy sources chosen to support human endeavors. Fossil Fuels: Any combustible organic material, as oil, coal, or natural gas, derived from the remains of former life. Ask yourself… Why is the Sun so important to Earth and its life forms? What type of materials can be used to make an alternative fuel source? Which type of fuel takes longer to replenish or renew, fossil fuels or alternative fuel sources?

105 Conservation: Prevention of injury, decay, waste, loss.
S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.2 Forms, Sources, Conversion, and Transfer of Energy S8.C.2.2 Compare the environmental impact of different energy sources chosen to support human endeavors. Which energy source can be described as having the greatest impact on Earth’s living environments? moving air moving water the Sun geothermal Which factor contributes to global warming? increased use of solar-powered cars increased burning of fossil fuels better long-term weather forecasts changing distance between Earth and the Sun Preservation: To keep alive or in existence. Which energy resource is renewable? fuel oil natural gas wind coal

106 Gravity: The force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward the center of the earth. Force: Strength or power exerted upon an object. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.3 Principles of Motion and Force S8.C.3.1 Describe the effect of multiple forces on the movement, speed, or direction of an object. Ergonomical: Of or relating to the design of equipment or devices to fit the human body’s control, position, movement and environment. Ask yourself… Can you name all six basic forms of simple machines? What do the letters stand for in Newton’s 1st Law of Motion formula, F=MA? What is friction?

107 KINETIC vs. POTENTIAL ENERGY ENERGY
Energy from a body or object that results from its motion. Energy an object can store as a result of its position.

108 BALANCED vs. UNBALANCED FORCES FORCES
Two forces having equal magnitude in opposite direction; equilibrium. Unequal forces in opposite directions, causing acceleration; not in equilibrium.

109 Newton’s 1st Law of Motion: An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and direction, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. (Law of Inertia) S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.3 Principles of Motion and Force S8.C.3.1 Describe the effect of multiple forces on the movement, speed, or direction of an object. Which of the following is an example of potential energy? A flag waving in the wind A ball rolling along a sidewalk A glass jar sitting on a shelf A battery powering a radio Which of the following is an example of static electricity? A magnet sticks to a refrigerator door made of metal. A dry-cell battery connected to wires lights up a light bulb. A balloon sticks to a wall after it is rubbed with a piece of wool. A light switch that is turned on runs a ceiling fan. Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction of the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. (F = m · a) The gravitational force between the Moon and Earth depends on their masses, only their diameters, only their masses and how far apart they are their diameters and how far apart they are

110 Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.3 Principles of Motion and Force S8.C.3.1 Describe the effect of multiple forces on the movement, speed, or direction of an object. Force: A is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object’s interaction with another object. The diagram above shows two dogs pulling on a rope with constant but unequal forces. In which compass direction will both dogs most likely move? East West North South

111 Friction: Surface resistance to relative motion, as of a body sliding or rolling.
S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.3 Principles of Motion and Force S8.C.3.1 Describe the effect of multiple forces on the movement, speed, or direction of an object. An object is lifted in to the air and dropped. Which statement best describes the object’s energy as it falls through the air from the stationary position at height X? At height X, the energy is potential, which changes to kinetic as the object falls. At height X, the energy is kinetic, which changes to potential as the object falls. At height X, the energy is potential and kinetic, and the object loses potential energy as it falls. At height X, the energy is potential and kinetic, and the object loses kinetic energy as it falls. Acceleration: The time rate of change of velocity with respect to magnitude or direction.

112 An acceptable answer includes, but is not limited to:
Physics: The science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.3 Principles of Motion and Force S8.C.3.1 Describe the effect of multiple forces on the movement, speed, or direction of an object. This is a short open-ended (SOE) question. Inclined Plane: One of the simple machines, a plane surface inclined to the horizon. A worker needs to move a box of heavy equipment from the ground to a platform 2 meters high. Rather than lift the box, the worker can use on of two ramps. Ramp X is 7 meters long and ramp Y is 3 meters long. Why would a worker use a ramp rather than lift the box? An acceptable answer includes, but is not limited to: A ramp requires less force to move the box. Therefore, it is easier for the worker to move the box.

113 An acceptable answer includes, but is not limited to:
Physics: The science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force. S8.C Physical Sciences S8.C.3 Principles of Motion and Force S8.C.3.1 Describe the effect of multiple forces on the movement, speed, or direction of an object. This is a short open-ended (SOE) question. Inclined Plane: One of the simple machines, a plane surface inclined to the horizon. A worker needs to move a box of heavy equipment from the ground to a platform 2 meters high. Rather than lift the box, the worker can use on of two ramps. Ramp X is 7 meters long and ramp Y is 3 meters long. B. Choose either ramp X (7 meters long) or ramp Y (3 meters long) and explain the benefits of using that ramp instead of the other ramp. An acceptable answer includes, but is not limited to: Ramp X would be best because it requires less force to move the box up this ramp. If you increase the distance of the ramp, you decrease the amount of force needed to move it. I would use ramp X, (7 meters long), because it is longer, therefore, takes less effort to go across/ up. The other ramp is too steep and requires more effort.

114 Sedimentation: The deposition or accumulation of mineral or organic matter by water, air, or ice.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources. Permeability: The capability for a porous rock or sediment to permit the flow of fluids through its pore spaces. Ask yourself… Did you know our skin is very similar to a rock’s surface? What natural processes can you think of that potentially cause some type of change to Earth’s surface? How do fossils provide evidence about plants and animals that once lived in this area?

115 GEOLOGICAL vs. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP MAP
A representation of a region on which earth information is recorded (e.g., mineral deposits, fossil localities, etc.). A representation of the position, relation, size, shape and elevation of the region.

116 LOCAL vs. REGIONAL vs. GLOBAL
Confined to a particular place or district; restricted. Including a whole area, not just a locality. Relating to or including the whole earth; worldwide.

117 IGNEOUS vs. METAMORPHIC vs. SEDIMENTARY
Granite Basalt Obsidian Pumice Slate Quartzite Marble Gneiss Limestone Sandstone Shale Coal

118 Porosity: The state or quality of being porous.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources. The cross section below shows sedimentary rock layers containing fossils. Assuming that these rock layers have not been overturned, which fossil is in the lay that was formed most recent? Landslide: The downward falling or sliding of a mass of soil or rock on or from a steep slope.

119 Loam: A rich soil containing a relatively equal mixture of sand, silt, and a somewhat smaller portion of clay. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources. The Appalachian Mountains, which extend from Canada to Alabama, were much taller in the past than they are today. Which of the following two processes are most responsible for the decrease in the height of the Appalachian Mountains? weathering and erosion sedimentation and flooding volcanic eruptions and landslides tectonic collisions and earthquakes The diagram below shows four layers of Earth. Each layer is identified by a number. Which layer of Earth is composed primarily of solid iron? layer 1 layer 2 layer 3 layer 4 Loess: A loamy deposit formed by wind, usually yellowish, common in the Mississippi Valley and in Europe and Asia.

120 Geologic Timeline for a Location in Pennsylvania
Erosion: The process by which the surface of the earth is worn away by the action of water, glaciers, winds, waves, etc. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources. Geologic Timeline for a Location in Pennsylvania The diagram shows a geologic timeline and information about two types of organisms that formed fossils. Based on the timeline, which statement is correct? The ferns adapted quickly to a different habitat. The environment became more suitable for snails. The consumers in the area ate more snails than ferns. The snails were protected from predators by their shells. Weathering: The various mechanical and chemical processes that cause exposed rock to decompose.

121 Humus: The dark organic material in soils, produced by the decomposition of animal or vegetable matter and essential to the fertility of the earth. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources. The density of Earth’s crust is less than the density of the outer core but greater than the density of the mantle greater than the density of the outer core but less than the density of the mantle less than the density of both the outer core and the mantle greater than the density of both the outer core and the mantle Which group of organisms, some of which were preserved as fossils in early Paleozoic rocks, are still in existence today? brachiopods eurypterids graptolites trilobites Eurypterids: Any aquatic arthropod of the extinct order Eurypterida, from the Paleozoic Era, closely related to trilobites and scorpions.

122 Graptolites: Any colonial animal of the extinct class Graptolithina, most common in the Ordovician and Silurian Periods, thought to be related to the pterobranchs. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources. In which type of rock are fossils generally found? Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary volcanic Weathering and erosion of Earth’s crust are primarily caused by gravity volcanic activity evaporation sedimentation Trilobites: Any marine arthropod of the extinct class Trilobita, from the Paleozoic Era, having a flattened, oval body varying in length from 1 inch or less to 2 feet. Evidence that living things have evolved over hundreds of millions of years can be found in particles in the air rocks containing fossils tree rings from recently logged trees chemicals in human hair Which statement is true of all rocks? Rocks contain organic material. Rocks contain fossils. Rocks are composed of minerals. Rocks are formed in layers.

123 Transformation process: Using resources to convert inputs, (raw material, customer, finished product from another system) into some desired output. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.2 Describe the potential impact of human-made processes on changes to Earth’s everyday life. Fertilizer: Any substance, such as chemical manure or a mixture of nitrates, added to soil or water to increase productivity Ask yourself… What steps are involved in the making to selling process of a tube of toothpaste before you bring it home? Why does the transportation department have to perform construction on roadways after every winter? How do local farms pose potential danger to the environment around them?

124 Toxicity: The quality, relative degree of being toxic or poisonous.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.2 Describe the potential impact of human-made processes on changes to Earth’s everyday life. Pesticide: A chemical preparation for destroying plant, fungal, or animal pests. The diagram shows some ways in which groundwater can be affected by humans. Which statement is best supported by the diagram? Chemicals applied by farmers lower the level of pollution in drinking water. Drinking water can become polluted from unsuspected sources. Human activities do not affect groundwater. Toxic waste is safer if buried below the level of the basements of nearby homes.

125 Propaganda: Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.2 Describe the potential impact of human-made processes on changes to Earth’s everyday life. Which process involves manufacturing a large number of goods by using an assembly line? mass production mining investment irrigation Irrigation: The artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.

126 Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Fiber: A fine, thread-like piece, as of cotton, jute, or asbestos. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.2 Describe the potential impact of human-made processes on changes to Earth’s everyday life. Asbestos Asbestos is a general name given to the fibrous varieties of six naturally occurring minerals used in commercial products. Most asbestos minerals are no longer mined due to the discovery during the 1970s that long-term exposure to high concentrations of their long, stiff fibers leads to health problems. Workers who produce or handle asbestos products are most at risk, since inhaling high concentrations of airborne fibers allows the asbestos particles to become trapped in the workers' lungs. Chrysotile is a variety of asbestos that is still mined because it has short, soft, flexible fibers that do not pose the same health threat. State one reason for the decline in global asbestos use after 1980. Concentration: The strength of a solution, especially the amount of dissolved substance in a given volume of solvent. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: The dangers of asbestos fibers were realized. Concern over the health risk of asbestos resulted in less use. Exposure to high concentrations of asbestos leads to health problems.

127 Hydrology: The scientific study of the properties, distribution and effects of water on the earth’s surface, in the soil and underlying rocks and in the atmosphere. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.3 Describe characteristic features of Earth’s water systems or their impact on resources. Groundwater: Water that infiltrates the soil and is located in underground reservoirs called aquifers. Ask yourself… What type of plants and animals live in freshwater areas? How about saltwater areas? What is the purpose of a reservoir? When an orange coloration is found in a stream, what is usually present?

128 FRESHWATER vs. SALTWATER
Usually inland, bodies of water NOT containing salt. Salty water, usually associated with an ocean or sea.

129 LENTIC vs. LOTIC Relating to or living in still water.
Relating to or living in actively moving water.

130 WATERSHEDS & WETLANDS The land area from which surface runoff drains into a stream, channel, lake, reservoir or other body of water; also called a drainage basin. Lands where water saturation is the dominant factor determining the nature of the soil development and the plant and animal communities (e.g., sloughs, estuaries, marshes)..

131 PRECIPITATION & TRANSPIRATION
A deposit of rain, sleet, snow, etc. Giving off moisture through the pores of the skin or through the surface of leaves and/ or other parts of plants.

132 Runoff: Rain in the excess of the amount absorbed by the ground.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.3 Describe characteristic features of Earth’s water systems or their impact on resources. During a dry summer, the flow of most New York State streams generally continues because some groundwater seeps into the streams increases due to greater surface runoff remains unchanged due to transpiration from grasses, shrubs, and trees stops completely because no water runs off into the streams Which statement describes two factors that have the greatest influence on tides? Earth rotates on its axis once each year, and the gravity of the Moon causes the oceans to bulge. Earth revolves around the Sun once each year, and the gravity of Earth causes the oceans to bulge. Earth rotates on its axis once each day, and the gravity of the Moon causes the oceans to bulge. Earth revolves around the Sun once each day, and the gravity of the Sun causes the oceans to bulge. Infiltration: The gas, fluid, or dissolved matter that has entered a substance, cell, or tissue.

133 Tributary: A stream that flows into a larger stream or other body of water.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.3 Describe characteristic features of Earth’s water systems or their impact on resources. Which type of moving water provides the best environment for organisms that decompose dead organic matter? a steep mountain stream that flows when snow melts in the spring a shallow river with cold, clear water and a sandy bottom a slow-moving river with a wide, open channel a rapidly moving stream with a narrow, steep channel Which title best describes the processes shown in the diagram below? The Rock Cycle The Water Cycle Plate Tectonics Chemical Changes Stream Order: Energy and nutrient flow that increases as water moves toward the oceans.

134 Mantle: The portion of the earth about 1800 miles thick between the crust and the core.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its Resources S8.D.1.3 Describe characteristic features of Earth’s water systems or their impact on resources. Oceans, glaciers, lakes, and rivers are part of Earth’s atmosphere hemisphere hydrosphere lithosphere The thin layer of water that covers most of Earth’s surface is called the mantle hydrosphere crust atmosphere Lithosphere: The crust and upper portion of the earth. Some kinds of fish live most of their lives in salt water but lay their eggs in freshwater. Their ability to survive in different environments is an example of adaptation developmental stages a habit selective breeding

135 Atmospheric (Barometric) Pressure: The pressure exerted by the atmosphere at the earth’s surface.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.2 Weather, Climate, and Atmospheric Processes S8.D.2.1 Explain how pressure, temperature, moisture, and wind are used to describe atmospheric conditions that affect regional weather or climate. Anemometer: An instrument used for measuring wind speed. Ask yourself… How can a lake effect weather patterns? What characteristics are used to classify the various cloud types? What can occur when warm and cold air mix together?

136 WEATHER vs. CLIMATE The state of the atmosphere with respect to wind, temperature, cloudiness, moisture, pressure, etc. The general weather conditions of a region, as temperature, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, winds, etc. throughout the year, average over a series of years.

137 Inhabitants: A person or animal that lives in a place, especially a permanent resident.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.2 Weather, Climate, and Atmospheric Processes S8.D.2.1 Explain how pressure, temperature, moisture, and wind are used to describe atmospheric conditions that affect regional weather or climate. Which term refers to the atmospheric conditions that prevail from season to season and year to year at a certain location? weather climate equilibrium ecosystem A student suspects that there is a relationship between the amount of sunny weather in a given state and the amount of solar energy used by its inhabitants. In order to find out if this idea is correct, the student will need which information for each state? The number of sunny days per year and the amount of solar power used per year The location and type of solar cells used in that state The percentage of days that have enough sunlight to power a solar water heater The efficiency of solar technology used in that state Lake Effect Snow: Occurs when a mass of cold air moves over a body of much warmer water.

138 Ozone: A form of oxygen, O3, with a peculiar odor suggesting that of weak chlorine, produced when an electric spark or UV light is passed through air or oxygen. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.2 Weather, Climate, and Atmospheric Processes S8.D.2.1 Explain how pressure, temperature, moisture, and wind are used to describe atmospheric conditions that affect regional weather or climate. Surface winds on Earth are primarily caused by differences in air density due to unequal heating of Earth’s surface ocean wave heights during the tidal cycle rotational speeds of Earth’s surface at various latitudes distances from the Sun during the year In addition to oxygen, which gases make up the largest percentage of Earth’s atmosphere? hydrogen, helium, and water vapor hydrogen, methane, and ozone carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen carbon dioxide, methane, and helium Forecast: To predict, calculate in advance, as in weather patterns. Which factor contributes to global warming? increased use of solar-powered cars increased burning of fossil fuels better long-term weather forecasts changing distance between Earth and the Sun

139 Dew point: The temperature to which air must be cooled, at a given pressure and water vapor content for it to reach saturation; the point at which dew begins to form. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.2 Weather, Climate, and Atmospheric Processes S8.D.2.1 Explain how pressure, temperature, moisture, and wind are used to describe atmospheric conditions that affect regional weather or climate. The chart shows information about Moon phases, times of sunrise and sunset, and climate patterns local weather conditions seasonal changes global warming Global Warming: An increase in the earth’s average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate and that may result from the greenhouse effect.

140 Eclipse: A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the sun and the earth; a lunar eclipse when the earth passes between the sun and the moon. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. Nova: A variable star that suddenly increases in brightness to several times its normal magnitude and returns to its original appearance in a few weeks to several months or years. Ask yourself… Approximately how many days does it take for the moon to go through a complete moon phase cycle? An object on the moon weighs approximately 1/6 of its weight on earth. Think about how much you would weigh on the moon? Galileo Galilei is often thought to be the inventor of the telescope, however, he was merely the first to use it for the purpose of astronomy. So who actually invented the telescope?

141 ROTATION vs. REVOLUTION
The act or process of turning around a center or on an axis. The time taken for an orbiting celestial object, star or planet, to return to its original position.

142 LATITUDE vs. LONGITUDE Angular distance, measured in degrees, north or south from the equator, (running vertically). Angular distance, measured in degrees, east or west of the prime meridian, (running horizontally).

143 Inner Planets: The first four solid surfaced, terrestrial planets, closest to the sun; Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. If a solid object is taken from Earth far into space, which of the following measurements of the object will change most? density mass volume weight Objects in the Solar System Object What It Is Made of Location Where Seen 1 gases and dust orbiting the Sun 2 rock 3 entering a planet’s atmosphere 4 laying in a hole in a field Outer Planets: The outer most, gaseous, liquid core planets; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, & Neptune. Which of the following correctly lists the structures in space from smallest to largest? star, galaxy, solar system, universe star, solar system, galaxy, universe star, solar system, universe, galaxy star, universe, solar system, galaxy Which object is a meteor? object 1 object 2 object 3 object 4

144 Comet: A celestial body moving about the sun, surrounded by dust and gas and sometimes has a tail.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. Constellation: A group of stars to which names have been given. The diagrams show the constellation Cassiopeia as observed from the same position on Earth. What causes this constellation to appear in different parts of the sky in different months of the year? Earth’s rotation on its axis Earth’s revolution around the Sun changing phases of the Moon in its orbit around Earth changing speeds of stars in their orbits around the Sun

145 Tide: The periodic rise and fall of the waters and its inlets, produced by the attraction of the moon and sun, and occurring about every 12 hours. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. Which of the following planets is always closer to the Sun than it is to Earth? Jupiter Mercury Saturn Uranus The motion of a Foucault pendulum provides evidence of the Sun’s rotation the Sun’s revolution Earth’s rotation Earth’s revolution Gibbous: Convex at both edges, as the moon when more than half full. On June 21, where will the Sun appear to rise for an observer located in New York State? due west due east north of due east south of due east During which phase does the Moon receive sunlight only on the side facing away from Earth? Full Moon Waxing gibbous Waning gibbous New Moon

146 Waxing: Increasing the extent of the illuminated part of the moon before a full moon.
S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. Which sequence correctly shows the relative size of the nine planets of our solar system? Waning: To decrease periodically the illuminated part of the moon after a full moon.

147 Equator: An imaginary circle around the earth, equally distant at all points from the North and South Poles, (Northern & Southern Hemispheres). S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. The average distance from Earth to the Moon is 384,401 km. How is the distance from Earth to the Moon expressed in scientific notation? 3.84 x 384 x Which of the following best describes why the Moon orbits Earth? the winds generated on Earth by the energy of the energy of the Sun the energy reflected from the surface of Earth the gravitational attraction between the Moon and Earth the distance the Moon and Earth are from the Sun Prime Meridian: The meridian from which longitude is measured both east and west. Earth is different from the other planets in our solar system because it– orbits a star has oceans and lakes has collided with meteorites makes up the majority of the mass of our solar system

148 Star: Any of the heavenly bodies, except the moon, appearing as fixed luminous points in the sky at night. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. This is a short open-ended (SOE) question. Answer parts A and B below about the movements of the objects in this star system. How is the movement of planet 1 in this star system influenced by the other two objects in this star system? Star: Planet 2: Moon: Any planetary satellite. Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: The star has gravitational pull on Planet 1. Gravitational pull from the star influences the movement of Planet 1. Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: Planet 2 also has gravitational pull on Planet 1. Gravitational pull from Planet 2 influences the movement of Planet 1.

149 Star: Any of the heavenly bodies, except the moon, appearing as fixed luminous points in the sky at night. S8.D Earth and Space Sciences S8.D.3 Composition and Structure of the Universe S8.D.3.1 Explain the relationships between and among the objects of our solar system. This is a short open-ended (SOE) question. Answer parts A and B below about the movements of the objects in this star system. B. Which part of this star system has the greatest influence on movement of objects within the star system? Explain your answer. Moon: Any planetary satellite. An acceptable answer includes, but is not limited to: The star because it has the most mass in the star system.

150 Continue studying this review or your own material! Good luck!


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