Presentation on theme: "A Primer on the Second Digital Mode Plus a bit of PSK K2YG Jan 9, 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Primer on the Second Digital Mode Plus a bit of PSK K2YG Jan 9, 2012 RTTYA Primer on the SecondDigital ModePlus a bit of PSKK2YG Jan 9, 2012
2 Teletype over wires started in 1849 HistoryThe first digital radio mode was make/break spark gap transmission, followed by CW, or more properly, Morse or any other on/off switching code over a CW (continuous wave or carrier wave) radio signal.Teletype over wires started in 1849Emile Baudot (baw-DOUGH) invented modern 5 bit TTY code in 1874; still used today
3 RTTY (Radio Teletype) History First radio use in the 1920sFirst commercial use in the 1930sMilitary use started in the 1930’s and replaced on-off signal with two tone frequency shift.TTY and RTTY in various forms were the backbone format for information transmission until superseded by computer systems.
4 History in Amateur Radio 1946: First contact; used make-break keying.Frequency Shift (FSK) found to be superior in late 40’s, but not allowed by FCC regulations.FCC allowed FSK in 1953Bulky noisy teleprinters supplanted by personal computers in the 80’s, beginning the explosion in Amateur RTTY and other formats.Click here to hear what RTTY sounds like:
5 What is RTTYRadio Teletype is the transmission and reception of Baudot coded text over radio links using Frequency Shift Keying.The Baudot code characters consist of start and stop bits, with five information bits in-between.
6 Character B showing start and stop bits Baudot CodeLogic1 or Mark0 or SpaceCharacter:YCan also be 6Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5Character:RCan also be 4Logic1 or Mark0 or SpaceBit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5Character:BCan also be ?Logic1 or Mark0 or SpaceBit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5Logic1 or Mark0 or SpaceCharacter B showing start and stop bitsStart Bit Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Stop Bit
7 RTTY SpeedAmateur RTTY usually operates at a speed of baud, or approximately 60 words per minute. Other speeds are occasionally used, such as 50 and 75 baud. Commercial RTTY services (very few left) may use other rates and frequency shifts.Baud rate is the number of symbols per second. Each mark or space is a symbol.
8 Baudot Register Shifting 26 Letters, 10 numbers and a few punctuations and control codes require more than the 32 combinations possible with 5 binary bits.59 letters, numbers, punctuation, symbols and functions are possible by using two shift registers.
9 Bit PatternDown-Shift or LettersUp-Shift or Figures00000<>00001T500010LF00011O900100Space00101H%00110N,00111M.01000CR01001L)01010R401011G&01100I801101P01110C:
10 01111V;10000E310001Z"10010D$10011B?10100S#10101Y610110F!10111X/11000A-11001W211010J'11011Shift Down (LTRS)11100U711101Q111110K(11111Shift Up (FIGS)
11 Shift Characters in Place To transmit characters from both shifts, shift codes are inserted automatically in the string:K FIGS 2 LTRS Y GIn this case, six 5 bit characters are required to transmit the 4 characters typed.Special characters include space, line feed, carriage return and up and down shift.Once shifted, shift usually stays in FIGS until LTRS character is sent, and vise versa.
12 Garbled Shift Characters Signal report sent with good vs. garbled up-shift (FIGS) character. Good Garbled RST 599 RST TOO K2YG KWYG This is a very common occurrence. QWERTY keyboard relationship on next slide.
13 Thus a missed FIGS shift would cause the 599 to print as TOO Figures-shift numbers on the top line of the keyboard correspond to the second line letters located below & a bit to the right of each numberThus a missed FIGS shift would cause the 599 to print as TOO
14 RTTY Keying MethodsTwo Methods: Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) and Audio Frequency Shift Keying (AFSK)FSK shifts an un-modulated carrier between two radio frequencies usually spaced 170 hz .AFSK modulates an SSB signal using two 170hz spaced tones which simulate the FSK signal.FSK has very few RF artifacts. AFSK can have suppressed sideband and carrier leakage, as well as modulation products, so proper transmit audio level is important.
15 RTTY Keying MethodsAFSK: Characters typed are converted by software and a sound card into two audio tones to be fed to microphone or data connections on the transmitter.FSK: Characters typed are converted by software into a make-break control voltage which keys a shift in the transmitter carrier radio frequency.
16 Audio Tones and RF Relationship RF Readouts for Audio Frequency Shift Keying (AFSK) vs. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) 20 Mtrs, Lower Sideband. Space Mark Suppressed (2295 hz) (2125 hz) Audio Tones Carrier (0 hz) RF Carriers khz khz khz FSK shows mark or space RF frequency on radio readout. AFSK shows suppressed carrier frequency on readout.AFSKFSK
17 Receiving RTTY is really AFSK because the computer sound card and software convert the audio tones you hear into charactersSpace Mark Suppressed (2295 hz) (2125 hz) Audio Tones Carrier (0 hz) RF Carriers khz khz khzAFSKFSK
18 RTTY Waveform Time Mark Amplitude Zero Amplitude at frequency shift Space Amplitude
20 RTTY Customary Operating Frequencies Band General Contests Unusual , NA NA NA
21 RTTY Band Non-Contest Popularity Band General Usage InfrequentA few nets, ModerateGrowingMost PopularGood when openHeavy use if openSurprisingly goodExcellent if openOn all bands from 40 to 10, there will be more PSK than RTTY activity except during contests and presence of rare DX.
22 Frequencies to AvoidAvoid PSK segments at , , , andAvoid Internation Beacon Project beacons (18) at 14100, 18110, 21150, 24930, &FCC Regulations actually allow HF data operation on any amateur frequencies on which Phone is NOT allowed.
23 License Level Restrictions? Notice that, contrary to CW and SSB operation, General Class license holders can operate on all customarily used RTTY frequencies.Novices & Techs can operate digital (as well as CW & SSB) on 10 Meters.
24 Simplex vs. Split Operation Split operation by DX stations is more frequent on RTTY because of qrm by calling stations.Even moderately rare DX stations may operate split to improve QSO rate.Operating split sometimes involves only two frequencies: the DX qrg and a calling qrg up one or two khz. Rare DX split may occupy 10 khz or more. Study the DX listening pattern before calling. Calling frequencies are usually up.Split operation is extremely rare in contests.
25 Also, join RTTY Contesting as a source for help. REMEMBER THISIf you take home only one thing from this presentation, make it the link toAA5AU’s RTTY Home PageContains complete information on setting up and operating RTTY, and MMTTY softwareAlso, join RTTY Contesting as a source for help.
26 MMTTY – Most Popular? – Free RTTY SoftwareMMTTY – Most Popular? – FreeWrite Log (not free)Ham ScopeMix WRCK RTTY (not free)RITTY – Not supported, not free but not sold anymore, DOS only, but is the best receiving program in existence (my opinion).There are many programs available. I am familiar only with MMTY and RITTY.Talk to other digitally active club members: K2EZR, KB2FCV, N2FYE, K2GLS, K2MUN, KC2WUF
27 Hardware you need to run RTTY Radio Computer with Sound Card Interface
28 RADIO Considerations Any TX/RX capable of SSB will work. Some can run RTTY, a key down mode, at full power; some can not. Check specs.Filter adaptability is important. Will the SSB filters allow a band pass centered on RTTY tones. ( /2 = 2210 khz center qrg). Alternate tones can solve this problem, but may cause others.FSK capable TX/RX usually do not have filter band pass problems
29 ComputerMost currently supported RTTY software will run on Windows XP, Vista and 7. There are programs for other operating systems.Programs are not too demanding of processor and memory, but combined with logging programs like N1MM or Writelog memory and speed requirements increase.Computers w/o serial port will require either a USB serial adapter for PTT or use of “vox”.Resistance to RFI is important.
30 Interfacing Computer to Radio Buy a commercially available interface, such as Signalink, Rig-expert, Rigblaster, etc.-or-Build your own.Might be a good club project!
31 Home Brew AFSK Interfacing CQ CQ DE K2YG K2YG K K2YG DE ST0R K2YGRX AudioRadio audio out to Computer audio in.PTT LineMay require a USB to Serial AdapterTX Audio Computer audio out to radio mic. May need some isolation or attenuation
32 From Computer Audio Out Home Brew InterfaceTransmit Interface connects between computer audio out and mic connectorIsolation Transformer10k ohmsRF Bypass Capacitor100 ohmsFrom Computer Audio OutTo TX Mic ConnectorRF Bypass CapacitorTransformer and capacitors needed only to resolve rf interference, audio hum, and other artifacts. Potentiometer can replace resistors.
33 Simpler TX Interface 3.5 mm plug to microphone jack on Tx/Rx
34 Receive InterfaceReceive audio can be connected directly from radio head phone, speaker, or dedicated constant level audio output if available.Isolation transformer and by pass capacitors may be helpful.
35 PTT CircuitComputer Serial Radio PTT LineConnector (Probably in Mic Connector)PTT circuit using single transistor. A USB to serial adapter is needed if computer has no serial port; or use VOX (not recommended for contesting).
37 FSK InterfacingInterfacing for FSK operation requires a transistor switching circuit similar to the PTT line shown before, connected between the computer serial or USB port and the FSK capable radio’s FSK input, instead of the TX audio line to the mic input. This is more problematic than AFSK if a USB to serial adapter must be used because of baud-rate specifications of USB adapters available.
50 This is the way the Demodulator box should appear after opening MMTTY This is the way the Demodulator box should appear after opening MMTTY. Mark and Shift are set to standard RTTY values. In this setting, the Bandpass Filter (BPF) Squelch (SQ) and Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) have been turned on by the user.
51 It is actually best to leave the AFC off, and to tune the received signal very carefully. This assures you are on the same frequency as the other station without the possibility of moving out of your RX bandpass.
52 The BW menu controls the BPF bandwidth. 60, the default, is OK The BW menu controls the BPF bandwidth , the default, is OK. The button sets the default mark, shift, BW and demodulator, as set on the decode page. The button automatically tunes in the RX signal by changing the RX mark and shift to match the received signal tones.
53 The button causes the TX tones to match the RX tones, assuring both stations are on the same frequency. However, using AFC can move your frequency far from the station you are calling, or cause the mark and shift tones to creep out of the radio’s band pass. Safest bet is to NOT use AFC or NET, and tune stations in carefully using the tuning displays. AFC is best used if someone calls you slightly off frequency, if you’re in a net or if you’re running a contest frequency.
54 Mark Menu sets alternative mark frequencies Mark Menu sets alternative mark frequencies. If your radio does not have satisfactory filters at hz, you can change the mark to fit your filters. For example, Elecraft K2 filters cannot reach as high as needed, so a 915 hz mark is used. The shift should remain at 170. Stations you work will not be aware of any difference. If the default values are different, turn on NET to match TX tones to the new RX tones.
55 activates the squelch, which helps to avoid garbage characters caused by noise printing on receive. The squelch threshold is controlled by sliding the line in the middle of the level meter back and forth Activates the notch function, which provides 1 or 2 notches between the mark and shift signals, indicated by a red arrow head (adjustable) on the FFT signal display. First use, requires right mouse click to initiate location on FFT display.
56 The button flops mark and space tones to allow working stations not observing the mark as lower rf frequency convention. (Upside-down)The button controls cycles through demodu-lator formats: IIR (default), FIR and PLL (PLL uses less CPU capacity).The Auto Threshold button should probably be off for signals near noise level.
58 Control Buttons The button forces and shows an up-shift or FIGS code being transmitted or received to shift to the figures register of the baudot code needed to print numbers . The button (unshift on space) causes the FIGS register to automatically return to the LTRS register when a space is received. This can help to avoid garbage print when a received LTRS code is garbled. There is much controversy about the efficacy and ramifications of this practice.The button turns on transmit and sends any copy in the transmit window. F9 does the same thing.The button returns to receive. F8 does the same.
60 FFT XY SCOPE WATERFALLThe FFT Display shows frequency across the horizontal axis and amplitude vertically. Width of display is adjustable from 0.5 to 3 khz in five steps.It is best to turn off AFC and tune your radio so the mark and space signals are on the two lines. My opinion
61 FFT XY SCOPE WATERFALLIf you click a spot in the audio passband, MMTTY will center that spot in the FFT display. This action changes the mark and space frequencies. If AFC is on and the signal has not already been tuned, a left click between the mark and space signals moves the band pass close enough to allow automatic tuning. This also changes the mark and space frequencies and can be quite confusing.Right clicking the FFT displays turns on the “notch” function centered at a red arrow head.
62 FFT XY SCOPE WATERFALLThe XY display is a computer representation of the oscilloscope crossed-ellipses display that used to be the way RTTY signals were tuned, in the days of TU’s (terminal units) and oscilloscopes. For perfect tuning, one ellipse should be vertical, the other should be horizontal. If they are not at exact right angles, the station you’re working is not using the same shift as you (which should be 170 hz ). A few stations use 200 hz, sometimes because they are running hardware designed for 200 hz shift.
63 FFT XY SCOPE WATERFALLSome hams like the waterfall display that has become popular for PSK31. MMTTY offers a waterfall that is directly lined up with the spectrum display above it. You can use this display to tune your radio, rather than use AFC. Displays can be turned on and off, and adjusted in the view menu.
64 More Parameter Choices There are many parameters than can be changed in MMTTY. One of the most important is the “setup MMTTY” item in the Option menu. All the parameters discussed here and many more are controllable on these screens. The next slide shows one of six screens in which most parameters can be set. Information for these will require another session. I do not mess with most of them! The View and Profile menus on the bar shown above include other options.
69 Macros Ctrl + Number initiated text and function memories F-key initiated text and function memories
70 These macros require only an F key, or a mouse click Ctrl + Number initiated textand function memoriesThese macros require the control key plus a number to be pressed simultaneously. Also, a mouse click will send the macro. Macros can turn on and off the transmitter, as well as perform additional functions.F-key initiated text and function memoriesThese macros require only an F key, or a mouse click
71 Macro Content SampleMacros can be defined by right clicking on the macro button.This particular macro, sent by <CTRL 1> turns on transmit, sends “K2YG” once, and turns off transmit.
72 Another Macro Content Sample This macro turns on transmit, sends contact’s call sign, thank you, contact’s name, rst twice, my name, my qth, brief station description, “how copy” then contact’s name & call, my call, and returns to receive.
73 Macro Command ListThis list can be found in the MMTTY Help Files
74 Macros are very important in contesting, and quite handy for chasing DX in a pile-up. However, MMTTY stand alone is NOT good for contesting. A compatible logging program such as N1MM makes contesting a breeze.
75 You can type into the transmit buffer and click TX (F9) anytime to send what you are typing.
76 RTTY QSOsThere is not as much rag chewing on RTTY as there used to be. PSK has more spontaneous rag chewing. As with other modes, DX QSOs can be almost as short as contest contacts, and semi-rare to rare DX QSOs may be even shorter than contest contacts. Here is an example.
77 Sample Rare DX RTTY QSO DX: CQ CQ CQ DE STØR STØR UP 2-4 ME: DE K2YG K2YG K2YGDX: K2YG K2YGME: STØR TU DE K2YGDX: K2YG QSL QRZ DE STØR UPThe “ME” parts of this qso should be in your macros. The DX station’s call can be inserted automatically with most software.
79 PSK31Developed by Peter Martinez, G3MPX, (released in 1998) on ideas created by a Polish Ham (SP9VRC).PSK31 most popular digital mode with radio amateurs.Easy to use and effective at low power.PSK31 is a Phase Shift Keying mode.31 indicates the theoretical bandwidth of hz.Speed: 32ms per bit equals about 50 wpm.PSK31 is a narrow bandwidth mode because of the keying mode (phase v. frequency shift), speed and other parameters.
80 The PSK31 mode most used is BPSK, or Binary PSK, in which the phase shift is 180° During each 32 ms period, a phase shift either occurs (logic 0) or does not occur (logic 1).32 ms /bit
81 PSK CodePSK uses Varicode, a Huffman code that uses between 1 and 10 bits for each character, and supports all ASCII characters (Baudot does not.) The more frequently used characters are assigned the shorter codes.
82 PSK Code00 always starts a new character (instead of start and stop bits as in baudot).There are no 00s within any character code.A space between characters is 1.Lower case e is 11. Upper case E isAll lower case letter codes are shorter than upper case letters. If a PSK contact is marginal, try using all lower case letters.
83 DigiPan Software for PSK DigiPan SoftwareHandles:BPSK31BPSK63 (Faster)QPSK31 and QPSK63 (Quadrinary - 4 phase code, some error correcting)FSK31Pactor (RX only)Multi-channel Reception
85 PSK Pros PSK can be effective under very weak signal conditions. May be usable even when audio is almost indiscernible.More activity than RTTY except in contests and DXpeditions.Effective multi-signal reception possible.
86 PSK Cons Seems not to “synch-up” as quickly as RTTY Not used as much as RTTY for contesting.DX Pile-ups more difficult to run than RTTYPSK has latency of about ½ second.
87 Other Digital Mode Sounds Amtor ARQAmtor FECJT65AMFSKPacketPactor
88 Volunteers are welcome! There are many digital formats used in Amateur Radio. We should discuss them in the future.Volunteers are welcome!