Presentation on theme: "Documentation projects: from proposals to reports Information is a cornerstone in the struggle against discrimination Facilitator: Judith Dueck HURIDOCS:"— Presentation transcript:
Documentation projects: from proposals to reports Information is a cornerstone in the struggle against discrimination Facilitator: Judith Dueck HURIDOCS: Human Rights Information and Documentation Systems International A selection of slides used in the training workshop July, 2008
Events happen, a negative situation exists Fact Finding and Monitoring Fact Finding and Monitoring : Info Gathering, Investigation etc. Documentation: Organizing the elements of information Research: Background and related information Analysis: What does the data mean? Report preparation Intervention (legal, medical, humanitarian etc.) Information dissemination and action for change Assessment and strategy revision
3 FACT-FINDING and Monitoring FACT-FINDING -- identifying the violations in one event, and establishing the facts relevant to the violations. MONITORING -- the close observation of a situation or individual case (over long term).
4 Conducting investigations through trained observers (interviews, observation, on site inspections etc.) Placing skilled workers in strategic areas to collect and document information on acts as they occur Hot lines Cameras, tape recorders, cel phones, PDAs Using a low-profile fact-finding delegation consisting of persons from the locality (Low pressure, low publicity) Using a high-level delegation of local well-known personalities Using an international delegation Trial observations and prison visits Non-governmental tribunals and inquiry commissions Surveys, research, examination of primary documents Forensic investigations (disinterment, autopsy) Getting the facts
5 Fact-Finding Acts committed (single or multiple), including updates on developments Victims (individuals or groups) Perpetrators (individuals or groups) including respective levels of involvement Details of the event and context The interventions carried out on the victims behalf Sources of information (e.g. witnesses)
6 What is high quality information? First-hand (not rumour or hearsay) Detailed Internally consistent Corroborated from several angles Demonstrates a pattern Fresh
7 Sources of bias The sample does not reflect the whole Interaction interviewer/interviewed Respondents report inaccurately on purpose Cultural attitudes, inattention, lack of understanding, pressure of time and place Inability to remember Lack of understanding of question Ideological bias of data collector, or sources
8 Confidentiality Ensuring that your sources identity remain secret when they have asked for anonymity or you deem the situation too dangerous to release such information
9 Gender / orientation Sensitivity Ensuring that rights are respected regardless of gender or orientation Ensuring that violations and discrimination are recognised and properly documented regardless of gender or orientation Ensuring that information is handled sensitively with respect to gender and orientation issues
10 Supporting materials: Hospital or clinic reports Correspondence (letters etc.) Police reports Official responses to allegations Newspaper articles & other news Media Interview texts Photographs, videos
11 Common fact-finding difficulties Lack of access to area Threat to personal security Threat to security of witnesses Gathering unreliable information Reluctance of a witness to provide information Lack of awareness concerning human rights Lack of training or resources for fact-finding Difficulty asking sensitive questions Session 5
12 Monitoring May involve collecting a large quantity of data Requires constant or periodic investigation and documentation of developments Uses standards or norms to assess the situation Results in a report, which provides a basis for further action
13 Kinds of Monitoring case monitoring situation monitoring
14 Who Monitors? Set standards Monitor compliance of governments with their treaty obligations Monitor certain situations involving violations Encourage own governments to adopt international standards Monitor compliance of their own governments with treaty obligations Monitor violations Lobby with IGOs toward setting standards Lobby with governments toward adopting international standards Monitor compliance of governments with their treaty obligations Monitor violations and cases Enhance public awareness INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (IGOs) GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (GOs) NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOs)
15 What are the standards or norms? DOMESTIC STANDARDS DOMESTIC APPLICATION UNIVERSAL STANDARDS Monitoring is done to see whether there are gaps between universally-accepted standards and those set through domestic (national) legislation.... or between domestic standards and how they are applied or met in reality.
16 Regulating mechanisms state people External Mechanisms: Other States U.N. Organs such as UPR, Human Rights Council, Office of the High Commissioner UN treaty body mechanisms: commissions, rapporteurs, special representatives, etc International media IGOs Internal Mechanisms: Parliament Judiciary Ombudsmen, NHRI, etc Civil society media
17 INTERVENTION AND COMMUNICATION Hardcopy storage Digital storage INTAKE OF INITIAL INFORMATION FACT-FINDING or Monitoring ANALYSIS TO ARRIVE AT FINDINGS ANALYSIS OF TRENDS AND PATTERNS Interviews, Surveys, videos, other info gathering techniques. ORGANISING AND RECORDING Reports and Advocacy Proposals
local background information local legal infrastructure governmental organizations social services agencies international organizations university libraries, public libraries Co-operation with other NGOs Law offices Media reports (papers, radio, T.V. etc.) the Internet. HuriSearch. http://www.hurisearch.org/http://www.hurisearch.org/ Research
Why? To provide a historical record To assist and pressure governments in applying international standards or adopting new legislation To undertake domestic legal actions To engage in campaigns with the intent of enhancing public awareness To help particular victims To provide early warning of potential dangers To engage in change strategies
21 Why? What change do you want? Monitoring and Fact finding AnalysisResearch Documenting (organizing) Strategizing Report preparation InterventionsInformation dissemination Action for change and Evidence based advocacy Assessment and strategy revision
22 Effective Action for change What are the official standards? (domestic law, international standards, norms) What can be reasonably expected? What is the situation? What are the facts? What is the trend? What should be…. What is
23 Three kinds of obligations To respect: to abstain from doing anything that violates the integrity of an individual, or group, or infringes on their freedom. To protect: to take the necessary measures necessary to prevent others from violating the rights of an individual or group. To fulfill: to ensure opportunities for each person to obtain satisfaction of needs recognized by human rights instruments that cannot be secured through personal efforts alone.
24 Two kinds of violations Acts of commission: direct commission of a violation (police beatings) Acts of ommission: failure to provide adequate protection or take adequate step to prevent the violation (police refusing to protect while others beat)
26 Types of Acts: Acts of Commission Physical attacks Distribution of hate propaganda Discrimination in hiring Discrimination in School admission Passing laws that discriminate Implementing discriminatory laws or policies
27 Types of Acts: Acts of Omission Failure by law enforcement bodies to protect victims against attacks by discriminatory groups Failure by the legislature to enact laws that protect citizens from discrimination Failure to remove discriminatory laws
Events happen, a negative situation exists Fact Finding and Monitoring: Info Gathering, Investigation, Interviewing etc. Research: Background and related information Documentation: organizing elements of information Analysis: What does the data mean? Report preparation Intervention (legal, medical, humanitarian etc.) Information dissemination and action for change Assessment and strategy revision
30 What information do we need ? Information about the victim Information about the perpetrator Information about witnesses, observers, medics etc. (source / corroboration of information) Information about the act Information about the background or surrounding circumstances (event) Information about any interventions
31 The Person Victim Perpetrator Source of information Intervening Party Individual Group Organization Anybody involved in anyway Page 36 and 57-63
32 What info do you need to get? 1.Victim – person or organization 2.Perpetrator – person or organization (official or not) 3. Source of information (persons, observers, people, organizations etc.) 4.Intervening parties (legal, humanitarian, medical, social services, individuals)
33 can be classified (e.g. beating, arrest, torture, execution) very specific, occurred at a specific time ACT Has broader scope (starting and ending dates, general location, etc.) Has some sort of identifier (event title like The Case of J. Doe) Usually includes serveral acts and general situation information EVENT Acts and Events
PERSON is an individual or group who plays the role of Victim, Source, Perpetrator, Intervening Party or other organisation or person ACT is a very specific occurrence within an Event Act links Victims to Events EVENT is a general occurrence which may have one or more Acts Three formats
36 Documenting violations The Person 903 Name 908 Confidentiality 910 Address 911 Date of Birth 912 Place of Birth 916 Sexual Orientation 918 Civil Status 919 Dependants 920 Education 922 Occupation 924 Health 926 Physical Description 928 Date Deceased 930 Group Description 931 Number of Persons in Group 940 Religion 941 Citizenship 942 Ethnic Background 945 Language 947 National Origin The Event 102 Event Title 111 Geographical Term 112 Local Geographical Area 113Initial Date 114Final Date 115 Event Description 116 Impact of Event 151 Violation Status 152 Violation index 153 Rights Affected The Act 2114 Method of Violence 2116 Physical Consequences 2117 Psychological Consequences 2118 Age at Time of Victimisation 2154 National Legislation 2155 International Instruments 102 Event Title Desacula et al. 111 Geographical Term Philippines 112 Local Geographical Area National Capital Region 113 Initial Date 18 11 1987 115 Event Description Edgar Desacula was arrested together with Ramon Aguilar by members of the Pasay City Police Force at Roxas Blvd at about 13:00. They were brought to the police headquarters for questioning. Aguilar was released while Desacula was passed to the Intelligence and Special Operations Group (ISOG) which conducted tactical interrogation and subjected him to torture for a period of 2 days. Desacula continues to be detained. 150 Remarks. The events happened after the Ministry of Defence announced that it will take stronger steps against militant labour. 151 Violation Status Confirmed 152 Violation Index Violent or coercive act by state agents 153 Rights Affected Liberty of the person / Freedom from torture 154 HURIDOCS Index Detention] / Torture 155 Local Index Labour militancy 165 Comments This event should be investigated further to see if it is connected with the reported raid of the office of the Victory Labour Union 166 Supporting Documents Photo 87-331 167 Files 87-NCR-010 172 Monitoring Status Active Sampling of Available Fields
37 What fields do you need? What fields might you choose for information about the victim, the perpetrator, the act, the event - Employment or housing discrimination -Discrimination in prisons or by police -Discrimination in health services or schools -Hate speech in the media or from government sources Use Events Formats pages 32- 36
40 Microthesauri 48 Lists HURIDOCS INDEX TERMS RIGHTS TYPOLOGY TYPES OF ACTS METHODS OF VIOLENCE INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS EDUCATION OCCUPATIONS (ILO CATEGORIES) PHYSICAL DESCRIPTORS RELIGIONS ETHNIC GROUPS LANGUAGES GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS TYPES OF SOURCE MATERIAL TYPES OF LOCATIONS DEGREES OF INVOLVEMENT TYPES OF INTERVENTION RELEVANT CHARACTERISTICS TYPES OF PERPETRATORS STATUS AS VICTIM LEGAL COUNSEL TYPES OF COURTS AUTOPSY RESULTS STATEMENTS SIGNED MEDICAL ATTENTION SEXUAL ORIENTATION Sampling of Lists Available
Event classification (sample of fields) 102 Event title: Make up a name 108 Confidentiality: (yes or no) 112 Local Geographic area: (province, district, village or town) 113 Initial date of event : ddmmyyyy 114 Final date of event: 151 Violation Status: (MT 41 – p 164) 154 Index terms (MT 1 – page 9): 153 Rights affected (MT 3 – page 20) 161 Date of entry: today ddmmyyyyhhmm 162 Entered by: you Act Identify and describe in a few words (by state actors or those in authority) DatePerpetrator MT 24 p. 145 Type of Act MT4 page 27 Type of Place MT 17 Page 131 Early morning arrest05021999 0800 policeArrest (03) Victims home
Events happen, a negative situation exists Fact Finding and Monitoring Documentation: Organizing information Research: Background and related information Analysis: What does the data mean? Report preparation Intervention (legal, medical, humanitarian etc.) Information dissemination, action for change and evidence based advocacy Assessment and strategy revision
43 Why do we need to analyze data? We need give undeniable, credible evidence Find out what really happened Convince legislators Arouse other human rights workers to action Provide evidence for indictment and prosecution of perpetrators in tribunals and national courts Provide information for truth and reconciliation commissions Get cooperation from media in spreading the word Counter the claims of perpetrators Provide an undeniable record to bring closure to victims and survivors Manage your own operations
44 How does data analysis help us achieve these goals? When we analyze data, we can: Show the pattern over time Assess the magnitude and scope of human rights violations Find patterns of violation that help identify specific perpetrators Determine the different patterns of violations against different ethnic groups, sexes, age groups, orientations etc Relate violations to the actions of perpetrating regimes, organizations groups, or individuals Show how acts of repression are coordinated throughout a country, region, or in time Give substantive evidence against perpetrators without revealing the identity of witnesses Provide analytical measures of the extent to which rights are granted or denied
Raw data in a table From: Spirer & Spirer. Intermediate Data Analysis for Human rights
Controlled vocab and stats Controlled Vocabulary Cause Stated Cause Fell Fell 7 floors during interrogation, fell against chair during scuffle, fell down stairs, fell down stairwell, fell six floors during interrogation Scuffle Injured in scuffle Jumped Leapt from 10th story window during interrogation Natural Natural causes Not given Slipped Slipped in shower Suffocation Suffocation in epileptic fit Suicide Suicide, suicide by hanging Thrombosis Cause Number % Not given 16 36% Suicide 15 33% Fell 5 11% Natural 3 7% Slipped 2 4% Jumped 1 2% Scuffle 1 2% Suffocation 1 2% Thrombosis 1 2% Total 45100% Reasons, numbers and percentages of all deaths in prison X. Based on raw data from government sources
47 TABLE Number of physical assaults in Prison X YearNumber 199526 199641 199712 199897 199983 200011
48 100----------------------------------------------------------- 90----------------------------------------------------------- 80----------------------------------------------------------- 70----------------------------------------------------------- 60----------------------------------------------------------- 40----------------------------------------------------------- 30----------------------------------------------------------- 20----------------------------------------------------------- 10----------------------------------------------------------- 0----------------------------------------------------------- 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 YEARS Graph 1. Number of physical assaults in two prisons Line Graphs Prison A Prison B
49 Not Private Enough: Homophobic and injurious speech in the Lithuanian media Lithuanian gay league BAR Graph
50 Town Y (28%) town X (16%) Town W (64%) Power Reactor Industrial Medical Government Town Z (2%) Comparison of homophobically motivated physical incidents in 4 towns. Pie graphs compare parts of a whole Percentages of total incidents from all 4 towns
Between January 2005 and now, have you experienced any of the following situations on the grounds that you were known or suspected to be a homosexual or bisexual? – verbal harassment/aggression – insults, humiliation, ridicule – spread of negative opinions about you – threats – hateful letters to you or to your close relatives – blackmail – vandalism, devastation of property – graffiti/posters/leaflets about you – other forms of psychological harassment: please, specify – no – other answer: please specify Report on discrimination based on sexual orientation in Poland for the year 2005Report on discrimination based on sexual orientation in Poland for the year 2005 by Campaign Against Homophobia (KPH, Poland)
52 The application should not exceed 5 pages (+ budget). Please, answer all questions following the structure Project title: Planned period of implementation: Name of the implementing organization: Contact information (post, e-mail, phone): Contact person: Date of organisatons registration with the authorities: Date of project submission to ILGA-Europe: 1.Project summary (maximum 100 words)!!! 2.Description of the implementing organization: a.What kind of organization are you (mission, vision, values)? b.How long have you been in existence? c.What is the structure of your organization (board, staff, volunteers, members, include numbers)? d.What kind of activities does your organization undertake? Credibility? Reliability? Can you do it? What is the project? Why is this project important? What will it change?
53 Objective what is the purpose? Methodology how will you do it? Output what is the tangible output? Change strategy How will you use the info to effect change? Success evaluation How will you measure your success? Impact What is the overall impact you expect?
54 Why am I writing this? What do I want to achieve? Who am I writing for? What do I want people to think, feel, know or do after they have read it? What would be the best form for it to be written in? An article, pamphlet, poster, etc? With thanks to: CIVICUS Better Communications and Planning Civil Society Toolkits for some materials in this section. http://www.civicus.org/new/civicus_toolkit_project.asphttp://www.civicus.org/new/civicus_toolkit_project.asp
55 Why do we write reports? Communicate information and ideas about your work, and that of your organisation. Reflect and explain progress with work – and lack of progress. Make it easier for your organisation to assess progress and plan anew. Promote accountability. Promote discussion and informed decision-making. Emphasise problems and make recommendations. Share information, learnings and experiences. Provide analysis and offer insights into the way forward. Help with effective and strategic planning. Help members to participate in the democratic processes of your organisation.
56 Doing an audience analysis Step One: Distinguish between your various audiences Step Two: Prioritise within your audience Step Three: Picture your audience Step Four: Use the audience analysis matrix Adapted from CIVICUS Better Communications and Planning Civil Society Toolkits
57 How do people read reports? Title Headings and subheadings Introduction and conclusion Graphs and visuals First sentences
58 Structuring the report A meaningful and interesting title. The date and author of the report. The contents list, if it is a fairly long report. A summary of the main point/s of the report Body: logical flow of items meaningful headings and sub-headings Visuals A conclusion, which could be your recommendations section.
1 Get started using tools like thinking, talking and reading, freewriting, and mindmaps. Basically, brainstorming. Use these tools throughout the rest of your writing process. 3 Do an audience analysis. 2 Determine why you are writing. What do you want to achieve? 4 Start to plan your writing from a mindmap. Organise your thoughts into an outline. What else needs doing? Include a writing process schedule. Add a rough introductory statement and conclusion. 5 Start writing your first draft. Let it flow. Dont edit. Concentrate on getting your ideas down. Complete your first draft and then take a break from it. Let it breathe. Let your mind work on it unconsciously for a bit. 6 Go back to your first draft. Revise it. Look back at your audience analysis. Remind yourself of your objective. Has it stayed the same? Will you achieve it if you follow the route you are going? 8 Get feedback on your writing. Strengthen your writing through revising into new drafts. Write the introduction and conclusion. Read it aloud to yourself, and or others. 7 Rework the report into stronger drafts. Cut out what you do not need. Add in whats missing. Scan for correcting grammar and spelling. Do necessary changes. 9 Edit your writing. Put yourself in your readers shoes. Make it powerful and easy to read. Check your language, style and tone. 10 The final polish. Make sure your writing looks good and is easy to read. Get someone else to proofread 11 Follow on with design and layout; another proofreading and checking, and distribution. Adapted from CIVICUS Better Communications and Planning Civil Society Toolkits
The schedule 12. Distribution date 29 Nov. 11. Printing 22-29 Nov. 10. Final proof reading 21-22 Nov. 8. Proof reading 6-7 Nov. 2. Work out why and what you are writing 7-8 Oct. 9. Design and layout 7- 21 Nov. 7. Editing 30 Oct. to 7 Nov. 5. Get feedback on early draft 11-16 Oct. 4. Plan your writing – outline and schedule 9-11 Oct. 6. Strengthen drafts 16-30 Oct. 3. Do an audience analysis 8-9 Oct. 1. Use your getting started tools – freewriting, mindmaps 1-7 Oct. Adapted from CIVICUS Better Communications and Planning Civil Society Toolkits 1 Oct. - Start Project 29 Nov Finish project
61 Making the argument A good recommendation: a precise request/recommendation to a specific authority/audience 4 types of arguments: Legal Moral Human consequences Self-interest Each report has: An objective!! An audience!!
62 Acknowledgements and Resources ILGA Europe human rights documentation fund http://www.ilga- europe.org/europe/funding_capacity_building/funding_opportunities/ilga_europe_human_rights_violations_docu mentation_funds ILGA Europe completed projects and current projects http://www.ilga- europe.org/europe/funding_capacity_building/funding_opportunities/ilga_europe_human_rights_violations_documentation_funds HuriTools at HURIDOCS http://www.huridocs.org/tools/overview Human Rights Tools http://www.humanrightstools.org/ UKEWLI handbook for monitoring and documenting human rights violations in Africa. Amnesty International Dutch Section, 2000 http://www.amnesty.nl/in_actie_vervolg/spa_downloads#artikel10075 European handbook on equality data. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights/pdf/pubst/stud/hb07_en.pdfv Spirer & Spirer. Intermediate Data Analysis for Human rights. https://courseworks.columbia.edu/cms/outview/courseenter.cfm?no=INAFU8165_001_2002_3 Ball, Spirer & Spirer. Making the case. https://courseworks.columbia.edu/cms/outview/courseenter.cfm?no=INAFU8165_001_2002_3 CIVICUS Better Communications and Planning Civil Society Toolkits http://www.civicus.org/new/civicus_toolkit_project.asp Natalie Goldberg. Writing Down the Bones. Page 8. Published by Shambhala, 1986. HuriSearch www.hurisearch.org. Searches 4500 human rights sites in 77 languages. Handbook on Observations of Pride Marches by Christine Loudes. ILGA Europe