3 Temporary Structures Inflatable Structures Inflatable structures are supported by blowing air inside the structure or between two membranes. Examples include green houses, play structures, and sporting arenas.
4 Temporary Structures Fabric Structures The fabric can be extended on a frame to provide a quick structure without the need to erect a supporting frame.
5 Temporary Structures Tensile Structures Are also fabric structure that are pulled tight. A fabric covered building can be erected faster than virtually any other type of construction on the market. Some of the largest stadiums, shopping malls, airports and other large commercial structures are tensioned fabric structures.
6 Temporary Structures Temporary Structures Temporary structures are structures which are erected to fill a temporary need, lasting for hours, days, weeks, and sometimes months instead of years. There are a number of uses for temporary structures, ranging from camping trips to temporary housing for refugees.
7 Permanent StructuresBuildings and structures designed and built to last indefinitely.
8 House Sub-systems Foundation to support the load of the structure without cracking or failing.ExcavationFooterFoundation WallReinforcement
9 House Sub-systems Framing Floor Structure Walls Structure Assembly of members that consists of the load-bearing structure of a building and that provides stability to it (The skeleton).Floor StructureWalls StructureCeilings & Roofs Structure
10 House Sub-systemsPlumbing - hot and cold water distribution, pipe ventilation and wastewater evacuation.
11 House Sub-systemsElectrical - Set of all the components allowing this form of energy to be used in a dwelling.
12 House Sub-systemsHVAC / Climate Control – Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning controls the ambient environment (temperature, humidity, air flow, and air filtering).
13 House Sub-systemsEnclosure – The shell of the building and walls. It consists of the roof, exterior walls and floor of a structure. These elements form a barrier that separates the interior of the building from the outdoor environment.
14 House Sub-systemsFinishing / Mill work – includes trim, doors, windows, stairs, and cabinets.
15 House Sub-systemsLandscaping – visual effect of the layout of the exterior area of the property. Includes grading (slope of ground), living elements, and hardscape (retaining walls, walks, driveways).
16 Framing Sub-systems Floor Structure Sill Plate - Member anchored to the top of the foundation wall; the floor joists and the end joists rest on it.Floor Joists - Level member resting on a ledger and a sill plate and intended to support the floor.End Joists - Member perpendicular and attached to the floor joists at their ends to form the exterior framework.Bridging/Bracing - Vertical or diagonal member used to strengthen the studs and to keep them from deforming.Sub flooring - Planks or plywood laid on floor joists; the floor covering is in turn laid on it.
18 Framing Sub-systems Wall Structure Sill or Bottom plate - Level member to which the bottom ends of the studs are attached.Stud - vertical member used in walls to support the double plate and to which the wall covering is attached. Includes; corner, cripple, king, and jack studs.Cripple Stud - Short studs placed between the header / lintel and a top plate or between a sill and bottom plate.Trimmer / Jack Stud – Shorter studs that support the ends of a header.King Stud – Full length stud that runs next to the outside of the Trimmer Studs.Double / Top Plate - Level double member attached to the top ends of the studs; it also supports ceiling joists and rafters.Header - Level member at the top of a window or door opening; it also transfers the vertical loads it supports to the contiguous gable studs.Window sill - Level member at the bottom of a window opening.Rough Opening - The opening left in a frame wall to receive a window or a door unit.
20 Framing Sub-systems Ceiling & Roof Structure Ceiling joist - Level member to which the ceiling sheathing is attached; for a sloped ceiling, it is usually attached to the rafters.Rafter - Diagonal frame member of a sloped roof resting against the tie beam and the double plate; it supports the roof.Gable stud - Vertical member of a frame transferring the roof’s load to the double plate.Ridge Board - A horizontal board immediately under the ridge of the roof to which the tops of the rafters are fixed.
21 Wall ProjectUsing typical building codes for a 2x4 framed structure design and build a model of a shed using ¾”:1’ scale. The shed must be 8’X10’ and include one 32”x48” window and a 36”x80” swinging door. The roof should be a 12:1 pitch.
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