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Warm-Mix Asphalt: A Window to a Better Road Phase 1

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Mix Asphalt: A Window to a Better Road Phase 1"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-Mix Asphalt: A Window to a Better Road Phase 1
Hosin “David” Lee, P.E. Ph.D., Professor Public Policy Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa President of Korean-American Scientists and Engineers Association (KSEA)

2 Disclaimer The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the information presented herein. This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation University Transportation Centers Program, in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the contents or use thereof.

3 University of Iowa in Iowa City

4 Global Warming Grinnell Glacier, Glacier National Park, Montana 1911

5 Since 1979, more than 20% of the polar icecap has melted!

6 Climate Change is Real!

7 First Modern Asphalt Facility
Built in 1901 by Warren Brothers in East Cambridge, Massachusetts RAP Summit held on October 9, 2008 Maximizing RAP Use - Brock NAPA website

8 Current Asphalt Plants in United States
About 4,000 asphalt mixing plants Mostly drum mix plants Produces 500 million tons of HMA Iowa Plant

9 Mixing Temperatures of HMA
Grade HMA Plant Mixing Temperature, °C Range Midpoint PG 58-28 127 ~ 154 140 PG 64-22 129 ~ 160 144 PG 70-22 138 ~ 165 152 PG 76-22 140 ~ 168 154

10 Too High Temperature of Asphalt Mix
During the past century, the asphalt industry has been concerned about keeping the temperature of asphalt mix high enough for adequate coating, placement, and compaction. An answer to the problems in coating and compaction has been to raise the temperature of asphalt mix. Now, for better performance and the environment, a new approach is to lower the temperature of asphalt mix: Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA), a window to the future. One of the most important factors is the mat temperature. Too cold and the mix cannot be compacted - too hot and the mix will not support the rollers.

11 Worker’s Exposure to Asphalt Fumes
About 4,000 asphalt plants and 7,000 paving contractors employ nearly 300,000 workers in the United States. In 1977, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that workers should not be exposed to airborne particulates at a concentration greater than 5mg/m3 during any 15-minute period. NIOSH concluded that the collective data currently available from studies on paving asphalt provided insufficient evidence for an association between lung cancer and exposure to asphalt fumes during paving. 다핵방향족탄화수소 Asphalt fumes and PAHs at the HMA job site were below the current acceptable exposure limits.

12 Exposure of Workers to Emissions Working at HMA and WMA Job Sites
(Ruhl 2004)

13 Which Picture Represent WMA Construction Sites in Iowa?

14 WMA Plants Reduce Greenhouse Gas
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a rule that was designed to reduce SO2 by 70% and NOx emissions by 60% by 2015. Some state and local governments require that HMA plants in some ozone sensitive areas limit asphalt production to a certain number of hours per week. WMA plants would reduce CO2 and SO2 by 30% to 40%, volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 50 percent, CO by 10% to 30%, NOx by 60% to 70% and dust by 20% to 25%. EAP (2006); Newcomb (2007); Ruhl (2004); D’Angelo (2008)

15 WMA Saves Energy Cost Compared with HMA
Iceland Honolulu, HI Joliet, IL Fuel source No. 2 Fuel oil Diesel Natural gas Fuel to make 1 ton of HMA 2-3 gallons therms Fuel Cost $2.50/gal $ /gal $ /therm Fuel Cost to make 1 ton of HMA $5.00-$7.50 $4.40-$9.00 $1.75-$2.80 Electricity to make 8-14 kWh Electricity Cost $0.02/kWh $0.1805/kWh $0.0445/kWh Average energy cost for 1 ton of HMA $5.15-$7.78 $5.84-$11.53 $2.11-$3.44 20% savings with WMA $1.00-$1.50 $0.88-$1.80 $0.35-$0.56 50% savings with WMA $2.50-$3.75 $2.20-$4.50 $0.88-$1.40 Ólöf Kristjánsdóttir (2007)

16 WMA Technology Category WMA Additive Company U.S. Project Organic
Sasobit® Asphaltan® Licomont BS-100 Cecabase RT® LeadCap Sasobit Romonta Clariant Ceca Kumho Yes N/A Foaming Advera® Aspha-Min® Low Energy Asphalt Double-Barrel®Green Ultrafoam GX Terex®WMA System Aquablack Warm Mix Asphalt WAM-Foam Eurovia PQ Corporation McConnaughay Tech. Astec Gencor Terex Maxam Equipment Inc Kolo Veidekke, Shall Chemical Evotherm J1 RedisetTM WMA MeadWestVaco/Mathy Akzo Nobel

17 WMA Additives Selected for Laboratory Evaluation at the University of Iowa
Organic Additives: CECABASE RT®, Sasobit® Foaming Additives: Asphalt-min®, Advera WMA Chemical Additives: Evotherm J1, RedisetTM WMX

18 Evaluation of WMA Products in Laboratory
Six WMA Mixtures: CECABASE RT®, Sasobit®, Asphalt-min®, Advera WMA, Evotherm J1, and RedisetTM WMX. Control WMA Mixture and HMA Mixture Temperature Maximum Specific Gravity Bulk Specific Gravity Air Void Indirect Tensile Strength Test Moisture Sensitivity Test Dynamic Modulus Test Repeated Load Test

19 Mixing Method and Dosage Rate of WMA Additive
Process Dosage Rate CECABASE RT® Wet 0.40% of binder weight Sasobit® Dry 1.50% of binder weight Asphalt-min® 0.30% of mixture weight Advera WMA® 0.25% of mixture weight Evotherm J1® 0.50% of binder weight RedisetTM WMX 2.00% of binder weight

20 Mix Design Parameters Aggregates
Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size of 19.0 mm Ndesign 86 gyrations (for 3 million ESAL) Asphalt Content 5.5% using PG 64-34 Aggregate Heating Temp. 125°C for WMA 135°C for HMA Asphalt Heating Temp. 149°C for both WMA and HMA

21 Mixing and Compaction Temperatures of WMA Mixtures

22 Density of WMA Mixtures

23 Air Voids of WMA Mixtures

24 Moisture Sensitivity of WMA Mixtures

25 Asphalt Material Performance Testing (AMPT) Equipment was used to Measure Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number

26 Dynamic 4.4° C

27 Dynamic 21.1° C

28 Dynamic 37.8° C

29 Master Curves of WMA Mixtures

30 Flow Number of WMA Mixtures at 45° C 138 kPa

31 Ranking of ITS, TSR, Dynamic Modulus, and Flow Number of WMA Mixtures
Type of Mix Ranking Average Score Indirect Tensile Strength Tensile Strength Ratio Dynamic Modulus Flow Number CECABASE RT® 9 5 8 7.75 Sasobit® (wet process) 3 6 1 2 (dry process) 4 2.75 Aspha-min® (powder) 10 - 9.5 Aspha-min® (granular) 7 7.25 Advera WMA Evotherm J1 3.75 RedisetTM WMX 3.25 Control WMA Control HMA 3.5

32 Summary and Conclusions
Pavement is expected to perform better because the asphalt is not aged. Working environment will be better for construction workers with a lower amount of asphalt fumes. Based on the limited test results, Sasobit®, Evotherm J1, and RedisetTM WMX additives are effective in producing WMA mixtures in the laboratory that are comparable to HMA mixtures. In the future, the majority of asphalt mixtures will be produced at a lower temperature than today.

33 Better Performance WMA Happier Workers Better Environment

34 Future Research Lime and Anti-stripping Additives should be considered for WMA to improve the moisture susceptibility. To predict the rutting performance under moisture, Hamburg Wheel Tracking test should be performed. More test sections using WMA should be constructed adjacent to HMA.

35 Cool-Mix Asphalt: A Door to a Better Road Phase 2
Coming in Fall 2012 near You from MATC Application of CMA with LEADCAP at 115°C in Iowa City

36 Questions Why should WMA be used instead of HMA? How can WMA be adopted quickly in practice? How to evaluate WMA for implementation?

37 Dr. Yongjoo Kim, Anand Sampath
CREDITS Dr. Yongjoo Kim, Anand Sampath Nishant Sheth, Jeremy Purvis, David Blanco Korea Institute of Construction Technology (KICT) Kumho Petrochemical Ltd. This would be the last slide, click the text to change it to your information. Slide design © 2009, Mid-America Transportation Center. All rights reserved.

38 You can copy any of these graphics and paste them on other slides.
This is the resource slide to copy and paste logos and graphics from.

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