Presentation on theme: "Natural Ventilation. 2 Calculation of rate of ventilation air flow Q = H/(60 * C P * ρ * Δt) = H/1.08 * Δt Where H = Heat removed in Btu/hr Δt = indoor."— Presentation transcript:
2 Calculation of rate of ventilation air flow Q = H/(60 * C P * ρ * Δt) = H/1.08 * Δt Where H = Heat removed in Btu/hr Δt = indoor outdoor temperature difference( o F) C P = Btu/lb/ o F ρ = lb/ft 3
Natural Ventilation3 Flow Due to Thermal Forces (Stack Effect) Q = C * K* A * ( h * [ ( t i – t o ) / t i ] ) Q = air flow in cfm A = free area of inlets or outlets (assumed equal) in ft 2 h = height from inlets to outlets, ft t i = indoor air temperature, o F t o = outdoor air temperature, o F C = Constant of proportionality =14.46 K = 65% or 0.65 for effective openings = 50% or 0.50 for unfavorable conditions Substituting the values for C and K the equation reduces to Q = 9.4* A * ( h * [ ( t i – t o ) / t i ] ) (for effective openings) Q = 7.2 * A * ( h * [ ( t i – t o ) / t i ] ) (for unfavorable conditions) When t o > t i replace denominator in equation with t o. Assumptions:- 1. No significant building internal resistance 2. Equation is valid for temperatures t i and t o close to 80 o F
Natural Ventilation4 Factors affecting flow due to wind Average velocity Prevailing direction Seasonal and daily variation of wind speed & direction Terrain features (local)
Natural Ventilation5 Calculation of Air Flow(due to Wind) Q = EAV Q = air flow in ft 3 /min A = free area of inlet openings in ft 2 V = wind velocity in ft/min E = effectiveness of openings = perpendicular winds = diagonal winds V for design practice = 1/2*seasonal average
Natural Ventilation6 Flow Due to Combined Wind and Stack Effect When both forces are together, even without interference, resulting air flow is not equal to the two flows estimated separately. Flow through any opening is proportional to the square root of the sum of heads acting on that opening. Wind velocity and direction, outdoor temperature, and indoor distribution cannot be predicted with certainty, and refinement calculations is not justified. A simple method is to calculate the sum of the flows produced by each force separately. Then using the ratio of flow produced by the thermal forces to the aforementioned sum, the actual flow due to the combined forces can be approximated. When the two flows are equal, actual flow is about 30% greater than the flow caused by either force.
Natural Ventilation7 Types of Natural Ventilation Openings Windows : There are many types of windows. Windows sliding vertically, sliding horizontally, tilting, swinging. Doors, monitor openings and skylights. Roof Ventilators (weather proof air outlet). Stacks connecting to registers. Specially designed inlet or outlet openings.
Natural Ventilation8 Natural Ventilation Rules 1. Buildings and ventilating equipment should not usually be oriented for a particular wind direction. 2. Inlet openings should not be obstructed by buildings, trees, signboards, or indoor partitions. 3. Greatest flow per unit area of total opening is equal to inlet and outlet openings of nearly equal areas. 4. For temperature difference to produce a motive force, there must be vertical distance between openings; vertical distance should be as great as possible. 5. Openings in the vicinity of the neutral pressure level are least effective for ventilation. 6. Openings with areas much larger than calculated are sometimes desirable(e.g.hot weather,increased occupancy). The openings should be accessible to and operable by occupants.
Natural Ventilation9 Infiltration Infiltration is air leakage through cracks and interstices, around windows and doors, and through floors and walls into a building Leakage rate (houses) 0.2 to 1.5 air changes /hr in winter Infiltration through a wall Q = C*(ΔP) n Q = Volume flow rate of air ft 3 /min C = Flow coefficient(Volume flow rate per unit length of crack or unit area at a unit pressure difference) ΔP = Pressure difference n = Flow exponent 0.5 –1.0 normally 0.65
Natural Ventilation10 Pressure Difference Due to Thermal Forces P c = 0.52*P*(1/T o -1/T i ). P c = theoretical P C = pressure difference across enclosure due to chimney effect(inches of water). P = atmospheric pressure lb/sq.inches. h = distance from neutral pressure level or effective chimney height. T o = absolute temperature outside 0 R. T i = absolute temperature outside 0 R. Apply for character of interior separations correction.
Natural Ventilation11 Infiltration Air moves in and out of buildings at varying rates depending upon a number of factors relating to both the structure and the local meteorological conditions. Two terms are: infiltration and ventilation. Both are measured as air exchange rate, or air changes per hour (ACH). The ASHRAE defines infiltration as uncontrolled airflow through cracks and interstices, and other unintentional openings. Infiltration occurs because no building is completely airtight; wind pressures and temperature create driving forces which push or draw the outdoor air through openings into the building. Infiltration is the rate of exchange of outdoor air with the entire volume of indoor air, quantitated as ACH.
Natural Ventilation12 Factors Affecting Air Infiltration Type of structure and construction Meteorology Heating & cooling systems Occupant activity Structural parameters Quality of construction Materials of construction Condition of the structure Meteorological parameters The airflow rate due to infiltration depends upon pressure differences between the inside and outside of the structure and the resistance to flow through building openings
Natural Ventilation13 Wind Effects Shell and exterior air barriers. Interior barriers to flow that cause internal pressure buildup and thus reduce infiltration. Lack of precise knowledge of the detailed wind pressure profiles on building surfaces. Influence of complex terrain, presence of trees and other obstacles that create channeling and may increase the magnitude of wind force and alter its direction close to the structure. Sheltering, urban canyon and building wake phenomena due to surrounding buildings and other neighborhood factors. Fluctuating winds, rather than linear wind forces, that may effect infiltration rates through window cracks.
Natural Ventilation14 Temperature Effects Temperature inside a structure is often different from the outside ambient temperature. Maximum temperature differences occur when the indoor environment is heated. Temperature differences cause differences in air density inside and outside, which in turn produce pressure differences. In the winter when indoor air temperatures are high relative to those outdoors, the warmer and less dense air inside rises and flows out of the building at its top. This air is replaced by cold outdoor air that enters near the bottom of the building or from the ground.This phenomenon is called the building Stack Effect. During hot weather when air conditioning produces lower temperatures inside than outside, the reverse process occurs.
Natural Ventilation15 Humidity Effects Stricker in 1975 reported that homes with low infiltration rates had high humidity. In a study by Yarmac et al. in 1987 in 25 houses in the southern U.S., no apparent relationship was found between relative humidity and air exchange rate. One explanation for this lack of association is that absolute humidity, rather than relative humidity, may be a better measure of any effect the water content of the air has on infiltration.
Natural Ventilation16 Pressure Difference Across the Building Envelope ΔP = P o +P w -P i Where ΔP = pressure difference between outdoors and indoors at the location P o = static pressure at reference height in the undisturbed flow P w = wind pressure at the location P i = interior pressure at the height of the location 1. The more usual case is when both wind and indoor outdoor temperature differences contribute to the ΔP across the building envelope
Natural Ventilation17 Pressure Difference Across the Building Envelope 2.Temperature differences impose a gradient in the pressure differences which is a function of height and the temperature difference This effect is additive to the wind pressure expression and is expressed by ASHRAE, 1989 as ΔP = P o +P w -P i,r + ΔP s Where ΔP s = the pressure caused by the indoor-outdoor temperature difference (stack effect) P i,r = the interior static pressure at a reference height (it assumes a value such that inflow equals outflow)
Natural Ventilation18 Bernoullis Equation P V = (C p *ρ*V 2 )/2 Where P V = surface pressure relative to static pressure in undisturbed flow,Pa C p = surface pressure coefficient ρ = density of air,kg/m 3 V = wind speed in m/s Under standard conditions (100.3 Pa or 14.7 psi) and 20 0 C, this equation reduces to: P V = (C p *0.601*V 2 )
Natural Ventilation19 Bernoullis Equation C p varies with location around the building envelope and wind direction The differences in air density due to temperature differences between the interior and exterior of a building create the pressure difference which drives infiltration To estimate this pressure difference, ΔP s, it is necessary to know the NPL This pressure difference can be expressed as: ΔP s = ρ i *g*h*(T i -T o )/ T o Where: ΔP s = pressure difference, Pa ρ i = density of air, kg/m 3 g = gravitational constant, 9.8m/sec 2
Natural Ventilation20 Bernoullis Equation h=distance to NPL(+ve if above, -ve if below from the location of the measurement Subscripts: i=inside o=outside It is difficult to know the location of the NPL at any one moment, but there are some general guidelines According to ASHRAE,1989, the NPL in tall buildings can vary from 0.3 to 0.7 of total building height In houses with chimneys, it is usually above mid-height, and vented combustion sources for space heating can move the NPL above the ceiling
Natural Ventilation21 Measurement Techniques Tracer gas Fan pressurization Effective Leakage Area(ELA)
Natural Ventilation22 Tracer Gas It is a different measure of air exchange rate. The gas concentration will decrease as dilution air flow into the building. The rate of decrease is proportional to the infiltration rate.
Natural Ventilation23 Assumptions The tracer gas mixes perfectly and instantaneously The effective volume of the enclosure is known The factors that influence air infiltration remain unchanged throughout the measurement period Imperfect mixing occurs when air movement is impeded by flow resistances or when air is trapped by the effects of stratification This causes spatial variation in the concentration of the tracer gas within the structure, this may cause bias in sampling locations
Natural Ventilation24 Assumptions (contd…) Fans are often used to mix the tracer gas with the building air. Effective volume is assumed to be the physical volume of the occupied space. Areas which contain dead spaces that do not communicate with the rest of the living space will reduce the effective volume. Variations in conditions during the measurement period,such as door openings or meteorological changes, will cause a departure from the logarithmic decay curve and the equation on which infiltration is calculated will no longer hold.
Natural Ventilation25 Types of Gases of Used As Tracers: Helium,Nitrous oxide, Carbon dioxide,Carbon monoxide, Sulfur hexaflouride, and perfluorocarbons Non-toxic at concentrations normally used in such studies, non-allergenic, inert, non-polar, and can be detected easily and at low concentrations Most frequently used are SF 6 and Perfluorocarbons Carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide can be used if initial concentrations are substantially above background but well below concentrations of health concern
Natural Ventilation26 Tracer Gas Dilution: SF 6 Specific instructions for this method can be found in the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM)Standard Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Tracer Dilution (E741). The basic apparatus for this method includes: tracer gas monitor, cylinder of tracer gas, sample collection containers and pump, syringes, circulating fans, and a stopwatch. Meterological parameters which are recorded include: wind speed and direction, temperature (indoors and outdoors), relative humidity barometric pressure.
Natural Ventilation27 Tracer Gas Dilution: SF 6 For SF 6 concentrations in the range of ppm, a portable infrared gas analyzer is used. For SF 6 concentrations in the ppb range/a gas chromatograph(GC)with an electron capture detector is used. A field GC is preferable so that the concentration of SF 6 can be immediately verified and optimum sample integrity maintained. If it is injected in undiluted form, SF 6 may tend to sink and accumulate in low areas. Documenting various structural parameters and occupant activities which may be occurring during the sampling time as well as the meterological parameters.
Natural Ventilation28 Tracer Gas Dilution: SF 6 Structural parameters include: windows (number, location, type), noticeable leakage paths, wall construction, location of chimneys, vents and other direct indoor-outdoor communication points, and type and capacity of the heating and/or air conditioning systems. Occupant activity such as opening and closing of doors (interior or exterior) or vents will affect the infiltration rate as well as the distribution of the tracer gas within the structure. Operational status of the heating or cooling system should also be recorded.
Natural Ventilation29 Calculation of Air Exchange Rate C=C o -It Where: C = tracer gas concentration at time t C o = tracer gas concentration at time =0 I = air exchange rate T = time This relationship assumes that the loss rate of the initial concentration of tracer gas is proportional to its concentration If the ventilation system recirculates a fraction of the indoor air, then the above assumption may not hold Above equation then can be rearranged to yield the expression I = (1/t)*Ln(C o /C)
Natural Ventilation30 Fan Pressurization It is sometimes also called depressurization. It is not a direct measure of infiltration. It characterizes the building leakage rate independent of weather conditions. Measurements are made by using a large fan to create an incremental static pressure difference between the interior and the exterior of the building. The air leakage rate is determined by the relationship between the airflow rates and pressure differences.
Natural Ventilation31 Fan Pressurization (Contd…) The fan is usually placed in the door, and all direct openings in the building envelope, e.g.,windows, doors, vents, and flues, are sealed off. The airflow rate through the fan is determined by measuring the pressure drop across a calibrated orifice plate. The resulting leakage occurs through the cracks in the building envelope, and the effective leakage area can be calculated from the flow profile.
Natural Ventilation32 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fan Pressurization Advantages: It does not require sophisticated analytical equipment as do the tracer techniques It allows for a comparison of homes based on their relative leakiness irrespective of the prevailing weather conditions at the time of measurement It can be used to measure the effectiveness of retrofit measures Disadvantages: This is an indirect measure of infiltration and hence approximates the actual process through an inherently artificial process, pressurization or depressurization
Natural Ventilation33 General Steps Note the physical characteristics of the building. Close all normal openings (e.g.,windows, doors, vents, and flues). Record meteorological conditions and indoor temperature and relative humidity, and install the blower assembly. The blower should run at such speeds as to induce pressure differences of 0.05 to 0.3 in. water (12.5 to 75 Pa).
Natural Ventilation34 Effective Leakage Area(ELA) Another indirect method to estimate air infiltration. It can be interpreted physically as an approximation of the total area of physical openings in the building envelope through which infiltration occurs. The empirical model used to estimate air exchange is based on pressure differences. The method involves measuring the dimensions of each opening and converting this value to a leakage area equivalent value.
Natural Ventilation35 Calculation of ELA ELA = Q 4 /(2*ΔP/ ρ) 0.5 Where ELA = effective leakage area,m 2 Q 4 = airflow at 4 Pa(m 3 /sec) ΔP = the pressure drop causing this flow,I.e.,4 Pa ρ = density of air,1.2 kg/m 3